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40 feet reflecting telescope, the useful speculum known that the stars were not fixed, but had a of which was 4 feet in diameter, 31 inches proper motion. Herschel, from the proper mothick, and over 2,000 lbs. in weight. The tions of about 20 stars, with great penetration, plane mirror of the instrument was dispensed divined that our system was moving in the with, and the observer sat in a swinging chair direction of a Herculis, a point whoso right aswith his back to the object observed, and facing cension is 270°, and north declination 25°. Bethe object end of the tube, in which the image, side discovering the satellites of his own planet, by an inclination of the speculum, was thrown Herschel discovered two new satellites of Satto one side and observed through a single lens, urn, now called, from their being next the ring, He conjectured that with this instrument 18,- the first and second, and determined the ro000,000 stars might be seen in the milky way. tation of the rings of the planet to be in 10 h. -Though Herschel added an almost unprece- 32 m. He found also that the time of the rotadented number of new bodies to the planetary tion of the satellites of Jupiter was just equal system, yet his glory is greatest in sidereal to the period of their revolution about the astronomy, of which he laid almost the founda- planet. When his age made it advisable for tions. His leading discoveries in this branch him to discontinue his observations in the of the science were the following: I. The binary heavens, he turned his attention to the propsystems of stars, and the orbits of several re- erties of heat and light. He also gave some volving stars. Double stars had been noticed valuable opinions concerning the spots on tho even before the introduction of the telescope; sun, attributing them to occasional openings in but while Herschel was observing them to learn the luminous coating, which seems to be always their annual parallax, he noticed a steadily in- in motion.—Sir William Herschel married, in creasing change in their position and distance; 1788, Mrs. Mary Pitt, a widow lady of conand in 1802, 23 years after he began his obser- siderable fortune, and had by her one son, John, vations, he announced in the "Philosophical whose name is no less distinguished in the annals Transactions” his discovery that both stars were of science than that of his father. Miss Carocontinually circulating round their common cen- line Herschel was also his constant companion tre of gravity, and all his instances have been and assistant at Slough. Herschel contributed confirmed. II. He classified the nebulæ, and ad- papers, sometimes several in a year, to the “Phivocated the nebular hypothesis, since disproved losophical Transactions” from 1780 to 1815. by the discoveries made with the great telescope HERTFORD, a N. E. co, of N.C., bordering of Lord Rosse. He discovered that these nebu- on Va., bounded E. by Chowan and Nottoway lons spots cover at least it of the visible firma- rivers, and intersected by the Meherrin, which ment, and in 1802 he indicated the positions of unites with the Nottoway to form the Chowan; 2,500 nebulæ or clusters of stars. He classified area, 320 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 8,142, of whom them as : 1, clusters of stars ; 2, nebulæ proper; 3,716 were slaves. It has a level surface, cov3, nebulous stars. In his nebular hypothesis ered in part with pine and cedar woods, which ("Philosophical Transactions," 1811) he sup- furnish large quantities of timber, tar, and turposes the starry matter to have been once in a pentine for exportation. The agricultural prostate of indefinite diffusion, and that it has been, ductions in 1850 were 288,805 bushels of Induring " an eternity of past duration," " break dian corn, 97,055 of sweet potatoes, and 270 ing up" by condensation toward centres more bales of cotton. There were 6 grist mills, 5 or less remote ; that the milky way is a relic saw mills, and 11 churches. The Chowan river of this former state of things; that where con- is navigable by sloops along the border of the densation has gone on more energetically, we county. Organized in 1759, and named after have nebulæ with a gradually or rapidly in the marquis of Hertford. Capital, Winton, creasing brightness toward the centre; if still HERTFORDSHIRE, or HERTS, an inland co. more energetio, a nucleus, or a planetary neb- of England, bounded N. by Cambridgeshire, E. by ula; next a nebulous star, which he supposes Essex, S. by Middlesex, and W. by Buckinghamour son to be, and the zodiacal light a relic of shire and Bedfordshire; area, 611 sq. m.; pop. its nebula; and finally the completely formed in 1851, 167,298. Its principal rivers are the stars may be assumed to be merely consolidated Colne and Lea with their tributaries, affluents nebulæ. III. The law of grouping the entire of the Thames, and some smaller streams flowvisible firmament. He "gauged" the heavens, ing to the Ouse. Part of the New river, which by counting the whole number of stars visible supplies London with water, is within the shire, in the field of his 20 feet reflector, and, taking and is conducted by an aqueduct along the valthe average for each region, determined thus ley of the Lea. The Grand Junction canal the general population of the sky. The result passes through the county. It is also traversed showed a remarkable and steady law of de by the London and North-Western and Great crease, from the central zone of the milky way Northern railways, while the Eastern Counties in opposite directions to the northern and railway skirts the S. E. boundary. Agriculture is southern poles. This discovery assigned a law the principal occupation of the people. There are to the distribution of all the visible bodies of many Roman and other antiquities, of which the the universe in space. IV. The determination most prominent are St. Alban's abbey and the of the fact of the motion of our system, and ruins of Berkhamstead castle, and Roystone the direction of that motion. It was already church and cave. Hertfordshire returns 5 mem

