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his kingdom in the 14th year of his reigo; but gical condition of hibernation, leads to the after various exploits his army met with a sud- pathological one of torpor, and even death. den destruction, and the survivors precipitately According to Marshall Hall (* Cyclopædia of retreated. Soon after this signal deliverance, Anatomy and Physiology,” article “HibernaHezekiah was seized with a severe illness, the tion"), the quantity of respiration is inversely fatal termination of which was averted in an- as the degree of irritability of the muscular swer to his prayers, and 15 years were added fibre, the former being measured by the amount to his life, the latter part of which was passed of oxygen inspired, and the latter by that of in tranquillity and peace.
the galvanic force necessary to demonstrate its HIACOOMES, the first Indian convert to existence. Birds have a high respiration and a Christianity in New England, born about 1610, low muscular irritability; reptiles, on the condied in Martha's Vineyard about 1690. Under trary, have a high degree of irritability and a the preaching of the missionary Thomas Mayhew low respiration. This is true also of the prohe was converted to Christianity, and having gressive development of animals from the imbeen taught to read, he began in 1653 to preach mature to the perfect state, in which the change to his brethren in Martha's Vineyard. He suc- is from a lower to a higher respiration, and froin ceeded in making a number of converts among a higher to a lower muscular irritability. In them, notwithstanding the menaces directed sleep, and especially in the profound sleep of against him by the Indian priests. In Aug. bibernation, the respiration is diminished and 1670, an Indian church was formed at Martha's the irritability increased. To whatever the Vineyard, and Hiacoomes became its pastor. susceptibility to this change be owing, the ca
HIBBARD, FREEBORX GARRETSON, an Amer. pability of passing into a state of hibernation ican clergymnan, born in New Rochelle, West- depends, according to this author, on the power chester co., N. Y., Feb. 22, 1811. At the age of taking on an increased muscular irritability; of 18 he entered the ministry of the Methodist certain animals pass beyond the physiological Episcopal church, before he had finished his limits of ordinary sleep into the lethargy of collegiate course. He has been appointed to hibernation, the mammal for the time assumseveral important stations in the church, and ing in this respect reptilian characters. Were frequently elected to the general conference, the respiration to be diminished without the at the last of which he was chosen editor of increased irritability, death would take place the “Northern Christian Advocate," which post from the torpor of slow asphyxia; and were he now (1860) occupies. He has devoted himself the respiration increased without the diminuespecially to biblical and theological literature. tion of the irritability, the animal would die His principal works are: “Baptism, its Import, from over stimulation, as in those suddenly Mode, Efficacy, and Relative Order;" “Geog- aroused from the state of hibernation, or as if raphy and History of Palestine;" and “The submitted to an atmosphere of pure oxygen. Psalms, chronologically arranged, with Histori- Sleep and hibernation are similar periodical cal Introductions, and a General Introduction phenomena, differing only in degree, and the to the whole Book.”
latter is extraordinary only because less familiar HIBERNATION (Lat. hibernare, to go into than the former; the ordinary sleep of the winter quarters), generally understood as the hedgehog and dormouse, and of the bat in sumcondition of lethargy in which many animals mer, is a diurnal hibernation, ceasing daily at pass the cold season. The sources of their the call of hunger, and accompanied by a dimidaily food being at this time cut off, they sink nution of respiration and animal heat; and this into a deep sleep, in which nutriment is unne sleep may pass into true hibernation, as the cessary, and so remain until the warm weather blood becomes more venous in the brain, and of spring; a beautiful provision of the Creator the muscular fibres of the heart acquire infor the preservation of animals which would creased irritability. In perfect hibernation the otherwise perish from cold and hunger. Among process of sanguification is nearly or entirely the animals in which this state has been noticed arrested; the bat takes no food, and passes no are the bat, hedgehog, dormouse, hamster, mar- excretions from the intestines or kidneys; but mot, and other rodents; chelonians, saurians, the dormouse awakes daily, and the hedgehog ophidians, and batrachians, among reptiles; and every 2 or 3 days, in a temperature of 40° to 45° some