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of the Hessian dynasty are the landgraves of with exclusion of females. He is assisted by a Hesse-Philippsthal, of Barchfeld, and of Hesse- council of ministers, who are responsible. The Rheinfels-Rothenburg.

people are represented in two chambers.-HesseHESSE-CASSEL (Germ. Kurhessen), a Ger- Cassel is the elder branch of the Hesse dynasty, man electorate, bounded by Hanover, Prussian and was founded by the eldest son of Philip Saxony, Weimar, Bavaria, Nassau, Hesse-Darm- the Generous, the landgrave William IV., surstadt, Waldeck, and Westphalia; area, 4,420 sq. named the Wise (1567 to 1592). His grandm.; pop. in 1856, 736,392. The most populous son, William V., took part in the 30 years' province is that of Lower Hesse, which com- war, and his widow obtained, after the resprises the county of Schaumburg. The other toration of peace, the greater part of Schaumprovinces are Upper Hesse, Fulda, and Hanau. burg and other territory. William VII. was sucThe country is hilly, and the soil generally not ceeded in 1670 by his brother Charles, while fertile, except in Fulda. Among the principal another brother, Philip, founded the branch mountains are branches of the Thuringian forest of Hesse-Philippsthal. Charles's eldest son be(on which Schmalkalden, a detached possession came, by his marriage with Ulrike Eleonore, of Hesse-Cassel, is situated), the Spessart, the king of Sweden in 1720. In 1730 he assumed Rhön, the Hundsrück, the Wesergebirge, and the government of his native country as Fredthe Vogelsgebirge. The principal rivers are eric I., and was succeeded in 1751 by his brother the Werra, Fulda, Weser, Lahn, and Main. The William VIII., who fought in the 7 years' war climate is temperate; mildest on the banks of on the side of Prussia. His son, the notorious the last named river, and most rigorous on the Frederic II., became a convert to the church of summit of the Rhön. Grain, especially buck- Rome, and between 1776 and 1784, received over wheat, is produced, with potatoes, pulse, large £3,000,000 by hiring his soldiers to the Engquantities of flax, some hemp and tobacco, chic- lish government to fight against the Americans ory, fruit, a small amount of wine, and much in the war of independence. He died in 1785, timber. The mineral productions are copper, and was succeeded by his son William IX., who iron, quicksilver, cobalt, salt (from numerous after 1803, when he was raised to the rank of saline springs), saltpetre, vitriol, alum; also coal, an elector, reigned under the name of William marble, white alabaster, porcelain clay, potters' I. Although recognized by Napoleon as one earth, pipe clay, &c. The principal manufactures of the neutral princes in 1806, he was expelled are linen, flannel, carpets, silks, velvets, jewelry, from his possessions after the battle of Jena, cotton, paper, musical instruments, ehemical and Hesse-Cassel was incorporated with the products, beet root sugar, tobacco, wooden ware, kingdom of Westphalia. On his return to &c. Schmalkalden manufactures almost all the power in 1813, he restored the old order of steel and iron of the country, and Grossalmerode things. He is identified with the rise of the is noted for its pottery and crucibles. The man- Rothschilds. During the Napoleonic wars he ufacturing industry has much increased since deposited his large property with Mayer Am1832, when Hesse-Cassel joined the Zollverein. schel Rothschild, a Jewish money-changer of The Weser and Main are navigable, and for Frankfort, who acquitted himself of this trust smaller vessels also the Werra and Fulda. Com- with so much skill and honesty, that the prince merce is carried on by these rivers, and by the afterward afforded him facilities which, torailways which connect the country with the gether with the peculiar financial tact of the other portions of Germany. Hesse-Cassel pos- elder Rothschild, laid the foundation of the sesses many educational institutions, the prin- great wealth and influence of his house. This cipal of which is the university of Marburg. A same prince was the father of the notorious large proportion of the population are connect- Austrian general Haynau, by his mistress Frau ed with the Reformed church, but there are von Lindenthal. He was not popular with about 160,000 Lutherans, 100,000 Roman Cath- his subjects. On his death in 1821 he was sucolics (under the bishop of Fulda), 15,000 Jews ceeded by his son, the elector William II., (emancipated since 1833), and 270 Mennonites. whose relation with his subjects became seThe dialects spoken are low German along the riously complicated by his connection with banks of the Diemel, Hessian high German on the obnoxious countess of Reichenbach. Riots those of the Werra and Fulda, and Rhenish broke out in 1830. The countess left Cassel, high German on the Lahn and Kinzig. The and on Jan. 9, 1831, the elector promulgated principal towns are Hanau and the capital, Cas- the long promised liberal constitution. On the sel.--Hesse-Cassel occupies the 8th place in the return of the countess fresh disturbances arose, German confederation, and has 3 votes in the which incensed the elector to such an extent general assembly. The revenue and expenditures that he also left Cassel. He retired to Frankfor the 3 years from 1858 to 1860 are estimated fort, where after the death of his legitimate wife respectively at about 5,000,000 Prussian thalers. (1841), the electress Auguste, he contracted a The public debt amounts to about 11,000,000, morganatic marriage with his mistress, and, 6 chiefly for railways. The army comprises months after her decease in Feb. 1843, with about 15,000 men. The theory of government Karoline von Berlepsch. On his death in 1847 is that of a constitutional monarchy. The sov- he was succeeded by his son, who had officiated ereign retains the old title of elector or prince as regent after his departure from Cassel, and elector (Kurfürst). His dignity is hereditary, who assumed the sovereignty under the namo