VOL. IX.-10

bers to parliainent, namely, 3 for the county, graduated at Oxford, took orders in the estaband 2 from the town of Hertford.

lished church at the age of 22, was appointed HERTHA, ÆRTHA, or HERTHUS, the goddess curate to his father, afterward removed to of earth, anciently worshipped by the Æstii, Biddeford, and on the death of his father, in Lombards, Angles, and many other Germanic 1750, succeeded to his two livings at Weston tribes established below the Elbe, and in the Favell and Collingtree. He was noted for his regions of the Baltic. The name and nature of benevolence, and was a good scholar, being well the divinity correspond to the Airtha of the skilled in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. In 1746 Goths, the Eorthe of the Anglo-Saxons, the he published his “Meditations and Contemplaold German Erda, and the Latin Terra. "The tions," which have been widely read and adScandinavians called her Jord; according to mired. In 1753 appeared his “Remarks on them she was daughter of Annar and of Night, Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on History;" in sister of Dagur or Day by the mother's side, 1755, his “Theron and Aspasio," a work on wife of Odin, and mother of Thor, and thought the Calvinistic theory of redemption. Beside to be the same as Frigga. The myth is one sermons, and the works already mentioned, he found in all religions, of the identification of published letters to Wesley and to Lady Frances the female principle, or of generation and fer- Shirley, and edited, with a preface, Burnham's tility, with the earth. The earth being the all- “Pious Memorials," and Jenks's “Devotions." nourishing mother, it was naturally believed His works, with a memoir of his life, were pubtbat Hertha sympathized with mankind, and lished in 1797 (7 vols. 8vo., London), and have the myth of the revival of spring gradually bo- passed through numerous editions. came for the vulgar a faith that she visited HERVEY, JOHN, Baron Hervey of Ickworth, them in person at stated times. These visits an English politician and poet, born Oct. 15, took place, according to Tacitus, on a sacred 1696, died Aug. 5, 1743. He was the eldest island in the Baltic, where the chariot of Her- son of John Hervey, first earl of Bristol of that tha was kept. When the goddess had descend- name. He studied at Cambridge, and was aped from the throne of Odin, she was believed pointed in 1716 gentleman of the bedchamber to take her seat in the chariot. Heifers were to the prince of Wales. He acquired at court then harnessed to it, and she was drawn amid & reputation for gallantry which excited the festivity over the land. Finally the goddess, or jealousy of Chesterfield. He was looked upon rather her wagon, on returning to the holy as the most accomplished man of his time, and grove, was washed in the sea by slaves who by his talents, literary tastes, and family connecwere immediately after drowned. This appear- tions was an important auxiliary to Sir Robert ance of Hertha was also practised in another Walpole. An intimate friend of the king, queen, form among certain German tribes, with whom and prime minister, and believed to sustain still it was usual on occasions of drought to take more confidential and delicate relations with the the most beautiful maiden of the village, and princess Caroline, Hervey's position was greatly send her entirely naked at the head of a female envied. In 1730 he was appointed vice-chamber. procession over the fields. As Hertha is the lain and privy councillor, and in 1733 raised to most interesting of German myths, much pains the peerage. He lost much influence on the death has been taken by antiquaries to ascertain the of the queen in 1737, but entered the cabinet, place where these rites were performed. For and received in 1740 the privy seal, which he a long time this was believed to be the island lost, however, on the fall of Walpole. He was an of Rügen, but recent researches render it more epileptic, and his life was protracted only by probable that it was in Helgoland, Seeland, or great watchfulness. Hervey is the Sporus ridiLaland. In these latter the legend of the god- culed by Pope in the prologue to the "Satires" as dess is still preserved as matter of tradition, and

That thing of silk, her sacred groves and lakes are still shown.