fishes (like the eel), mollusks, and insects. F., take food and pass excretions, and subside The phenomena of hibernation, however, are again into their lethargy. Respiration is also not confined to the winter season, and are not very nearly or entirely suspended in perfect necessarily connected with a low degree of ex- hibernation, as has been experimentally proved ternal temperature; the bats, in the summer by the absence of all external respiratory acts, time, present these phenomena regularly every by the unchanged condition of the surrounding 24 hours; the tenrec, a nocturnal insectivor- air, by the diminution of the animal heat to that ous mammal, though living in the torrid zone, of the atmosphere, and by the capability of according to Cuvier passes three of the hottest supporting the entire privation of air or the months of the year in a state of lethargy. The action of carbonio acid and other irrespirable influence of cold in producing this state is due gases. The circulation, though very slow, is only to its tendency to cause sleep, and if car- continuous, and the heart beats regularly; the ried too far, instead of inducing the physiolo- blood, from the absence of respiration, is entirely venous, but the increased muscular irri- from its sleep by too great cold, and is destroytability of the left ventricle of the heart permits ed by it like any other animal. Most animals it to contract under the slight and usually in- lay up a store of fat under the skin, which is sufficient stimulus of a non-oxygenated blood; slowly absorbed during hibernation; in the frogs, it is the exaltation of this single vital property and probably in other reptiles, the adipose acwhich preserves life and renders hibernation cumulation takes place within the abdominal possible, forming the only exception to the gen- cavity in the folds of the peritoneum, for a eral rule of the circulation in animals which similar purpose. The phenomena of insect hipossess a double heart; the slow circulation of bernation are very interesting in all stages of a venous blood keeps up a state of lethargy in- growth; many pass the winter in this conduced by a diminished respiration. Sensation dition, both above and beneath the surface of and volition are quiescent as the brain and its the ground; eggs and chrysalids have been sensory ganglia are asleep, but the true spinal known to withstand a temperature several deor excito-motory system is awake and its en- grees below the freezing point of water. It is ergies are unimpaired, as is shown by the facility well known that many species of fish may bewith which respiration is excited by touching come stiff from cold and yet not perish, but or irritating the animal; muscular motility is actual congelation is fatal; in the so called also unimpaired in this state; the action of the frozen fishes which have revived in warm water, heart has been found to continue about 10 there must have been a low degree of vital hours in an animal in the state of hibernation, action in the organs of circulation. In many in which the brain had been removed and the reptiles the necessary respiration may be effectspinal marrow destroyed, while in the same ed entirely through the skin, in the hibernating animal in a natural state it ceases after 2 hours. state. The lower animals generally seem to With such an irritable condition of the heart, possess a remarkable power of resisting cold, the introduction into it of an arterial or oxygen- and may be reduced to a condition of apparent ated blood from respiration would soon cause death, without the irritability of hibernation, death from over stimulation; and as trifling and yet not identical with the torpidity usually causes are sufficient to excite the respiratory produced by cold. act, hibernating animals adopt various means HIBERNIA. See IRELAND. of securing themselves from disturbance; bats HICCOUGH, a spasmodic contraction of the retire to the recesses of gloomy caverns, where diaphragm, producing a shock in the thoracic they hang suspended by the claws of the hind and abdominal cavities, and accompanied by a feet, head downward; the hedgehog and the convulsive inspiration in which the column of dormouse roll themselves into a ball; tortoises air is arrested by the sudden closing of the glotburrow in the earth, frogs and eels plunge an- tis, and by a loud and well known clucking der the mud, and snakes twist themselves to- sound. Authors are not agreed as to the origin gether in natural or artificial crevices and of this act, but the movement is undoubtedly holes in the ground. The call of hunger and of a purely reflex character; though the spasthe warmth of returning spring arouse all these modic action be in the diaphragm, its point of from their winter retreats, the irritability grad- departure may be in the abdominal organs or ually