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laid before the throne of a Pharaoh, together mentation of farinaceous meals, the hides being with gold, silver, ivory, rare woods, and various soaked in & succession of several vats in which productions of vanquished countries. They ex- this fermentation is going on. Hides are also hibited great skill in their methods of curing in some parts of Europe laid in piles and allowed the hides, as well as of tanning and working the to begin to putrefy, great care being taken to leather into various useful and ornamental ar- stop the process as soon as the hair becomes ticles.-Hides are prepared for tanning by sub- ready to separate. The process is called sweatjecting them to a process of cleansing to remove ing. In France they have also been subjected the particles of flesh adhering to them, and also to the action of steam in a chamber, the temthe salt used in curing them, which in the for- perature of which is not allowed to exceed 80°. eign hides may average 15 lbs. for each one. By these processes the hides lose about of their The hairs are also to be removed by a subse weight. In the American plan, which is in quent process of depilation. For the cleansing general use in the northern states, the object they are soaked in soft water for a longer or is more effectually obtained with much less shorter time as may be required, and the tiine and labor, and with no risk of injury to the leather, labor attending the operation are shortened and while the loss in weight is but to $. The hides the risk of putrefaction avoided by the use of a are suspended in a cool vault, protected like an swiftly running stream. The power of ma- ice house against the entrance of warm air, and chinery is sometimes applied to lessen the labor furnished with a covered channel way that anof tramping and handling the hides, by which swers both as a drain and a conduit for cool they are beaten as in the operation of felting damp air. Cool spring water is conveyed into cloth. To remove the hair different processes are the vault, falling around its sides in spray. The in use. As practised by the ancient Egyptians, hides are thus kept in a mist, the temperature it is supposed to have been effected by the juice of which is maintained at 44° to 56°; and in 6 to of some plant, probably the periploca secamone, 12 days they are found to be freed from all exwhich the Arabs now employ for this purpose. traneous matter without loss of or injury to the The skins are first left for 3 days in flour and albumen, gelatine, and fibrine of the skin. No salt, and, the fat and impurities being removed fermentation has taken place, but the epidermis from the inner side, this is washed over with with the roots of the hair has been distended the acrid milky juice of the plant, extracted by and removed by the swelling action of the cold bruising the stalks between stones, and mixed vapor absorbed. After the process of raising or with water. This causes the hair to fall off swelling the texture, to which the hides intend. in the course of a day. In modern times the ed for pliable leather are subjected, they are practice has long been to soak the heavy ready for the operation of tanning, by which hides for months in vats containing lime water, they are converted into leather. For the further passing them from one to another of greater treatment of hides, see CURRYING, and LEATHER. strength than the first. The hair at last can be --The imports of hides and skins into the United easily removed together with the epidermis by States in the year ending June 30, 1858, were the two-handed scraping knife rubbed over it, chiefly from Venezuela, Buenos Ayres, Brazil, as the hide is laid flesh side down on the bench and Calcutta, and were valued at $9,884,358. made for this use. The fleshy substances on the The greater part came to New York and Boston. other side are then scraped off, and these are About $1,250,000 worth were reëxported, chiefly employed, like the head, cheeks, and other parts to Belgium and the Danish West Indies. Ameriof the hide which are unsuitable for leather, in can hides were exported to Canada, France, and the manufacture of glue. Machines have been England, to the amount of about $900,000. The adopted in large establishments for facilitating following table of the operations of the New the scraping operation. The lime that remains York hide market for the year 1858 is from the in the pores of the skin has to be removed by trade circular of Mr. M. D. Hull, Dec. 31, 1858: an operation called bating, which consists in Stock of hides on hand. Jan. 1. 1868 ..... soaking the hides in a bath of some solution Imports, foreign and domestic, for the year ....... 1,902,000 containing an element, as chlorine, that will form City and country slaughters not appearing in imports 250,00 a soluble compound with the lime. The prep- Total supply for the year ........... arations that have been in use for this purpose Taken for kip and upper leather purposes 250,000

“ for enamelled and patent leather.. 100,000 are generally empirical, and sometimes com

# by western and Canadian tanners.. 100,000 posed of disgusting excrementary materials, the " by neighboring cities (sole leather presence of which must tend to induce putre- Stock

hides) ...................