Sporus, that mere white curd of ass's milk; HERULI, or ERULI, a German tribe, which in but he was, notwithstanding the disgrace which the latter part of the 3d century appeared on the attack has attached to his name, a man of the shores of the Euxine, having joined the intelligence and kind heart. His most imporGoths in their invasion of the Danubian prov- tant work is the posthumous “Memoirs of the inces of the Roman empire. They were after- Court of George II. and Queen Caroline,” edward conquered by the Ostrogoths, followed ited by J. W. Croker (2 vols. 8vo., 1848 ; new Attila on his march to Gaul (451), and after his ed. 1854). death (453), uniting with other German tribes, HERVEY, THONAS KIBBLE, a British anthor, were powerful enough to destroy the western born in Paisley, Scotland, Feb. 4, 1799, died in empire under their leader Odoacer, who assumed Kentish Town, Feb. 17, 1859. He removed with the title of king of Italy (476), but finally suc- his father to Manchester in 1803, and in 1818 cumbed to the Ostrogoths under Theodoric entered Trinity college, Cambridge, but left the (493). Another kingdom of the Heruli, founded university about 1820 without taking a degree. in the central part of modern Hungary, was de- Subsequently he entered the office of a special stroyed by the Lombards.

pleader, but after a short time relinquished his HERVEY, JAMEs, an English clergyman and legal studies and adopted literature as a proauthor, born in Hardingstone, near Northamp- fession. His first publication was “ Australia," ton, Feb. 26, 1713, died Dec. 25, 1758. He was originally commenced as a college prize poem,

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but subsequently enlarged to the dimensions of 200, and include concertos, trios, and other an epic, and republished for a 3d time in 1827, elaborate forms of composition, together with with some additional lyrics of considerable merit. fantasias, variations, &c., remarkable for eleAmong his other poetical works are, “Illustra- gance. He has also prepared a pianoforte tions of Modern Sculpture," the "Poetical Sketch method. After numerous concert tours in all Book," the “Book of Christmas," a satire en- parts of Europe, he made a professional visit to titled “The Devil's Progress," &c. He was for the United States in 1846–97. He has inventa long time editor of the “Literary Souvenir" ed an instrument called the dactylon to form and "Friendship's Offering," which contained the hand for pianoforte playing. some of his minor poems, such as “The Con- HERZ, HENRIETTA, à German lady distinvict Ship" and "Cleopatra on the Cydnus," guished for beauty, accomplishments, and social and a number of popular tales. For 20 years influence, born in Berlin, Sept. 5, 1764, died previous to 1854 he was a leading contributor Oct. 22, 1847. She was the daughter of a Jewto the “ Athenæum," and for the last 8 years of ish physician, De Lemos, and received an irregthat term he was its sole editor.--ELEONORA ular but extremely varied education. She was LOUISA (MONTAGU), wife of the preceding, and married, Dec. 1, 1779, to Marcus Herz, an emian authoress, born in Liverpool in 1811. At & nent physician. Owing to her extraordinary comparatively early age she became a contrib- beauty and intelligence, her house soon became utor to the annuals and periodicals, and was the scene of the most distinguished reunions ever favorably known as a graceful and vigorous witnessed in Berlin. Spalding, Dohm, Engel, writer of verse. In 1839 she produced “The Ramler, the Humboldts, Friedrich von Schlegel, Landgrave," a dramatic poem, and 4 years later Gentz, Schadow, Reichardt, and Moritz were became the wife of Thomas K. Hervey. Since among her most intimate guests. Börne passed her marriage she has written “Margaret Rus. a portion of his youth in her house, and owed sell," the "Double Claim," the “Juvenile Cal. much of his mental development to her, while endar, or the Zodiac of Flowers," a series of she maintained for a long time the most intimate fairy legends illustrated by Doyle, and the intellectual correspondence with the theologian “Pathway of the Fawn."