diminishing as the respiration becomes in the nervous centres. In ordinary cases it active. Extreme cold will rouse a hibernating comes and goes spontaneously, and is a matter animal from its lethargy, and speedily kill it; of no consequence beyond a slight inconvenhence many animals congregate in carefully pre- ience under certain circumstances; but it may pared nests, and others, like the snakes, entwine be preceded by gastric symptoms, pain, and themselves for mutual protection from cold. eructations, be accompanied by labored respiThe state of hibernation, or that in which the ration, and be so persistent and severe as to stimulus of venous blood is sufficient to con- require active treatment. It is often seen in tinue the heart's action, finds a parallel in some children and in adults who have eaten or drunk cases of disease accompanied by lethargy, in immoderately or hastily, after long fasting, in which revival has occurred after supposed sus diseases of the stomach, intestines, and liver, pended animation, and in others in which actual and in nervous persons troubled with flatulence; death has been delayed for days after the appar it becomes an important diagnostic sign in peent cessation of respiration and circulation; ritonitis, strangulated hernia, and other intestithe causes of this condition, which might throw nal obstructions; it is not uncommon in inter much light on the kinds and phenomena of mittent fevers, and is a grave symptom in typhoid death, have not been fully investigated in the and gangrenous affections accompanied by other human subject. The torpor produced by ex- spasmodic phenomena. In nervous persons it treme cold, though sleep be always induced, is may be brought on by any excitement, and genvery different from true hibernation; the for- erally disappears with its cause; if not, a few mer is attended with diminished sensation and swallows of cold or acidulated water, cold rigidity of the muscles, and if prolonged ends sprinkling, or vivid emotion of any kind, will in arrest of the circulation and death; the put an end to it in a few moments; obstinate latter, in which sensation and motility are un- cases are on record, which required cold shower impaired, has for its object the preservation of baths, ice externally and internally, narcotics, life; the bibernating bat or dormouse is aroused and revulsives to the epigastrium; when intermittent, it yields to quinine; if symptomatic, site branches, the stamens from 4 to 8 in each the nature of the disease will indicate its treats flower; and fertile, which are solitary or else in ment.
small groups at the ends of the branches. The HICKMAN. I. A central co. of Tenn., drain- fruit is a large roundish nut; the husk of which ved by Duck and Piney rivers; area, 550 sq. opens partially or wholly of itself by 4 seams. m.; pop. in 1850, 9,397, of whom 1,816 were The genus carya is exclusively American ; the slaves. The surface is uneven, and the soil nearest approach to it among foreign trees is rich and well watered. Iron ore is abundant. the Asiatic walnut (juglans regia, Linn.). There The productions in 1850 were 635,265 bushels are many species, all of them remarkable for of Indian corn, 82,250 of oats, 29,396 of sweet stateliness and general beauty. In the autumpotatoes, 34,146 lbs. of tobacco, 92,016 of but- nal scenery, the foliage of the hickories contribter, and 17,202 of wool. There were 20 utes a pleasing share, each species possessing its churches, and 30 pupils attending an academy. own peculiar hues and tints. As an ornamental Capital, Centreville. II. A S. W. co. of Ky., tree the hickory can be recommended for plantbordering on Tenn., separated from Mo. by the ing. If raised from the nut and subjected to nurMississippi river, and drained by the bayou desery treatment, the young trees could probably be Chien and other sinall streams; area, 220 sq. transplanted without difficulty; but the hickory m.; pop. in 1850, 4,791, of whom 840 were seldom survives when taken from the woods, as slaves. The surface is gently undulating, and its roots are large, few in number, and easily the soil consists of rich mould with a substra- killed. The bitter-nut hickory (C. amara, Nutt.) tum of sand. The productions in 1850 were is the most graceful and remarkable for its 317,671 bushels of Indian corn, 31,896 of oats, finely cut foliage. It raises a noble columnar 378,580 lbs. of tobacco, and 6,339 of wool. top to the height of 60 or 70 feet, enlarging upThere were 2 grist mills, 4 saw mills, 17 ward, and broadest at 40 or 50. Its recent churches, and 410 pupils attending public shoots are of an orange green, smooth and dotschools. Value of land in 1857, $910,669. ted with orange. Its fruit, however, is intenseThe Mobile and Ohio railroad passes through ly bitter. It has an abundance of fibrous roots, Clinton, the capital.