- Stock in hand this date.... faction. Hydrochloric acid has been advantageously substituted, and sugar or molasses is Entered into consumption for sole leather purposes found to be suitable from its property of form

by the New York trade during the year..... 1,871,00 ing a soluble saccharate with the lime. The acid HIERAPOLIS (Gr., sacred city). I. A city serves also to swell or raise the texture of the of Phrygia, between the rivers Lycus and N2hides, which is necessary to prepare them to com- ander, celebrated for its warm springs and... bine with the tannin. İnstead of using line as a cave Plutonium, from which arose a mephitie depilatory, weak acids are often employed with vapor which was poisonous to all but the priests good effect. Even sour milk is found a good of Oybele. It was the seat of a Christian church application, and acetic acid generated in the fer- in the time of St. Paul, who mentions it in his



......... 150,000

.... 50,000- 650,000

epistle to the Colossians (iv, 13). Its ruins, of letters, viz., the sacred, reserved to themwith stalactites and incrustations formed by its selves, and the Onuwdn, which are learned by all warm springs, are found at an unoccupied place persons. Clement of Alexandria (Etpwpateis, called Bambuk-Kalessi. It was the birthplace vi. 4) mentions three kinds of letters, viz.: iepaof Epictetus the philosopher. II. A city in τικα, ιερογλυφικα, and επιστολογραφικα, and gives Syria, called Bambyce by the early natives, one two kinds of the second: 1, the KupLoOyika of the chief seats of the worship of Astarte or (properly pronounced), “according to the first Ashtoreth, and a great emporium under the elements," representing the figure of the object Seleucidæ. Its site, first discovered by Maun- the first sound of whose name is pronounced; drell, is marked by Turkish, Greek, and Syriac 2, the ovußodika, which are of three sorts: a remains.

pronounced rightly by imitation, that is to say, HIERO. I. A Syracusan tyrant, who succeed- representing the object by a symbol; b, troped his brother Gelon, 478 B. C., died in Catana ically written; C, allegorized, or interpreted by in 467. After having made peace with his enigmas. The Hieroglyphica of Horapollo Nibrother Polyzelus and Theron of Agrigentum, lous (edited in Greek and Latin by O. de Pauw, with whom he had been at variance, he turned Utrecht, 1727, and by A.T. Corey, London, 1840). his attention to foreign conquest. In Sicily he written in Egyptian and translated into Greek made himself master of Naxos and Catana, by Philippus, a work of no great antiquity, whose inhabitants he transferred to Leontini, explains 189 symbols, most of them in a doubtwhile he repeopled those cities with colonists ful manner; for instance, the number 1095 as of Dorian origin. In Italy he prevented the indicative of silence. Tacitus (Annales, ii. 60) destruction of Locri by threatening its enemy relates that structis molibus litteræ Ægyptio Anaxilas with war, and subsequently effect- were interpreted to Germanicus at Thebes by ed the expulsion of the tyrant Micythus from an old priest. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks Rhegium. But the most glorious event of his of several obelisks at Rome, and gives a part of reign was his great victory over the Etruscan the translation of the inscription on that erected fleet near Cumæ, 474 B. O. He was a liberal under Augustus, in the great circus, which was patron of poets and philosophers. His triumphs made by Hermapion, an Egyptian priest. He at the Olympian and Pythian games are cel- also states that the ancient Egyptians wrote letebrated in the odes of Pindar. II. A Syra- ters instead of words, and sometimes instead of cusan monarch, son of Hierocles, born about phrases. A few notices concerning hieroglyphics 307 B. O., died about 216. He was raised to are found in Plutarch's “Isis and Osiris." Porthe throne by the suffrages of his fellow citizens phyry asserts that Pythagoras learned the three in 270. His great object appears to have been kinds of writing from the priests, the epistolathe expulsion of the Mamertines from Sicily; ry, hieroglyphic, and symbolic. After Young's and when the Romans took that people under discoveries had been matured, the symbolism their protection, he allied himself with the of 19 hieroglyphics (derived from Chæremon's Carthaginians, who had just arrived in Sicily lost work on them) was found by Birch in the with a mighty force. The combined armies of commentary of Tzetzes on the Iliad. The Prothe Carthaginians and Syracusans then proceed- dromus Coptus (1636) of Athanasius Kircher ed to lay siege to Messana ; but Hiero, having attempted to explain every thing in a mystical, been attacked and defeated by Appius Claudius, metaphysical, cabalistic way, without guessing the Roman consul, was panic-struck, and re- any thing rightly, deriving the Greek from treated precipitately to Syracuse. Soon after Egyptian. De Guignes senior tried to prove this disaster, seeing his territory laid waste by that the Egyptian epistolary, hieroglyphic, the Romans, and many of his cities in their pos- and symbolic characters are found in those of session, he deemed it prudent to abandon the the Chinese, and that the latter were a colony Carthaginian alliance, and concluded a treaty from Egypt. Koch, Tentamen Enucleationis with the Romans by which he secured to him. Hieroglyphicorum quorandum Nummorum (St. self the whole S. E. and E. of Sicily as far as Petersburg, 1788–9), believed that he had found Tauromenium. From this period till his death five alphabets on the coins of Hasmonein, on Hiero remained the steady friend of the Romans, the images of Isis, and on a sphinx. George and when he visited Rome was received with Zoëga, a learned Dane, wrote an excellent work, the highest honors.