of Frederic William I. (born Aug. 20, 1802; of the ministers of justice, finance, and war. The married to Gertrude, princess of Hanau, count- legislature is composed of two chambers. The ess of Schaumburg). The heir apparent to annual receipts and expenditures amount rehis throne is his son Frederic William, born spectively, according to the budget of 1857–9, to Nov. 18, 1832. Yielding in 1848 to the revo- about $400,000. The public debt of $7,000,000 lutionary demand for political reforms, but re- comprises about $5,000,000 due for railways tracing his steps after the reaction had set in, and loans made in 1857 and 1859. The grand he gave great dissatisfaction to the people, es- duchy possesses 1,600 elementary, 6 primary, pecially in 1850, when the unpopular minister and 2 normal schools, 7 gymnasia and PädaHassenpflug came into power as premier, and gogien, 2 Protestant divinity schools, an acadHaynau, a nephew of the Austrian general, as emy for studies relating to woods and forests, minister of war. So great became the excite- many other private educational institutions, and ment of the people that the elector sought ref- the famous university of Giessen. -The lino uge in flight, and Hassenpflug saw no other of Hesse-Darmstadt was founded in 1567 by means of saving the crown than by invoking George I., youngest son of Philip the Generous. the aid of the other German powers. By The war of succession with Hesse-Cassel which their military interference quiet was restor- broke out under the reign of his successor, Louis ed, and by their negotiation a new constitution V. the Faithful, continued to rage during that was promulgated in 1852, which however met of his son George II. (1626-'61), but was brought with much opposition on account of its illiberal- to a close in 1647 by the cession of Marburg and ity. After protracted agitations on the sub- other contested localities in exchange for Giesject, a proposal in favor of the reëstablishment sen and other territory. During the French of the old constitution was presented to the revolution much territory was lost, which was electors by a vote of the second chamber, Nov. more than regained by the treaty of Luneville in 5, 1859. During the war excitement in 1859, 1801. Louis X. (born 1753, died 1830), joined the the chambers unanimously voted to join the confederation of the Rhine, adopting as grand Austrians against Napoleon III.