so that if the young trees were transplanted HICKOK, LAURENS PERSEUS, D.D., an Amer- they could be used for stocks on which to enican metaphysician, born in Danbury, Conn., graft other kinds. The pig-nut hickory (0. Dec. 29, 1798. He was graduated at Union glabra, Torrey) is also a large tree, with a close college in 1820, devoted himself to theology, bark and very tough and valuable wood; its was licensed as a preacher in 1822, and was sprouts are used as withes; the wood when pastor successively at Newtown and Litchfield, mature is much preferred for making axles of till in 1836 he was elected professor of theol- wagons. Its fruit is variable in size and form, ogy in the Western Reserve college, O., where and is abundant, but of a disagreeable taste. he remained 8 years. In 1844 he became pro- The small-fruited hickory (C. microcarpa, Nutt.) fessor in the Auburn theological seminary, and grows in the moist woodlands of Pennsylvania in 1852 removed to Schenectady, N. Y., where and southward, and its trunk rises to the height he was appointed to the professorship of men- of 60 to 80 feet; its fruit is small, but eatable. tal and moral science, together with the office The mocker-nut hickory (C. tomentosa, Nutt.) of vice-president, in Union college. His pub- is a fine stately tree, with an erect trunk, formlications, beside various occasional sermons ing at the summit a graceful pyramidal head and addresses, and contributions to the “ Chris- of a few moderate sized branches. It is sometian Spectator,” “Biblical Repository," and times called white-heart hickory, although the “ Bibliotheca Sacra," are: “Rational Psycholo- wood in the old trees does not differ in color gy" (8vo., Auburn, 1848); “Moral Science" from that of the other kinds. Its sap is of (Schenectady, 1853), treating of our duties to sirup-like sweetness, and is very abundant in God, and mankind under the head of pure early summer. There are several varieties of morality, and of civil, divine, and family gov- the species, of which the most remarkable is the ernment under that of positive authority; "Em- C. t. maxima (Nutt.), bearing fruit as large as pirical Psychology, or the Human Mind as Given an apple, with a very thick husk. Michaux as- • in Consciousness" (1854); and “Rational Cos. serts that it is slow of growth, and that the mology" (New York, 1858), in which he at- wood is liable to the attacks of worms, and is tempts to demonstrate a priori the laws of the least worthy of cultivation. The mockerthe universe.
nut hickory has a wide distribution, being HICKORY (carya, Nuttall), the common found in New England as well as in the middle name of several species of timber trees, with states. The shell-bark or shag-bark hickory large compound leaves, having from 5 to 15, but (C. alba, Nutt.) is easily distinguishable by its usually not more than 11 leaflets. The hickories shaggy bark, its excellent fruit, and its ovate, belong to the natural order of juglandacea, an balf-covered leaf buds. The shag-bark is a order consisting chiefly of these and of the wal- stately tree, rising to about 60 to 80 feet. Its nuts, valuable for their wood and some of them branches are irregular and scattered; but when for their fruits. The flowers of the hickory are growing singly in open space, the tree attains of 2 kinds: sterile, which are borne in compound much beauty and gracefulness. The delicious catkins, each principal catkin having 2 oppo- flavor of its fruit is not surpassed by any foreign
mut, Large quantities of the nuts, brought from painting in his 15th year, and in 1838, after districts where the species grows best, are read- copying the casts in the Pennsylvania academy ily disposed of in the markets; and the logs and of fine arts, entered the life and antique schools larger branches are among the best materials of the national academy of design in New York, for fuel. In the woods of Pennsylvania and to whose annual exhibition in 1841 he contribo westward to Illinois and Kentucky, the thick- uted a picture of the “Death of Abel.” For shelled hickory (C. sulcata, Nutt.) is found, hav- several years he painted portraits and compoing nuts nearly as sweet as those of the shag- sitions, and in 1845 departed for Europe, where bark. The pecan hickory (C.oliveformis, Nutt.) he remained during the next 4 years. Estabis a more western and southern species, extends lishing himself in Rome in the autumn of 1845, ing in its natural growth from Illinois to Louis- le painted, among other works, a half-length iana. The tree is of slender growth, and the figure called “Italia," for Mr. William H. Åpqualities of its fruit are well known. The nut- pleton of New York. In the succeeding spring, meg-fruited hickory (C. myristico formis, Nutt.) on the last night of the carnival, he was stabbed was first described by Michaux from a branch in the back with a stiletto while crossing the and some nuts given him at Charleston, S. O. Piazza Colonna in a dense crowd, and lay for The fruit is described as very small, smooth, and many weeks in a critical condition. After a brown, streaked with white, and strongly re- protracted residence in Italy, during which he sembling a nutineg; the kernel is of little size or executed many cabinet pictures, portraits, and value. · Elliott says that he was unable to meet copies of the old masters, he repaired in June, with it in his researches, although he made many 1848, to Paris, and after the revolutionary outattempts; the specimen in question was perhaps break of that month harbored two insurgents in a mere garden variety. Other species are men- his studio, and assisted them to escape from tioned, but on no authentic information.
