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to left or rice tersa; in every case always and arm (amschoir :); 1 for I, two reed leaves; observing the law of tasteful symmetry in the 3 for U, chicken, convolute line (also for F), and collocation of one figure alone or two or three a sort of noose; 1 for B, foot; 1 for P, square; figures together, so as to fill the lines. Hieratic 1 for F, snake; 3 for K, quadrant, basket (kot). writing ran always from right to left. In some and knee (ka); 2 for Ci guttural, sieve and funeral manuscripts we find hieroglyphics and lotus; 2 for H, chain and house plan; 3 for T, hieratics both used. Anaglyphs (engravings) semicircle, hand (tot), girdle, &c.; 3 for S, siphon were engraved or raised figures symbolic of as- (or back of a throne), bolt, and goose; 2 for tronomical and probably also of other objects. SCH, garden, and parallelogram with line withThe symbols used in chemistry are also of in; 4 for M, owl (mulaj), shuttle, sickle, and Egyptian origin.-We have already mentioned parallelogram with protruding horizontal lines; various opinions relative to the language of the 3 for N, wave-line (Nun, Nile), urn (ru), and hieroglyphics, and we shall now add a few ob- red (tescher) or lower crown; 2 for R and L, servations on the same subject. Quatremère mouth (re) and lioness (laboi, Coptic); beside demonstrates the independence of the Mut of 18 more for Coptic hissing sounds. As regards Ohem. Lepsius, insisting on the original identity the vowels e, o, and even a, i, U, they were of the Aryan or Indo-European, Semitic and Cop- mostly omitted, so that ambiguity of meaning tic families, yet allows to each its individuality. could only be avoided by the sense of the conSchwartze declares the last named to be anal- text; thus NB signifies lord (neb), or gold (nub). ogous to the Semitic by its grammar, and to the T final denotes the feminine gender ; thus : SN, Aryan by its roots. Benfey divides the Semitic brother, SNT, sister; SI, son, SIT, daughter, &c. family into two branches, separated by the isth- Brugsch tries to make out 25 consonants (8 mus of Suez, viz., the Asiatio and the African, more than in the Coptic), by the aid of Semitic adding to the Coptic all idioms of northern Africa. sounds. In his demotic scheme he gives for 17 According to Bunsen, the Egyptian language is sounds 42 characters (about 70 with all variea pre-historic deposit of Semitism, whose roots ties); for a 7, i 1, u 3, w 2, 0 (0) 1,6 (p) 2, m and forms are only explicable by Aryo-Semitic 2, n 2, 1 1, r 2, 3 (2) 3, t (d) 3, h 3, k (x) 4, ch 3, elements together. Rougé finds that the Egyp: 82, t (s) 1. To these he adds 46 syllabic signs tian resembles the Semitic in proportion to its for 35 syllables. Compound names were repreantiquity. Ewald protests against this Semito- sented by the image of the object with a symmania. The similarities in the personal pro- bolic character, as the signs for house and truth, nouns, in many vocables, especially numerals, denoting temple; or by a phonogram with the in the agglutination of accessory words, in the image, as show with face, denoting mirror; or assimilation of consonants, and in the instability by a phonogram with a symbol, as workman of vowels, can be explained by laws of logic and with gold, signifying goldsmith; or two phonoby mutual intercourse among the nations, with- grams. Obscurity of sense from the omission out recourse to the theory of identity. Egyptian of vowels was remedied by the addition of decivilization has nothing in common with that of terminative signs. These were images or sym. the Semitic nations; the physical traits of the bols joined with phonetic words, and were races are also distinct from each other. But either generio or specific; thus the determinathe method of suffixes to nouns and to verbs tive of names of animals was the image of a is also of Turanic (Allophylic, Tshudic, &c.) skin, of those of plants a leaf, &c.