duke the name of Louis I., obtained from NapoHESSE-DARMSTADT, & German grand leon still further accessions of territory, caused duchy, consisting of two large portions, sepa- his troops to act against Austria in 1809 and in rated by a long strip of land extending from E. concert with the French in 1813, but joined the to W., which belongs to Hesse-Cassel and to allies after the battle of Leipsic, on condition of the free city of Frankfort. The N. portion is being left in possession of his newly acquired bounded W. by Nassau and Prussia, and N. E. territory. In 1815 he joined the German conand S. by Hesse-Cassel; the S. portion is bound- federation, and made large cessions on the right ed N. by Nassau, Frankfort, and Hesse-Cassel, bank of the Rhine to Prussia and other states, E. by Bavaria, s. by Baden, S. W. by Rhenish but obtained valuable possessions on the left Bavaria, and W. by Prussia. Area, 3,231 sq.m.; bank of that river, including Mentz and Bingen. pop. in 1859, 845,571, of whom about 218,000 In 1828 the grand duke joined the Prussian cusare Roman Catholics, 29,000 Jews, and the toms union, by which he gave the first impulse rest Protestants. It is divided into 3 proy- to the formation of a more general union, which inces, Upper Hesse, Starkenburg, and Rhe- culminated eventually in the Zollverein. Soon nish Hesse. The principal mountains are the after the death of Louis I. and the accession of Odenwald and the Vogelsgebirge. The Vo- Louis II., riots were produced by the French gelsgebirge is a volcanic mass, occupying with revolution of 1830, which were quelled by the its branches about 400 sq. m. The country army. The revolution of 1848 extorted from is also traversed by branches of the Wester. the grand duke the concession of the trial by wald, Taunus, &c. The chief rivers are the jury. He appointed his son as co-regent, March Rhine, Main, Nahe, Nidda, and Lahn. Hesse- 5, 1848. He died June 16, and his son, the Darmstadt is one of the best cultivated agricul- present grand duke Louis III., succeeded. tural countries in Germany. Offenbach, near HESSE-HOMBURG, & Gerinan landgraviFrankfort, is the chief manufacturing town. ate, consisting of the province of Homburg, Mentz is the great emporium for the corn, wine, which is surrounded by the territory of Nassau, and transit trade. Darmstadt is the capital. Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, and Frankfort, The grand duchy possesses many railways and and of the more populous province of Meissenexcellent public roads. It occapies the 9th heim, which lies between Rhenish Prussia, the rank in the German confederation, has 3 votes Bavarian Palatinate, and the Oldenburg princiin the full and one in the minor council, and pality of Birkenfeld ; total area, 106 sq. m.; furnishes a contingent of 6,195 men; in 1859 pop. in 1859, about 26,000, of whom 3,000 are the whole army comprised 10,621 men. The Roman Catholics, about 200 Jews, and the rest government is a constitutional monarchy. The Protestants. The country produces grain, catgrand duke, who bears the title of Grossherzog tle, and timber in abundance, also iron and coal von Hessen und bei Rhein, is assisted by a coun- in Meissenheim. The woollen, linen, and other cil of state and a cabinet, which consists of the goods manufactured there are chiefly destined premier or president (who is at the same time for the Frankfort market. The landgrave (since minister of the grand ducal household), of the 1848, Ferdinand) owns extensive estates in vaminister of the interior and of foreign affairs, and rious parts of Germany. The public debt is $500,000. The expenditures in 1858 were the ground, there remaining head downward $200,000, $25,000 more than the receipts. till their transformations are completed, nourA large amount is annually received from the ished by the juices of the plant, which they obgambling tables at the watering place of Hom- tain by suction. Two or three larvw thus placed burg, the capital. The attempts made by the will cause the plant to wither and die. In about Frankfort parliament in 1849 to close them by 6 weeks they attain their full size, of an inch force of arms were set at naught as soon as the in length, when the skin gradually hardens and troops had left, and gambling has since been re- becomes of a bright chestnut color, about the 1st sumed with great spirit. Kesse-Homburg has of December in the autumn brood, and in June one vote in the full council of the German con- or July in the spring brood. In the beginning federation, to which it contributes & contingent of this, the papa state, they look like flax seed; of 333 men. It belonged formerly to Hesse- in 2 or 3 weeks the insect within becomes deDarmstadt, and became an independent territory tached from the leathery skin, and lies loosely in 1596, when it was allotted to Frederic I. by in it, a motionless grub; within this it graduhis father George I. In 1815 Meissenheim was ally advances toward the winged state about tho added to its territory. In 1830 disturbances end of April or beginning of May, according to broke out consequent upon the French revolu- the warmth of the weather. When mature, it tion. In 1835 the landgrave joined the Zoll breaks through this case, enveloped in a delicate verein. A liberal constitution was promulgated skin, which soon splits on the back, setting the after the revolution of 1848, but withdrawn in perfect insect at liberty. Many of those laid 1852. The present landgrave, Ferdinand, is by the spring brood are left in the stubble, and childless, and after his death Hesse-Homburg remain unchanged until the following spring; will again revert to Hesse-Darmstadt.