Schleiermacher. She became a widow in 1803, HERWEGH, GEORG, a German poet, born and sustained reverses of fortune, which did not, in Stuttgart, May 31, 1817. He studied theol- however, diminish her social influence. She ogy at the university of Tübingen, but devot- declined at this time an invitation to undertake ing himself to literature, became a contributor the tuition of the Prussian princess Charlotte, to magazines, and attracted attention in 1841 by afterward empress of Russia, as this would have the publication of his Gedichte eines Lebendigen made a change of faith necessary. After the -poems of a liberal political tendency and of death of her mother, however, she became a great lyrical merits, which passed through 7 Christian. She was distinguished to the last by editions within 2 years. During a journey unwearied benevolence and a wide range of through Germany, he was received with great correspondence with eminent men and women. distinction by many eminent persons, including In 1845 she obtained a pension through the inthe king of Prussia, but was expelled from the fluence of Alexander von Humboldt. She had Prussian territory on account of a letter which no children. She destroyed in her later years he addressed to the king. He was also expelled her immense collection of letters. Her literary from Zürich, where he had previously resided, efforts were confined to a fow translations of but found an asylum in the canton of Basel. English books of travel. Having subsequently resided in Paris, he put HERZEGOVINA, or HERSEK, & province himself, soon after the French revolution of of European Turkey, forming the S. W. part 1848, at the head of a legion of French and of the eyalet of Bosnia, bounded N. by CroaGerman laborers, crossed the Rhine in order to tia, W. by Dalmatia, S. by Montenegro and the revolutionize Germany, and appeared in Baden gulf of Cattaro, and E. by Bosnia proper; area, in April, but was defeated by the Würtemberg about 7,000 sq. m.; pop. nearly 200,000, about troops, and compelled to flee with his wife, half of whom are Mohammedans, and the rest who shared the toils of the expedition, to equally divided between the Greek and Latin Switzerland, where he still resides. He has churches. They are chiefly of the Slavic race, translated Lamartine's complete works into and speak a Slavic dialect. The province is German (12 vols., Stuttgart, 1842), and has pub- covered by a branch of the Dinaric Alps, and lished, beside other writings, a new collection traversed by the Marenta and its tributaries, of poems under the title of Xenien, which how which flow into the Adriatic. The principal ever is far inferior to his first work upon which product is tobacco of very fine quality. The his fame rests.

most notable manufactures are hydromel or HERZ, HENRI, a German composer and mead, a favorite popular beverage, and sword pianist, born of Jewish parents in Vienna, Jan. blades. The province formerly belonged to the 6, 1806. Having evinced a considerable talent kingdom of Croatia, and was often called the for iposic, he was placed at 10 years of age at country of Chulm, and by the Venetians the the conservatoire of Paris, and 2 years later duchy of St. Saba, in honor of that saint. Anproduced his first compositions for the piano. nexed to Bosnia in the early part of the 14th His productions now number considerably over century, it was wrested from it by the emperor

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Frederic III. (died 1829), who disposed of it as Homer was of the Ionic school of epic in favor of Stefan Hranich or Cossac and his poetry. Nothing is known of his life except descendants, as an independent duchy. Hence that he dwelt at Ascra, on Mt. Helicon, whither the name of Herzegovina, the title of Herzog his father had removed from Cyme, on the (duke) having been borne by its princes before Æolic coast of Asia Minor. The most general the Ottoman conquest, which took place in opinion of the ancients assigns Homer and He1466 under Mohammed II. After various con- siod to the same period, which Herodotus fixes tests, the Turks were confirmed in its possession at about 850 B. O.; the higher antiquity of by the treaty of Carlovitz (Jan. 26, 1699), ex- Hesiod is maintained by Ephorus of Cyme, and cepting the former capital, the fortified town of that of Homer by Xenophanes of Colophon, Castelnuovo, in the gulf of Cattaro, and a small Paterculus, and most modern critics. K. O. territory, which had been held by the Vene- Müller opposes the common opinion that the tians since 1682, and which now forms part of epic language was first formed in Asia Minor, the Austrian kingdom of Dalmatia. The Her whence it was borrowed and transferred to zegovina is divided into 13 departments, and is other subjects by Hesiod. He supposes, on the governed by a vizier. Capital, Mostar.