-We subcharacter. Chamitic (Egyptic) is, therefore, join a few particulars relative to the gramthe most proper epithet for the language of mar. Article : P (pa, pe, pi), Greek ó; T, Y; the hieroglyphics, which may be conveniently plural N, common gender. As a demonstragrouped with the non-Semitic tongues of Abys- tive it has the adjoined vowels ai or ei, and sinia, Nubia, and perhaps with the ancient Lib- when post-positive en, but plural APU. Exyan and Numidian or Berber. Several char amples : Pa PeTri Su TeN, the bow-bender acters were regularly used to denote the same (of the) king; Na NeB-U, the lords; Tai UNU, sound, and are called homophonous, many of this hour; eM MaU APU, in waters these. them for the purpose of artistic symmetry. Demonstrative with relative: Pui (pefi), he Their number was increased during the rule who; Tui, she who. Other pronouns: eNTi of the Lagides and Romans; Latopolis (Esneh) (of common gender), that which; K, other ; was thus written by 10 different groups, each SA, some; Neb, all, &c. Example : NeTeR of which contained the sign of city with the NB, NeTeRT NeBeNTi eM PeT, gods all, alphabetic signs SN. The Champollionists con- goddesses all that in heaven (are). Suffixes of tend that figurative, symbolic, and phonetic persons: 1st person, -I; 2d person, -K mascharacters occor mixed in all texts, the last pre- culine, -T feminine; 3d person, -F masculine, dominating ; while the Seyffarthists contend for -8 feminine; plural, 1st, -eN, 2d, -TeN, 3d, pure phonetism, both alphabetic and syllabic. -SeN, making possessives with the preceding Bunsen adds 120 symbolic characters, 120 pho- pronouns; thus: Pal, Gr. o uou, Germ, der nograms of all ages, 72 syllabic groups, and 50 meinige ; Tai Sen, ý autwy (she of them). Exmixed groups, to the above 460 iconic ideo- ample: U Rol, Magyar király-om (king-my); grams. Of Champollion's 260 phonograms of UROK, király-od (king-thy); UROT (queenall ages, the following are adopted as certain, thy), &c. So also in the conjugation of verbs : viz. : 3 for A, eagle (achom), reed leaf (achi), ANCHI, Latin vivo, Magyar él-ek; ANCH. ek, vid-is, masc., él-82, -et, fem. ; ANCH-eF, SHEB NTARASH (Darius) ANCH IA R masc., -es, fem., vid-it, &c. Duality was noted KeM-Ac sanctitas - 8 rege (regis) utriusque by doubling the character, or by two strokes ; (regionis) Darius sempiternus (jubet me ire) in plurality by trebling it, or by three strokes. Per- Ægyptum. Ra-MeN-TeR-Sol sertator mundi. sonal pronouns: ÁNOK, I; ANON, we; en N- URas SoR MU-MU-SOL SHe NOFR TEN Tok, masc., eNTA, fem., thou; eNTuTeN, you; Ka-PTa.Regnans potens magna-famæ qui ENTUF, he, eNTUS, she; en TeSeN, they. Com- beavit (regionem) Ai Gy PTao (land of Phtă, or parative and superlative were denoted by repe- because ó ALYUTTOS, the Nile, in Homer is Ai. tition of the name, or by eN, the sign of the ski-pe-tosh, makes-fertile-the-land). — The adgenitive, or by eHo Te, more than.—The nu- vantages resulting from the study of the Egypineral characters were only five, capable of indi- tian graphic methods are so pumerous and imcating all numbers, to wit: a line or post (Uot), portant for glossology, chronology, geography, 1; a sign like a horse shoe turned downward ethnology, for history in general and especially (Mel), 10; a convolute line, like the letter U that of useful and liberal arts, that it would or F(HaTi), 100; lotus (letter CH, Coptio scho, take us beyond our present liinits to expound or scha), 1,000; finger (TeBa), 10,000. Frac- them in detail. Indeed, the wonderful modutions were indicated as with us, only that the ments of the most ancient age of human activity line between the numerator and the denomina- would be mute or unintelligible witnesses, withtor was represented by the sign of mouth (Re, out the interpretation of their epigraphs. All which signifies also part, separated).—Of verbs, notices of ancient writers concerning Egypt there were five auxiliaries, viz.: 1, Pa (also an would but bewilder us, unless we possessed & article), as in Pa eM SeRIT UBESCI (Latin, Lydian stone in the pyramids and obelisks, Sunt ex granis albis ; that is, panes); 2, AU whereby to prove their veracity. Herodotus (hook): is AU TU-K MA-T, is voice-thy truth- would yet be considered a liar, had his truthfulshe; 3, AR (Latin, Or-ior) is, are : AŘ MeHI ness not been attested by the voice given out II eM APeF, are plumes two on head-his; 4, by lifeless stones. The lists of the Pharaohs in UNu, to exist ; 5, IRI, to do, to make (of later the relics of Manetho would also be worse than times). The negative Ne was represented by useless, unless they stood corroborated and in two repelling arms, sometimes with a sparrow some instances corrected by a comparison with on his back under them, thus : Ne Su TeN eN indubitable synchronic records beyond the reach KeMi IRI SA, no king of Egypt did so. The of perversion or interpolation. We thus pospresent tense (as above) sometimes had -Ku in- sess the most trustworthy data, by which not serted when used as imperfect, or aorist. The only what concerns Egypt, but also the history