some, however, do not get so low on the stalk HESSIAN FLY, a small gnat or midge, of as to be out of the way of the sickle, and thus the order diptera, family cecidomyiados or gall with the straw may be transported long disgnats, and genus cecidomyia (Latr.). It was tances, and might have been brought in the flaxcalled Hessian fly from the supposition that it seed state across the Atlantic from Europe. was brought to this country in some straw by The perfect insects, though small, are active and the Hessian troops during the revolutionary able to fly considerable distances in search of war; it was first scientifically described in 1817 fields of grain. The insect supposed to be the by Mr. Say as cecidomyia destructor. The body Hessian fly, which Miss Morris found laying its of the insect is about 'of an inch in length, eggs in the seeds of wheat instead of on the leaves, and the expanse of wings 7 of an inch or more; she afterward ascertained to be another species, the head, antennæ, thorax, and feet are black; which she called C. culmicola. This destructivo the hind body is tawny, marked with black on insect was not known to exist in America before each ring, and with fine grayish hairs; the wings the revolution, and was first observed in 1776 are blackish, tawny at the narrow base, fringed on Staten island, near the place of debarkation with short hairs, and rounded at the tip; the of the Hessian troops under the command of legs pale red or brownish; the egg tube of the Sir William Howe; thence it spread to Long female rose-colored. The antenna are long, island, southern New York, and Connecticut, with bead-like swellings most distinct in the proceeding inland at the rate of about 20 miles male, surrounded by whorls of short hairs, with a year; it was seen at Saratoga, 200 miles from 15 to 18 joints, globular in the male, oblong Staten island, in 1789, and west of the Alleoval in the female; the proboscis is short, with ghanies in 1797; so great was the destruction, out piercing bristles ; eyes kidney-shaped ; legs that the cultivation of wheat was abandoned long and slender, with the first joint of the feet in many places. Burning the stubble in wheat, short; and the wings with few veins. This in rye, and barley fields, afterward ploughing and sect, so destructive in some seasons in the fields harrowing the land, appears to be the best of wheat, barley, and rye, generally matures 2 method of getting rid of this insect; steeping broods in the course of a year, appearing in the grain, rolling it in plaster or lime, or other spring and autumn, earliest in the southern methods of securing a rapid and vigorons states; the transformations of some are retard- growth, sowing the fields with wood ashes and ed in various ways, so that their life from feeding off the crop by cattle in the autumn, are the egg to the perfect insect may be a year or useful accessory means. Varions minute parasimore, rendering the continuance of the species tic insects, of the hymenopterous order, similar in after years more sure. The eggs, about to in their habits to the ichneumon flies, destroy a of an inch long, translucent, and pale red, are very large proportion of every generation of the placed in the longitudinal creases of the Hessian fly, preying upon their eggs, larvæ, and leaves of both winter and spring wheat very pupæ. The insect which commits such depresoon after the plants are above the ground, to dations on the wheat crops of Great Britain, c. the number of 20, 30, or more on a leaf; if the tritici (Kirby), will be described under WHEAT weather be warm, they are hatched in 4 or 5 Fly. For details on the history, habits, and days, and the larvæ, small footless maggots, transformations of the Hessian fly, the reader is tapering at each end, and of a pale red color, referred to the work of Dr. Harris on “Insects crawl down the leaf and fix themselves between Injurious to Vegetation,” and to the numerous it and the main stalk, just below the surface of authorities cited by him.

HETMAN. See ATTAMAN.

aided in the preparation of its report. The HETTNER, HERMANN JULIUS THEODOR, & congress adjourned in October, and a new one German archæologist, born in Leysersdorf, Sile- met in the succeeding May, of which Mr. Hewes sia, in 1821. He studied at Berlin, Heidelberg, was again chosen a member, and served with Halle, and Breslau, spent 3 years in Italy in the distinction on many of the most important examination of works of art, and became in comunittees during 1775–6. In 1777 'he de. 1851 professor of æsthetics and of the history of clined a reëlection, but resumed his seat in Juls, literature and art at Jena. In 1852 he accom- 1779. panied Göttling and Preller on their journey to HEWITT (STEBBINS), MARY ELIZABETH, an Greece, published in 1853 Griechische Reise- American authoress, born in Malden, Mass. Her Skizzen, and has officiated since 1855 at Dresden maiden pame was Moore, and she was the as director of the royal museum of antiquities, daughter of a New England farmer, who died as professor of art history, and member of the when she was but 3 years old. Her mother senate of the academy of fine arts.

then removed with her to Boston, where she HEUSDE, PHILIPPUS WILHELMUS, a Dutch remained till soon after her marriage with Mr. philosopher, born in Rotterdam, June 17, 1778, James L. Hewitt, when she took up her residied in Geneva, July 28, 1839. He studied dence in New York. She is chiefly known by philosophy and law at Amsterdam under Cras her poetry, which has appeared in different and Wyttenbach, following the latter in 1799 periodicals, and in a collection from these ento Leyden. He was appointed professor of elo- titled “Songs of our Land” (Boston, 1845). In quence and history in the university of Utrecht, 1850 she edited the “Gem of the Western and by his reputation and labors raised that inWorld," and the “Memorial," the latter a tribstitution to a higher position than it ever before ute to her friend Mrs. Frances S. Osgood. Her occupied..