De Obeliscis Roma (1797), and De Origine et HIEROGLYPHICS (Gr. lepos, sacred, and Usu Obeliscorum. Aided by a knowledge of yavdw, to carve), the monumental inscriptions Coptic, and a good collection of later Greek of the ancient Egyptians (SCHI N Mut NuTer, writers, he distinguished mere figures from real writing of language divine). They are also found hieroglyphs, determined their number, asserted written on a reduced scale in colors on gar- that the elliptic rings (cartouches) contain proper ments, tools, and papyri. Herodotus ii. 36) names, as Barthélemy had suspected, and first gives us the earliest information concerning applied the term phonetic to hieroglyphs, althem in stating that the Egyptians write from though he yet believed, with Ammianus, that right to left, and employ two kinds of ypaypara letters might denote words. Zoëga's disquisior letters, namely, the holy, iepa, and the popu- tions were repeated by James Bailey, Hierolar, onuotika. Diodorus Siculus (i. 81, and ii. 3) glyphicorum Origo et Natura (Cambridge, writes that the priests teach their sons two kinds 1816), but he denies the congruence of the Greek

VOL. IX.-11

text on the Rosetta stone with the hieroglyphic, lieved all hieroglyphs to be ideogrammatic, exwhere he supposes that the priests wrote, in cept in proper names. Thus he thought that a their own favor, something else than what the hammer denoted God, and a man pouring out Greek contained.—A bright period dawned on froin a vessel, a priest. He suspected syllables Egyptology with the discovery of the Rosetta in the enchorial characters, but had no idea of stone by Bouchard (1799), while digging in the homophonous characters or of a satisfactory fort of St. Julian. W. R. Hamilton, the author alphabet, although he had (1816) agreed with of Ægyptiaca, sent it to England (1802), after the French commission that the demotic text its inscriptions had been printed at Cairo. It of Rosetta was alphabetic, and although he is of black basaltoid granite, a parallelogram in afterward (1823) claimed the discovery of an shape, originally rounded at the top. It con- alphabet. Out of 20 rings or shields he read tains three inscriptions: the highest in hiero- but two rightly, and explained out of the 13 glyphics, of which the 14 remaining lines are all signs in Ptolemy and Berenice only three exsomewhat mutilated on the right, and 12 also actly and approximately. His labors are also on the left; the middle one in demotic charac- recorded in the “Hieroglyphics of the Egypters, in 32 lines, of which 15 are mutilated on tian Society," and in his letters to De Sacy (1814 the right; and the lowest in Greek of 54 lines, -'15), to Archduke Jolin (1821), in the suppleof which the lowest 27 are injured on the right. ment to the “Encyclopædia Britannica," vol. The first two inscriptions are in the Egyptian iv. (1819), and, after his death, in an appen. language, and versions of the original Greek dix to Tattam's “Egyptian Grammar," and composition, which is a decree of the guild of in the “Rudiments of an Egyptian Dictionthe priests of Memphis, in honor of Ptolemy ary" (London, 1830).-J. F. Champollion pubEpiphanes (March 29, 195 B, C.) after his vic- lished L'Égypte sous les Pharaons (Paris, 1814), tory over the Ætolian rebels. Heyne and Por- and was, independently of his own genius, led son restored and elucidated the Greek text. into the right path both by the successes of Sylvestre de Sacy (1802) distinguished the Akerblad and Young, and by hints derived from demotic groups corresponding to the names of Cailliaud, who had delineated a Greek inscripPtolemy, Arsinoë, and Alexander. Akerblad, tion on the base of a small obelisk at Pbilæ, that a Swede (1802), well versed in Coptic, analyzed had been dug out in 1815 by William Banks, who the above and 13 other names and words of the set it upin 1821 at Kingston hall, Devonshire, and demotic (eyxwpın) text, such