France. He studied under Couture in Paris, HIOKORY, a S. W. co. of Mo., intersected where he remained about a year, and after 8 by the Pomme de Terre river, a tributary of the brief residence in England returned to New Osage; area, 408 sq. m.; pop. in 1856, 3,312, of York, of which city he is now a resident. He whom 206 were slaves. It has a moderately has since devoted himself principally to portrait uneven surface, covered in some places by a painting, but has occasionally produced landgood growth of timber, and a rich soil. The scapes and figure pieces. His last prominent productions in 1850 were 79,212 bushels of In- portrait is that of Dr. Kane in the cabin of the dian corn, 4,278 of wheat, 28,212 of oats, 6,048 Advance, and he is now engaged upon a large lbs. of wool, and 542 tons of hay. There were picture of the contemporaneous authors of Amer2 saw mills, 1 grist mill, 4 churches, and 186 ica, in which the figures are of life size. papils in public schools. Capital, Hermitage. HIDALGO, a S. co. of Texas, separated from
HICKS, Elias, an American preacher of the Mexico by the Rio Grande, and drained by Palo society of Friends, born in Hempstead, L. I., Blanco and other small streams; area, 2,300 sq. March 19, 1748, died in Jericho, L. I., Feb. 27, m.; pop. not given in the latest state retorns. 1830. While a youth he manifested a talent It has a level surface, covered in many places for public speaking, and at the age of 27 was a with mezquite and chapparal, and a productive well known preacher. For many years he la- soil. It was formed from part of Cameron co. bored zealously in advancing the generally ac- in 1852. Capital, Edinburg. cepted doctrines of the Friends; but having as HIDALGO, a word applied in Spain to every he believed discovered errors in these tenets, noble man or woman, but strictly the title of he put forth views of his own which he defend the lowest order of nobility, constituting the ed with energy and ability. To advance these hidalguia. Some writers derive the word from views he travelled extensively in the United hijo del Goto, the son of a Goth, such descent States and in the British provinces, attracting being held in Spain to imply greater purity of large congregations by his oratory. The result blood than when intermixed; others from hijo was a schism in the body of Friends; those ad- de alguno, son of somebody. Hidalgos are dihering to the old doctrines being specially term- vided into hidalgos de naturaleza, deriving their ed orthodox, while the followers of Hicks were privileges from their ancestors, and hidalgos de called after him Hicksites. (See FRIENDS.) He privilegio, who have purchased their rank, or preserved his intellectual vigor till late in life, obtained it by court favor instead of descent, visiting when 80 years of age New Jersey, and are in this respect on an equality with simPennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, and the ple caballeros and escuderos, or knights and northern and western parts of New York. His squires. A hidalgo de bragueta was one supposed theological writings were principally in an to possess the privileges of nobility from being epistolary form.-See “Elias Hicks, Journal of the father of 7 sons without an intervening fehis Life and Labors” (Philadelphin, 1828), and male child; and a hidalgo de gotero was one his “Sermons" (1828).
who enjoyed the rights of nobility in one place HIOKS, THOMAS, an American painter, born alone. The privileges of the hidalgos were in Newtown, Bucks co., Penn., Oct. 18, 1823. abolished by the introduction of the constituHe is a descendant of the preceding, and was tional system. In Portugal the word fidalguia educated in conformity with the principles of embraces all the nobility under the common the society of Friends. He attempted portrait denomination of fidalgos.