contrary, that this poetical dialect had already HERZEN, ALEXANDER, a Russian publicist, come into use in the mother country before born in Moscow in 1812. His mother was a the Ionic colonies were founded, and that the native of Stuttgart, who clandestinely left her phrases, epithets, and proverbial expressions parents' home to accompany her husband to common to the two schools of poetry were deRussia. After leaving the university Alexander rived from a common and more ancient source. was arrested on the charge of having been con- The Hesiodic and Homeric poetry resemble each cerned in singing a seditious song, was con other only in dialect and form, and are completedemned to serve the state under surveillance, ly unlike in their genius and subjects, the latter and was exiled to Viatka. The death of his treating the thoughts and actions of the heroic father in 1846 left him wealthy, and he departed age, the former striving to reduce the bewilfor Italy and France. Having been connected dering legends about gods and heroes to a conwith the revolutionists in Paris in 1848, his prop- nected and comprehensible system. Its tone is erty was in part confiscated, and he took refuge always sombre and ethical. The logographers in England, after distinguishing himself as a related numerous stories of Hesiod, of his dewriter in France and in Germany. Here he be- scent from Orpheus, his gift of prophecy, and came director of an independent Russian press, his contest with Homer, which show that an and editor of the Kolokol("The Bell"), a news- early connection was conceived to have existed paper exerting great influence in Russia, into between the priests and bards of Thrace and which country it is extensively smuggled, and Baotia, out of which grew the elements of his from which it receives correspondence, in poetry. The Hesiodic poetry flourished chiefly many instances proving an efficient check upon in Bæotia, Phocis, and Eubea, and the eminence Russian official corruption. Herzen's principal of Hesiod caused a great variety of works to works are his Briefe aus Italien und Frank- be attributed to him. The “Works and Days" reich (Hamburg, 1850); Vom andern Ufer (Ber- (Epya kai ģuepat), the only poem which his lin, 1850); bis memoirs, translated and publish- countrymen considered genuine, is perhaps the ed in London as “ My Exile" (1855); Polyar. most ancient specimen of didactic poetry, and naya Zviezda (the "Polar Star"), a Russian consists of ethical, political, and minute ecoperiodical printed in London for the purpose of nomical precepts. It is in a homely and unimagipublishing the suppressed poems of Pushkin, native style, but is impressed throughout with Lermontoff, and others, and of introducing into a lofty and solemn feeling, founded on the idea Russia the views of the latest liberal European that the gods have ordained justice among men, politicians; and Prervannie Razskazi (“Inter- have made labor the only road to prosperity, rupted Tales,” London, 1856), consisting of arti- and have so ordered the year that every work cles cut down by the censor in Russia with the has its appointed season, the sign of which may full reading restored. Several of his works in be discerned. The “Theogony" (Ocoyovua) is an French and Russian on the condition of the attempt to form the Greek legends concerning serfs in Russia and the social condition of the the gods into a complete and harmonious pic people are said to have exerted an important ture of their origin and powers, and into a sort influence on the recent question of emanci- of religious code. Beginning with Chaos, ont pation. In 1858 he published in London and of which rose first the Earth and Eros (love), Paris a pamphlet in English and French en- the fairest of the immortal divinities, it comtitled “France or England ?" cautioning Russia pletes the formation of the world, and relates against an alliance with Louis Napoleon. His the genealogies and wars of the gods and heroes, last work, the edition of the “Memoirs of Cath- and the triumph of Zeus and the Olympians arine II." (London, 1859), in French and Eng- over the Titans. It was esteemed by the Greeks lish, has caused some controversy in the Eng- of high authority in theological matters, and lish press. He resides near London, and is as- philosophers songht by various interpretations sisted in his labors by the Russian poet Ugarieff. to make it harmonize with their own theories,

HESIOD (Gr. 'Holodos), one of the earliest Another poem attributed to Hesiod was the Greek poets, the representative of the Bæotian, “Heroines" (Holai), giving accounts of the

women who by their connection with the gods against the French, and made sketches of incihad become the mothers of the most illustrious dents on the spot. These he afterward emboheroes, and containing a description of the shield died in a series of battle pieces, of which the of Hercules, which is all of it that is still extant. “Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube," the “Capture of Several other Hesiodic poems are mentioned by a French Village by Cossacks," the “Bivouac the ancients. The best complete edition is that of Austrian Troops," and the “Battle of Leipof Göttling (8v0., Gotha and Erfurt, 1843); sic," are good specimens. He has lately executed and the scholia on him of the Neo-Platonist for the ex-king Louis of Bavaria a series of 39 Proclus, and others, are contained in Gaisford's pictures illustrating the Grecian struggle for inPoetæ Græci Minores, vol. iii. The “Works and dependence, for which purpose he has several Days" was translated into English by George times visited Greece, having previously painted Chapman (London, 1618). A poetical transla- for the czar of Russia a series of 12 illustrattion was made by O. A. Elton (London, 1810), and ing the events of 1812. He has been called a prose version by the Rev. J. Banks, in Bohn's the Horace Vernet of Germany.-HEINRICH "Classical Library” (London, 1856).