as Chemi, Egypt, sent copies of it to all Egyptologists, with the phuro, king, ueb, priest; found the charac- notation of 5 letters (ptole and le op t) in ters denoting 1, 2, 3; made out an alphabet of the names of Ptolemy Euergetes II. and of two 16 characters; but he did not suspect the sym- Cleopatras, one his sister, the other his wise. bolic signs, or the omission of the medial vowels, Champollion says in his work De l'écriture hiwhile believing the enchorial to be hieratic. ératique (1821) that the hieroglyphs are symSeveral memoirs and plates in the great Descrip- bolic and not alphabetic; but be both correets tion de l'Égypte pendant l'expédition de l'armée himself and acknowledges Young's merits in the Française (Paris, 1809–43) treat merely the Lettre d Dacier (1822), in which he reads Ptolmaterial part of the inscriptions, distinguish emy and some other names rightly. He pubthem from the scenic figures, notice some sym- lished Panthéon Égyptien (1823), and Précis du bols mentioned by Greek writers, and give two système hiéroglyphique (1824), in which be good copies of the Rosetta stone; but they con- teaches that the phonetic characters are true tain many errors as to astronomical representa- letters expressive of the sounds of the language; tions and as to the age of the monuments. that all methods of writing, even in common Dr. Thomas Young made a conjectural transla- words, consist of both ideograms and phonograms, tion of the Rosetta inscription (published by which latter constitute about 4 of the characBoughton in the “Transactions of the Antiqua- ters in all hieroglyphic texts; and that the anrian Society," May, 1815; revised in the Muse- cient language was essentially the same with um Criticum, Cambridge, 1815). Young studied the Coptic. He enriched and improved Akerthe Coptic, and proceeded in a mathematical blad's alphabet, read about 50 names of Cæsars manner to compare the various texts and groups and kings, without being able to decipher all of characters, though without deep philological the name shields, recognized many homophong explorations. He employed Akerblad's alphabet (characters of things whose names begin with in deciphering the contents of the rings, which the same sound), and determined rightly most of he believed to be the names of various kings, in the grammatical forms, but neglected the study the manner of the Chinese. He distinguished of the demotic graphic system. Having passed about 100 characters, 50 groups of words, and 16 months in Egypt and Nubia, with Salvador 150 corresponding to Greek words; explained Cherubini, who made many drawings, he wrote several of them rightly ; discovered the numeral his Grammaire Egyptienne, published at the er signs of 1, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000, from en- pense of the French government (1836_'41), and chorial bills of sale and receipts; distinguished Dictionnaire Égyptien (1844).-Sickler, who later the enchorial from the hieratic method, de- wrote (1819–22) on the hieroglyphics in the riving both from the hieroglyphs, and arranged myth of Æsculapius, and on the sacred languaga them (1823). He found no Rosettan hieroglyphs of the priests, fancied that all hieroglyphs were in the so called "Book of the Dead," and be paronomastic (rebus-like, as, for instance, tho images of a bridge and of a man for the name of fu (1855); and Königsbuch der alten Aegypter Bridgeman); but, being ignorant of Coptic, he (1858). He has modified the views of ChamSemiticizes every thing. J. G. L. Kosegarten, pollion; discovered 11 characters, and distribBemerkungen über den Aegyptischen Text eines uted 34 among 15 sounds of the Égyptian lanPapyrus, &c. (Greifswalde, 1824), discovered guage; showed that certain figures were chosen several grammatic forms and the names of in certain places on account of symmetry in the several Ptolemies. Heeren suspected the pho- inscriptions; distinguished