last work is “The Heroines of History" (1856). HÈVELIUS (HEVEL, or HEWELCKE), JOHANX, In 1854 she was married to Mr. R. Stebbins. a Polish astronomer, born in Dantzic, Jan. 28, HEXAMETER (Gr. &, six, and yet pov, meas1611, died there, Jan. 28, 1688. He was of ure), the heroic verse of the Greeks and Romans, noble birth, studied at Leyden, and from 1630 consisting of 6 feet, the last of which must be a to 1634 travelled in Europe. Returning to spondee, the last but ono a dactyl, and the first Dantzic, he applied himself to drawing and 4 dactyls and spondees indifferently. The 5th mechanics with a view of improving optical foot is sometimes a spondee, when the verse is instruments, established in his house a private termed spondaic. The cæsural pause occurs press from which most of his works were near the middle of each verse. The hexameter issued, and was chosen councillor in 1651. In has been successfully attempted in German, as 1641 'he constructed an observatory, called in the Hermann und Dorothea of Goethe; and Stellæburgum, which he provided with instru. Southey, Lockhart, and Longfellow have emments chiefly of his own manufacture, that had ployed it in English. been surpassed in excellence only by those of HEYDEN, FRIEDRICII August von, a GerTycho Brahe. In 1679 he was visited by Halley, man novelist and poet, born near Heilsberg, East whom the royal society of London had request. Prussia, Sept. 3, 1789, died in Breslau, Nov. 5, ed to examine his observations. In that year 1851. He was educated at the gymnasium and his observatory was burned down, with his li- university of Königsberg with a view to state brary and many of his manuscripts. He soon service, but his tastes inclined him to languages, rebuilt it, and continued his astronomical pur- art, and literature; and having determined to suits till his death. As an observer he ranked devote himself to them, he went first to Berlin, next to Flamsteed among the astronomers of where he attended the lectures of Niebuhr, his age. Among his works are: Selenographia Wolf, and Fichte, and then to Göttingen. There (1647); Cometographia (1668); Machina Cæles- he made rapid progress, chiefly through his intis (1678-'9); Firmamentum Sobiescianum timacy in the circle of literature which gathered (1690); and Prodromus Astronomia (1691). around the intelligent, Dorothea von Rodde,

HEWES, JOSEPH, an American patriot, one Schlözer's daughter. In 1813 political exciteof the signers of the declaration of independence, mentinduced him to enter the army, with which born in Kingston, N. J., in 1730, died in Phila- he was in active service until 1815. After the delphia, Nov. 10, 1779. He was educated at peace he obtained civil employment, married the Princeton college, and then went to Philadel- niece of the author Hippel, and was advanced phia to engage in mercantile business. About to the rank of Prussian state councillor. Pre1760 he removed to North Carolina, and set- vious to 1815 he had published his drama Renatled in Edenton. He soon became a member ta, after which he wrote the tragedy Konradin, of the colonial legislature, and in 1774 was his “ Dramatic Novels," poetical works, and sent as a delegate to the general congress at several plays. He formed the plan of writing a Philadelphia. Soon after taking his seat he series of grand historical poems, which should was appointed on a committee to “state the reproduce the romantic and heroic ages not only rights of the colonies in general, the several in- of Europe but of India, and the first part of stances in which those rights are violated or in- this appeared in Reginald, a work of great merit. fringed, and the means most proper to be pur. He also wrote a great number of small tales and sued for obtaining a restoration of them," and novels, which are less esteemed.