characteristic of the preterite is eN- The fu- of the Phænicians, Assyrians, Babylonians, ture is preceded by the conjunction AU, thus: Greeks, Hebrews, and Persians, is either reAU-A-R IRI, is I to(ward) do (analogous to the vealed, or illustrated or disproved in many of Italian sono per fare, I am about to do), &c.; its hitherto received particulars. The very the optative by MAI; the imperative by MA; methods of historio exegesis have undergone the infinitive by eR or other particles. The an essential alteration, in consequence of our active participle has eNT (he who) prefixed, or having obtained a certain material basis where- Ta suffixed; the passive voice, -u T or Tu. on to rear a temple of truth, against which In inscriptions the sole theme of the verb per- neither prejudice, pedantry, nor designed misforms all functions of conjugational accidents. representation can prevail. -See De Belestat, (See CHINESE LANGUAGE.)—The prepositions Discours sur les hiéroglyphes Égyptiens (Paris, are : eN, sign of genitive and ablative, also 1583); Rossi, Horø Ægyptiaca (Rome, 1808), through, by; HeM, in (place); eM, in, from, by an excellent work on the Egyptian language ; means of, to, &c.; eR, dative, toward, for; Pe J. Burton, Excerpta Hieroglyphica (fol., Cairo, (heaven), upon, up, on; HRa (face, Latin 1825-'8); Robiano, Études sur l'écriture hierocoram), on, to, with infinitive; KeR (box, stool), glyphique et la langue des Égyptiens (Paris, under, Lat. apud, &c.; CHR, toward, till, 1834); Ungarelli, Interpretatio Obeliscorum near; SCHA (measure), according, command; Urbis Romæ (1842); Letronne, Recueil des HNĂ, with, against; MA, instead of. Compound inscriptions Grecques et Latines de l'Egypte prepositions are found, as eN HRa Hel, Lat. (1842); Benfey, Verhaltniss der ägyptischen coram corde (in presence of the heart, in con- Sprache zu der Semitischen (Leipsic, 1844); De science); they are also found with the personal Saulcy, Analyse grammaticale du texte démotique suffixes, thus; R Ma-K, to stead-thy (to thee), de la pierre de Rosette (1845); Rougé, Memuar! &c. Adverbs and conjunctions from preposi- sur l'inscription du tombeau d'Ahmès, chef de tions : Ma, here; eR HRa Pe, upward; eM nautonniers (1851); Leeinans, Birch, Senkowe HRa Pe, downward; eR Het (to heart), be- sky, Hawkins, Belmore, Prisse d'Avennes, Dunfore, &c. ; SeP, time, times; HeR, KeR, KI, bar, Heath, and others, on papyri and other also, and; AS, then, as; CHR, since; HAU monuments; Sir G. Wilkinson, Materia HieroNeB (Lat. die omni), every day ; SIF, yesterglyphica, and many other works; M. Uhleman, day, &c. The following are examples of the Handbuch der gesammten ägyptischen Alter syntax : ARNF MeMeNN-U-FeN AT-F thumskunde (Leipsic, 1857); H. Brugsch, Grom A MeN-RA-Lat. Erex-it ædific-ia-sua (hæc) -į maire démotique, and Geographie des Aegyl patr-, Amen Ra A U HA NAN EN Su Ten- tens, &c.
HIERONYMUS. See JEROME.
of which he ultimately died. He wrote “New HIEROPHANT (Gr. lepo avrns, from lepos, England's Plantations, or a short and Truo sacred, and patvw, to make known), the presidDescription of the Commodities and Discommoing priest in the Eleusinian mysteries, who con- dities of the Country" (4to., London, 1630), ducted the ceremonies of initiation. He could and an account of his voyage, which is preserved be chosen only from the family of the Eumol- in Hutchinson's collection of papers.-JOHN, pidæ, whose ancestor Eumolpus was regarded son of the preceding, born in Claybrook, Enge as the founder of the mysteries. His body must land, Aug. 6, 1616, died in Salem, Mass., Dec. be without defect, his voice sweet and sonorous, 9, 1708. He emigrated to New England with and his life without reproach. If he married, his father, adopted the profession of a preacher, he thereby renounced the sacred office. A dia- and for many years was settled over a congredem adorned his brow, his hair hung down over gation at Guilford, Conn. In 1660 he was orhis shoulders, and in the mysteries he represent- dained pastor of the first church in Salem, of ed the creator of the world with mystical sym- which his father had been teacher, and where bols. He preserved and transmitted the secret he remained until the close of his life, at which and unwritten knowledge which was the object time he had been 72 years in the ministry. He of the institution. In the last ages of paganism was a zealous opponent of the Quakers, although the hierophants seem to have become thauma- be subsequently regretted the warmth of his turgi and magicians.