more clearly the annetic nature of the hieratic writing. Julius cient characters from those that were employed Klaproth, a violent opponent of Champollion, later; and shown the analogy by examples, for follows Horapollo in his Lettre sur la découverte instance CLEOPATRA written thus: Keli. des hiéroglyphes acrologiques (Paris, 1827); he knee; Laboi, lion; Eake, reed-leaf; a flower says that each bieroglyph denotes all Coptic for 0; a square for P; Achom, eagle; Tot, words commencing with the sound of the name hand; Ro, mouth; and Achom-(0 and P with of the depicted object; thus: mur, rope, denotes ont corresponding Coptic words). He also also mei, love; mulaj, owl, denotes also mu, shows that there were characters of mixed eledeath; af, fly, also anoni, impudence, &c. Gu- ments, both phonetic and symbolic. M. G. lianoff, in his Recherches sur l'expression des Schwarze, Das alte Aegypten (Berlin, 1843), ensignes hiéroglyphiques (Leipsic, 1839), believes deavored to evolve Champollion's system gethat they originated from the demotic and hier- netically, although he had little faith in a perfect atic, with the aim of concealing the ineaning of understanding of the hieroglyphs. (See COPTIO the inscriptions. Janeli, of Naples, in his Fun- LANGUAGE.) Chr. O.J. Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle damenta Hermeneutica Hieroglyphice Criticae in der Weltgeschichte (Hamburg, 1845, and GoVeterum Gentium, and Tabulae Rosettanæ Hiero- tha, 1857), is an admirer of Lepsius, and englyphicae et Centuria Sinogrammatum Poly- deavors with great effort to establish a theory graphicorum Interpretatio per Lexeographiam of his own on the development of man's histoTemurico-Semiticam (Naples, 1830), considers ry, in a mystic and metaphysical way. He furthe hieroglyphs, sphenograms, sinograms, and nishes a grammar and various lists of Egyptian the Etruscan, Oscan, and Runic writings as a words.-A school of a method different from mystical system. Rosellini, a disciple of Cham- that of Champollion was inaugurated by Fr. pollion, who examined with him many monu- A. Spohn's work, Veber Hieroglyphen und ihre ments at Turin and elsewhere in Italy (1825–6), Deutung und über die Sprache der alten Aegypwrote Sistema geroglifico del Sig. Champollion il ter (Leipsic, 1820), in which he asserts that minore (Pisa, 1825), and Tributo di riconoscenza both the hieratic and demotic styles are altoe d'amore alla onorata memoria di G. F. Cham- gether phonetic, and that the hieroglyphs alone pollion (1832); he was sent to Egypt by the are symbolic images. Gustav Seyffarth (who grand duke of Tuscany in 1828, and published since 1856 has resided in the United States) Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia: 1. storici; edited Spohn's De Lingua et Literis Veterum II. civili, i del culto (1843). Salvolini, another Ægyptorum (Leipsic, 1825–'31), and has dedisciple of Champollion, accused of having used veloped his own views on a great variety of the papers of his master for his own purposes, topics in many works and in many articles wrote Lettre à l'abbé Gazzera, &c. (Paris, 1832), scattered through periodicals. The most promexamined the hieratic text of Sallier's pa- ident of them are: Bemerkungen über einen pyrus, from which he drew his Campagne de ägyptischen Papyrus, &c. (1826); Rudimenta Rhamses le Grand (Se-Sothis, son of Sothis or Hieroglyphorum (1826); Brevis Defensio HieSesostris, about 1400) (1831-5); and Analyse roglyphices Incenta a Spohn et Seyffarth grammaticale raisonnée de différents textes Égyp- (1827); Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Literatur, tiens : vol. i., Texte hiéroglyphique et démotique Kunst, &c., der alten Aegypter (very mystical de la pierre de Rosette, &c. (1836). This was the and dogmatic, occasioned by a passage of Chwfirst phonetic elucidation of the Rosetta stone. remon, in Iamblichus de Mysteriis Ægyptiacis He explains 