HIDALGO Y COSTILLA, Don MIGUEL, the skins. Ox hides, which may be considered as infirst leader in the Mexican war of indepen- cluding all the skins of the bovine kind designed dence, born in South America in the latter part for leather, and horse hides also, are articles of of the 18th century, shot at Chihuahua, Mexico, large export from South American countries. July 27, 1811. He was a priest, and in earlier California also has furnished great quantities of life was simply & man of great acquirements, them. The animals from which they are princiwho was anxious to promote industry in Mexico, pally obtained roam in vast herds over the extenand who was noted for the conscientious ful- sive llanos and pampas, the property of the esfilment of his ecclesiastical functions. He is said tates upon which they may be found. They are to have introduced the silkworm into Mexico, lassoed and slaughtered only for the hides, and and did much to promote the culture of the vine. these are immediately dried in the sun and salted This conflicted with the policy of the Spanish for exportation. Those obtained in the tropics government, which was to discourage all manu- do not make so good leather as the hides of factures or agriculture which could interfere temperate latitudes. The hides of wild horses with the revenue, and the vines which Hidalgo are said to be of better quality than those of had planted were destroyed. This drove him the worn-out domestic animals. The East to rebellion. Possessing much influence among Indies also supply a large portion of the hides the Indians, he formed the plan of a general in of commerce, especially to the English market. surrection, which was to take place Nov. 1, They are also obtained from the West Indies, 1810; but the plot having been disclosed by the Cape of Good Hope, from Holland, and one of the conspirators, some of his party were the countries up the Mediterranean. The skins arrested, and he was obliged to precipitate his of domestic animals add to the supplies, and, movements. On Sept. 10, having been joined under the name of green hides, are rated as of by 3 officers of the garrison of Guanajuato, he higher value than the dry or salted foreign hides; raised the standard of revolt. His eloquence yet the latter, weight for weight, will produce had a remarkable effect on the multitudo who inuch more leather, on account of the water heard him, and when after his oration he un- contained in the former, which, however, refurled a rude copy of the picture of Our Lady quire less labor in their treatment. The heaviof Guadalupe, the patroness of Mexico, the war est hides, and those which make the best sole assumed the character of a crusade. On Sept. leather, are the skins of the largest oxen. Those 29, with an army of 20,000 men, mostly In- of the bull are thickest about the neck and parts dians, be captured Guanajuato, on which occa- of the belly, but in the back they are inferior in sion the greatest outrages were comunitted, and thickness and in fineness of grain to the hides $5,000,000 plundered. He took Valladolid and of oxen, or even of cows and heifers. But hides several small places, and soon after was pro- differ much in quality even when obtained from claimed generalissimo of the Mexican army, and animals resembling each other in size and in advanced against Mexico; but finding himself other respects, and their relative excellence canalmost without ammunition, he was obliged to not always be determined on examination. The retreat. During this war the government party best are made into the heavy leather used for declared that the ordinary rules of warfare need the best trunks, soles of shoes, belts for manot be observed as regarded the insurgents, chinery, harness, and other purposes. The while the latter retaliated with the most hor- lighter qualities serve for the uppers of common rible atrocities. On one occasion Hidalgo is boots and shoes, and some are employed in said to have massacred 700 prisoners because European countries without tanning for coverthey were Europeans. After several defeats ing trunks. Kips and the skins of calves make the insurgents were left at Saltillo under charge the best leather for the uppers of fine boots and of Rayon, while Hidalgo and others went to the shoes. Horse hides are inferior in thickness United States to obtain arms and military aid. and strength, and only the best will serve even On the way they were captured by a former for uppers. They are split or shaved for tho friend, and finally shot in Chihuahua. They thin enamelled leather used for ladies' shoes, and died bravely, Hidalgo persisting to the last in are made into the white material called lace his conviction that the knell of the Spanish leather, which is used for thongs, for lacing rule had been sounded; that though the viceroy belts, and various other purposes. The hides might resist, the end would come." He was of mules and asses are tanned to make the after his death regarded as a saint by the people, leather called shagreen, which is used for scaband within a few years the place of his execution bards, and formerly for cases for various instruwas shown to travellers as a holy spot.
ments. The hides of the hippopotamus are exHIDES, in commerce, the skins of some of ported in small numbers from southern Africa the larger animals, which are especially adapted to be tanned for making the beetling implements for the roanufacture of leather, and which are used in washing and bleaching cotton and linen also a source of glue. The term is applied chiefly goods.-Hides were an important article of to those of cattle, the horse, and the hippopota- trade with the ancient Egyptians, being largely mus, and of the buffalo when intended for tan- imported from foreign countries and received as ning. The skins of young cattle are distinguished tribute from the conquered tribes. In the paintas kips, and those of the deer, sheep, goat, seal, ings on the walls of the tombs at Thebes, skins &c., even though intended for leather, are called of the leopard, fox, and other animals are seen