zeal; but he took no part in the proceedings HIGGINSON, FRANCIS, an English clergy. respecting the witchcraft delusion in 1692. He man, and the first teacher of Salem, Mass., born is the author of a number of occasional sermons in 1587, died in Salem, Aug. 6, 1630. He was and miscellanies, including the “ Attestation" to educated at Cambridge, England, and subse- Cotton Mather's Magnalia, prefixed to that quently became rector of a parish in Leicester. work (1697), which has been highly praised Becoming gradually a nonconformist, he was for its eloquence. He was greatly venerated in deprived of his benefice, and was employed New England, and according to the testimony among his former parishioners as a lecturer. of Cotton Mather preserved his intellectual facWhile apprehending an interruption in these ulties unimpaired to the close of his long life. duties in the shape of a summons to appear be- HIGH SEAS, an ancient law term, the origin fore the high commission court, he received an of which is not certainly known. The probinvitation from the Massachusetts company to able derivation is from mare altum, the word proceed to their colony, which he accepted. altum meaning deep as well as high. It was He embarked early in May, 1629, and it is re- applied to the sea in the sense of deep; but its lated by Cotton Mather that as the ship was more common meaning being high, the phrase passing Land's End, he called the passengers was translated “high seas." It is adopted here, about him and exclaimed: “We will not say, and in frequent use in the laws of the United as the Separatists were wont to say at their States. Its exact meaning is not quite certain, leaving of England, ‘Farewell, Babylon; fare- even in those laws. Story says it means there, or well, Rome!' but we will say, Farewell, dear at least in one of them, all the ocean waters beEngland! farewell, the church of God in Eng- yond low water mark. But out of those statland, and all the Christian friends there. We utes, and for some purposes in them, it has been do not go to New England as Separatists, supposed that the word means only the ocean though we cannot bnt separate from the cor waters, outside of any fauces terræ. In this case ruptions of it. But we go to practise the posi- it would not include bays or estuaries between tive part of church reformation, and propagate headlands. But here also it is difficult to say the gospel in America." He arrived at Salem what projection of the headlands, or what nearJune 29, and on July 20 was chosen teacher ness to each other, is necessary to make a mare of the congregation established there, Samuel clausum and shut out the included waters from Skelton, his companion on the voyage, being the mare altum, or the high seas. It has been chosen pastor. Each of them consecrated the suggested, and by writers of authority, that they other by the laying on of hands, assisted by must be so near each other, that a person standseveral of the gravest men. Subsequently Hig- ing upon one can distinguish the features of a ginson drew up "a confession of faith and man standing on the other, sufficiently to recogchurch covenant according to Scripture,” which nize him if he knows him. It has also been on Aug. 6 was assented to by 30 persons, who recently held in Massachusetts (Dec. 1859), in a associated themselves as a church. On this case of much public interest, that water includoccasion, says Palfrey, “the ministers, whose ed between projecting headlands is not within dedication to the sacred office had appeared in the body of a county, unless they are so near complete till it was made by a church consti- each other that a person standing on one may tuted by mutual covenant, were ordained to not only recognize a man on the other, but their several offices by the imposition of the discern what he is doing. But neither of these hands of some of the brethren appointed by the can be considered as a settled rule. church." Higginson continued to discharge HIGHLAND. I. A central co. of Va, boundthe duties of his office until the succeeding year, ed N. W. by the principnl ridge of the Alleghawhen, in the general sickness which ravaged ny mountains, and S. E. by the Shenandoah the colony, he was attacked by a hectic fever range; area, 425 sq. m.;; pop. in 1850, 4,227, of whom 364 were slaves. The S. branch of have a right of passage. It may be a footpath, the Potomac and some of the head streams of a bridle path, a cart way, or a road wide enough James river rise within its limits. The surface for vehicles of any kind to pass each other; and is diversified, but consists chiefly of table-land, for many purposes there may be a highway with a rich soil. It is well timbered, and af- over water, whether it be a running stream or fords excellent pasturage. Iron ore is found in a lake. The origin of the word is not certainly some parts. The productions in 1850 were 54,- known; but a simple derivation refers it to the 241 bushels of Indian corn, 22,456 of wheat, time when all public roads were raised above 34,644 of oats, 26,662 lbs. of wool, 83,067 of the surrounding fields, by the addition of mabutter, and 6,354 tons of hay. There were 3 terials, and for the purpose of securing & dry grist mills, 10 churches, and 135 pupils attend- road-bed. In English law it is usually called ing academies and schools. Value of real es- the king's