100 characters of Champollion and (1838); Alphabeta Genuina, &c. (1840); a as many of his own, but without much philolo- syllabary sent to prominent Egyptologists, and gical profundity. Richard Lepsius, the most saga- Grammatica Ægyptiaca (Gotha, 1855); on the cious, learned, and diligent of Champollionists, "Fable of Abydos,” edited by Burton, Cairo, employs the scrutiny of writing as an efficacious 1827 (1846); Theologischen Schriften der almeans of scrutinizing languages. He has pub- ten Aegypter nach dem Turiner Papyrus zum lished Lettre d Rosellini sur l'alphabet hiéro- ersten Male übersetzt (1855), &c. Seyffarth glyphique (Paris, 1837); Das Todtenbuch der has repeatedly altered his views, and has put alten Aegypter nach dem hieroglyphischen Papy- forth many theories, as for instance that the rus zu Turin (arranged by Seyffarth, and wrong- demotic style was originally like the Phonily called rituel funéraire by Champollion); cian, and that the hieroglyphics were but calliAuswahl ägyptischer Urkunden (Leipsic, 1842), graphic modifications of the hieratic. He has after his return from Egypt and Ethiopia, taught that all hieroglyphics are phonetic, both whither he had been sent by the king of Prus- alphabetic and syllabic; that the ancient form sia in 1842; Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethic of the Coptic was their language, whereas Chamopien (1842–5), and Briefe (Berlin, 1852); Veber pollion insists on the modern Coptic. He also eine hieroglyphische Inschrift am Tempel zu Ed- claims the doctrine of homongeneity of assonance and of syllabism as his own. Dr. Max A. Uhle- was the last period of beantiful hieroglyphmann founds a system on Seyffarth's principles, ics; it was followed by demotic bilinguals (anwith whom he disagrees in some things, and has cient and demotic, or MuT SHAI, language of) written a great number of exegetical and contro- books), for daily use in contracts and sales, as versial works. He uses the Hebrew in the inter- found at Thebes. Manetho (Ma-n-Thoth, given pretation of certain cases, where no Coptic equiv- by Thoth, 280 B. O.), a learned priest of Sebenalent can be found. The most recent Champol- nytos, calls the ancient letters iepoypaoika. The lionist, who also especially treats of the demotic demotic, SCHI ReMeN KeMi (writing men of style (after the few hints by De Sacy, Akerblad, Egypt) was in use before Herodotus visited Young, and Spohn), is Henry Brugsch, a pupil Egypt, as early as 665, during the reign of of Passalacqua, and a voluminous writer. He Psammetichus, and lasted down to A. D. 300. has explained more than 100 new demotic char The Coptic commenced taking its place as early acters, and made many other discoveries. as the Ptolemies. (See COPTIO LANGUAGE.) Chainpollion distributes the hieroglyphics into Letronpe (1851) separates the demotic from the 8 classes: 1, the mimetic or figurative, express- Coptic at the close of the 4th century; but Le ing objects by their images; 2, the tropic, of 4 normant and J. H. Vincent prove their coexistkinds, expressing objects, a, by synecdoche, a ence for almost two centuries. Sprung from the part for the whole figure ; b, by metonymy, hieratic, the enchorial (demotic) from Psammetcause and effect mutually, as eye for sight, star- ichus to the Ptolemies (665-305) is found in ry sky for night; C, by metaphor, as bee for contracts which are now in Turin. Its later king, lion for superiority; d, by enigma, as osmonuments in the most elegant form, under the trich feather for justice, palm twig for year; 3, Romans, are at Leyden, in Gnostic papyri with the phonetic, of more frequent occurrence than Greek between the lines. Ideograms are found the others. Lepsius establishes four classes: 1, in both the hieratic and demotic styles. Sculpideograms, subdivided into figurative and sym- tured or painted hieroglyphics are to be distinbolic or tropic; 2, phonograms, either