HEYDT, AUGUST VON DEN, a Prussian states- afterward obtained at Dresden & situation as man, born in Elberfeld, Feb. 15, 1801. At an under secretary in the library of the minister early age he visited France and England with there, with a salary of 400 francs a year. In a view of familiarizing himself with industrial the library of Dresden he became intimate with and commercial affairs. After his return to his Winckelmann, then a young, poor student native city, he became a member of the bank- like himself. In 1763 he was appointed to fill ing establishment of his father and of the mu- the chair of eloquence and poetry in the uni. nicipal government. In 1840 he was appointed versity of Göttingen, and he remained connected president of the tribunal of commerce, in 1841 with that institution till his death. He pubdeputy to the diet of the Rhenish provinces, lished his views on the manner of studying the and in 1847 to the general diet. He declined to ancient authors in his edition of the Apollodori serve in the German parliament, but accepted, Bibliotheca (Göttingen, 1782), and in several Dec. 4, 1848, the office of minister of commerce, essays, which appeared in the “Transactions industry, and public works. The improvement of the University of Göttingen." He was in the Prussian postal and telegraphic systems made chief librarian of the library of Göttinand the extension of railways and public works gen, perpetual secretary of the royal society, are mainly due to his energy. The commercial and foreign member of the institute of France. treaties with Sardinia (1850), Holland (1850), He published editions of Tibullus (Leipsic, Austria (1853), Bremen (1850), and Mexico 1755), Epictetus (1756), Virgil (1767), Pindar (1855), were concluded under his auspices. By a (Göttingen, 1774), Homer (Leipsic, 1802), Dio. law of Feb, 5, 1855, he permitted foreign shipdorus Siculus, and other classic authors. His ping to participate in the Prussian coasting trade, life has been written by his son-in-law, Heeren. on condition that the same privilege should be HEYWOOD, Jonn, an English humorist, born reciprocated by other countries; and the navi- probably at North Mims, near St. Albans, in gation school of Dantzic has been reorganized the early part of the 16th century, died in and a new school of navigation established in Mechlin in 1565. He was educated at Oxford, Stettin through his influence. He remodelled and became a favorite of Henry VIII. and subthe system of industrial instruction, which now sequently of Queen Mary, whom be amused by comprises the ordinary and the provincial indus- his wit and musical talents. He is the author trial schools and the great industrial academy of a number of "interludes" of a humorous of Berlin, and aims at producing harmony character, the best known of wbich, perhaps, among the various pursuits of mechanics by the is “The Four P's," and of a tedious burlesque reëstablishment of guilds, without interfering, allegory called "The Spider and the Fly." He however, with individual enterprise. Mining also published “Six Centuries of Epigrains," has greatly advanced under his administration; from which he has been called the epigrammist. the production of coal has risen from 23,000,- On the accession of Queen Elizabeth he was 000 tons in 1851 to 34,000,000 in 1855, and the obliged to leave England.-TAOMas, an English number of forges from 173 in 1852 to 223 in dramatist, born in Lincolnshire in the latter half 1855. Joint stock manufacturing companies of the 16th century, died about 1650. He was have received his special patronage, numbering educated at Cambridge, and was an actor as 54 in 1854, with a capital of $40,000,000; and well as a writer, In voluminousness he probably the manufacturing interest of Prussia generally exceeds any other English author, having writhas flourished since his advent to the ministry. ten either the whole or the greater part of 220 Since 1851 he has presided over the bank of plays, of which but 23 survive. Some of them, Prussia, and contributed inuch to raise the such as “ A Woman Killed with Kindness" and national importance and the credit of that in- "The Four London Prentices," are not inferior stitution.

to the productions of Massinger, Ford, and HEYLIN, PETER, an English theologian, born others of his contemporaries. Charles Lamb in Burford, 'Oxfordshire, in 1600, died in Lon- calls him "a sort of prose Shakespeare." don, May 8, 1662. He was educated at Oxford, HEZEKIAH, king of Judah, succeeded his read lectures on history and geography, was father Ahaz about 728 B. C., when he was 25 made D.D., and in 1629 was nominated, at the years old, died about 699. Following the inrequest of Laud, one of the chaplains in ordi- junctions of the prophet Isaiah, immediately on nary to the king. He was a zealous royalist, his accession he took measures to break up the and in the time of the rebellion his property idolatrous customs into which the people had was confiscated by the parliament, and he him- fallen during the life of his father, and to repair self was obliged to fly to Oxford, where he the losses and defeats they had suffered. Earls edited the journal called Mercurius Aulicus in his reign the Assyrians invaded the neightill 1645. On the restoration he was appointed boring kingdom of Israel, and carried away sub-dean of Westminster by Charles II. His captive the 10 tribes to distant provinces bewritings comprise about 37 works, chiefly on yond the Tigris; but notwithstanding the power .church history and polemics.

and threats of the conquerors, Hezekiah refused HEYNE, CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB, a German phi- to acknowledge subjection to Assyria, or to pay lologist, born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Sept. 25, the tribute which had been imposed and paid 1729, died in Göttingen, July 14, 1812. He during the reign of his father. In consequence studied philology and the classics at Leipsic, and of this, the Assyrian king Sennacherib invaded

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