vox, brother of the preceding, a historical HESPERIDES, in Grecian mythology, the painter, born at Düsseldorf, April 19, 1798. guardians of the golden apples which Terra gave After preparatory studies at Rome, at the invito Jano as a wedding gift. Sometimes they are tation of the king of Bavaria he prepared the called the daughters of Erebus and Night, some- cartoons for the decoration of the church of times of Atlas and Hesperis, sometimes of Jupi- All Saints in Munich, in which the progress ter and Themis. Some traditions make them 3, of Christianity is unfolded. He subsequently others 4, and others again 7. They were coin- painted for the basilica of St. Boniface in the monly, however, set down at 4, whose names same city 64 compositions in fresco, with fig. were Ægle, Erythia, Hestia, and Arethusa. ures of colossal size, illustrating the life of the Their gardens were originally placed in the re- saint, and has executed a number of other mote west, about Libya and Mt. Atlas, but later works for churches of an equally impressive mythologists placed them in Cyrenaica, and character. some even in the extremo north among the HESSE, or HESSIA (Germ. Hessen), a territory Hyperboreans. Their great duty was to guard of Germany, inhabited in the time of the Roman the apples which Juno had committed to their empire by the Catti or Chatti, an old Germanic care, but Hercules succeeded in obtaining them tribe. Germanicus is said to have destroyed by the assistance of Atlas.

their principal town, Mattinm, which stood on HESS, HEINRICH, baron, an Austrian general, the site of the present villages of Gross- und born in Vienna in 1788. He entered the army Kleinmaden, near Gudensberg. Under the in 1805, served with distinction during the cam- Frankish kings Hesse was governed by counts. paign of 1813-'14, and was eventually promoted The principal of these were the counts of to the rank of lieutenant field marshal (1842). Gudensberg of the name of Giso. By the Sent as quartermaster-general to the army of marriage of the heiress of the last count of Gu. Italy in 1848, he greatly contributed, as chief densberg, Giso IV., with the landgrave Louis adviser of the old general Radetzky, to his suc- I. of Thuringia, this prince became sovereign of cesses in the campaign of that and the follow- Hesse. Till about the middle of the 13th cening years. The emperor Francis Joseph re- tury the history of Hesse was identical with warded him with the title of privy councillor that of Thuringia; but the landgrave Henry and the appointment of chief of the staff of the Raspe dying without issue in 1247, his niece whole army. He concluded the convention of Sophia, the daughter of the landgrave Louis the 1854 with Prussia, and soon after received the Pious and the wife of Henry, duke of Brabant, chief command of the great army concentrated claimed Hesse as well as Thuringia; and after on the eastern boundary of the empire. During a war of succession with her cousin, the marthe war in Italy in 1859 he again acted as head grave Henry the Worshipful of Meissen, she of the staff after the dismissal of Gyulai from was put in possession of Hesse by treaty in the chief command, which he received himself 1263. Sophia's son, Henry I. the Child (died after the battle of Solferino (June 24), when he 1309), became the progenitor of the dynasty of was active in bringing about the agreement of Hesse, and took up his residence at Cassel. Villafranca (July 11).

Philip I. the Generous, who succeeded his father HESS, KARL ERNST CHRISTOPII, a German William II. in his sovereignty of the whole engraver, born in Darmstadt in 1755, died in country in 1509, and who was the first to intro1828. He first made himself known by some duce the reformation, divided his dominions plates after pictures by Rembrandt in the gallery among his 4 sons. The eldest, William IV., obat Düsseldorf, and subsequently engraved a large tained one half, including the capital Cassel; portion of the gallery for a pictorial work. His Louis IV. one fourth, comprising Marburg ; engravings, principally from the old masters, Philip II. one eighth, with Rheinfels; and are much esteemed.-PETER VON, eldest son of George I. also one eighth, with Darmstadt. the preceding, a painter of genre and battle But Philip II. dying in 1583, and Louis IV. in pieces, born at Düsseldorf, July 29, 1792. In 1604, without children, there remained only the 1813-'15, while on the staff of Prince Wrede, two still existing main branches of Hesse-Cassel be participated in the most considerable actions and Hesse-Darmstadt. Among the other princes

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