alphabetic guished from linear ones, which are their abbreor more amplified (with syllables) under the viation. The original figurative hieroglyphics Romans; 8, intermediary (mixed) or condition- lack that elegance which is admired in the monual phonograms, that is, ideograms that became ments of Thebes. It would nevertheless be rain phonetic in certain words, either initial or in to search among them for traces of the infancy the second place; 4, determinatives, including of writing, as most edifices in Egypt belong to not only those of Champollion, but also his gram- a period of restoration in arts and civilization, matical signs which are not phonetic, as 11 to de- which had been interrupted by an invasion of note the dual, 111 the plural, &c. To these dis- barbarians (2000 B. C.).* Before that invasion tinctions he adds seven sources of information: the monuments may be called perfect; their 1, additional signs, as the image of writing ma- decadence, begun under Sesostris, continued terials near the figure of the scribe; 2, bilingual under Sabaco (736) and the Saītes (677-525; inscriptions; 3, variants in different copies of the 404-399), and advanced under the Lagides unsame text; 4, correspondence with Coptic words; til their end upder the Romans.--Champolion 5, phonetic complements to initial ideograms, as arranges all hieroglyphics under the following lyre (N), spake (F), and mouth (R),meaning nofre, 16 heads : celestial bodies, man, limbs of the good, while the lyre alone is the symbol of good; human body, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, 6, many phonograms under the Romans that had a few insects, plants, garments, furniture and been ideograms under the Pharaohs; 7, observa- arms, vessels, tools, buildings, geometric figures, tions in Diodorus, Plutarch (thus, that iri, eye, and monsters; they amount to 480 in Bunsen, with sceptre denoted Osiris; properly, Hes, but reach almost 900 if all variations be includthrone, tiri, eye), Clement, Eusebius, &c. The ed. They are found in relief or carved outlines, hieratic and demotic writing differ less from each or in relief on a depressed ground, each one other than do the respective idioms. Of the colored. Hieroglyphic texts are also traced in old language we find some words preserved in black or in red on the walls of tombs, and on a various authors; for instance, in Pliny: alabas- smaller scale on the covers of mummy cases, tritis, from al-ubash, stone-white; giris, iaro, stelas, &c. Three sorts of monumental writing ieor (Nile); seris, sares, a plant; in Plutarch: were used : sculptured without color, sculptured quevóns, amenti, infernal region; Memphis, man- and painted, or designed with color and painted. nufi, goods (of) port; gaipet, shairi, festival; The colors of the different objects were regulatXnuia, Chemi, Egypt; in Clement: apnedo- ed by rules. Linear hieroglyphics were abbro. vantai, erpe-nebet, servant (of) temple; in Hora- viations of the original natural images, a sort of pollo: bai, p-ahe, soul; baiēth, bait, hawk; ēth, skeletons. From the re-abbreviation of these het, heart; Noun, nun (abyss), Nile; Söthis, Si. arose the hieratic or priestly writing, a sort of rius (dog star); in Herodotus : Bapıs, bari, ship; short hand for recording events, scientific and Kalaoipus, garment; mipauis, pi-romi, the man; other data; and this method consisted of sex. Xauxai, p-emsuch, the crocodile; in Josephus: eral varieties, distinguished by greater or less ÚK-ows, king-shepherd, &c. This ancient lan- similarity to the prototype. Both full and linear guage flourished for 2,000 years. There are few hieroglyphics were disposed in several manners; stelas, or monumental stones, in both dialects, and in vertical columns downward, in horizontal the hieratic tacbygraphy arose later. The Saidic lines, and in both direotions, either from right

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