highway, because by the theory of tate in 1856, $1,282,956. Capital, Monterey. that law it was considered as having been oriII. A S. co. of Ohio, drained by Paint and Rat- ginally given by him. In the United States a tlesnake rivers; area, 555 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, highway may exist by prescription, or by the 25,781. Its surface is elevated and uneven, dedication of the land to the public use by the and its soil fertile. The productions in 1850 owner, which may be expressed or implied from were 1,578,967 bushels of Indian corn, 191,556 long and uninterrupted use by the public. But of wheat, 170,400 of oats, 11,426 tons of hay, as, by the law of most of the states, highways 474,492 lbs. of butter, and 83,920 of wool. must be kept in repair by the public, no person There were 25 grist mills, 29 saw mills, 8 wool- can make a highway over his land by merely len factories, 16 tanneries, 57 churches, 2 news- opening and surrendering it for that purpose, paper offices, and 6,376 pupils attending public unless it be formally accepted by those having schools. The Marietta and Cincinnati railroad authority to do so; although this also may be orosses the county, and a branch of it extends implied from usage and lapse of time. With us, from Hillsborough, the capital, to Blanchester, nearly all highways are now laid out by the
HIGHLANDS, a pame applied to the N. and proper officers; and when laid out, they are N. W. districts of Scotland, in contradistinction generally either county roads or town roads. to the S. and S. E. parts, which are called the The public have, by the right of eminent dolowlands. Their exact boundaries are upset main, full power to take land for public use, tled. The Grampian hills are sometimes taken upon making compensation to the owner. But as the dividing line between the two great the public can take only what it needs; and as natural divisions; but, regarded as the country it needs for the purpose of a highway only the of the highland clans, the highlands include right of passage, or, as it is called in law, the all the Scottish territory W. and N. W. of an right of way (which is what the law calls an imaginary line drawn from the mouth of the easement), it leaves the absolute property in the Nairn in the Moray frith nearly $. E. to a land to the original owner. Whatever therepoint on the N. Esk, near long. 3° W., on the fore be paid to him by way of compensation, if S. slope of the Grampians, and thence S. W. to the highway be discontinued the right of way Culross on the estuary of the Clyde. They is lost, and the land is now in the hands of the thus comprehend more than half the kingdom owner, free from the easement. It is now the of Scotland, including the whole of the counties settled, and perhaps the universal law of this of Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, Cromarty, In- country, that the abuttors upon a road, by verness, and Argyle, parts of Nairn, Elgin, which is meant those who own to it, own to Banff, Aberdeen, Forfar, Perth, Stirling, and the middle of it, subject to the public right of Dumbarton, and the Hebrides. They are re- way. This ownership does not exist if the grant markable for their wild and beautiful scenery or conveyance to the abuttor expressly and disand the peculiar character of their inhabitants. tinctly limited him to the edge of the road; The mountainous tracts S. and E. of the Clyde but merely bounding a piece of land by the are sometimes called the southern highlands. road has not this effect, for by the road there is (See SCOTLAND.)
meant the middle or thread of the road. A HIGHNESS, a title of honor belonging to highway may be discontinued and the easement princes. It was formerly given only to the lost, either by the express action of competent European sovereigns, the emperor of Germany authority, or by a complete nonuser for a suflialone having the preěminent title of majesty. cient length of time. As the public are bound The latter title was assumed by the kings of to keep all highways in good repair and in good Spain from the time of Charles V., and by the order, they are answerable in law for all dammonarchs of England from the time of Eliza- ages sustained by their want of repair, in any beth. The princes of Italy took the title of part or any respect; and cansing an obstruchighness in 1625, and were soon followed by tion, or permitting one to remain, is the same the dukes of Orleans and the other princes of thing as a want of repair. In many states, to Europe. The princes and princesses of an im quicken the diligence of those whose immediperial line are distinguished by the title of im- ato duty it is to see to the good order of the perial highness, and those of a royal family by roads, double damages are given by statute if that of royal highness.
the obstruction or dangerous condition of the HIGHWAY, a place over which the public road had been known and not attended to.
HILAIRE, GEOFFROY SAINT. See GEOFFROY ed into promenades, and has 4 Protestant and St. HILAIRE.
7 Catholic churches, a convent of the sisters of HILARION, SAINT, founder of monachism in mercy, a synagogue, library, museum, 10 hogPalestine, born, according to St. Jerome, near pitals, a gymnasium, 9 schools, orphan and luGaza about 291, died in the island of Cyprus in patic asylums, an establishment for deaf mutes, 371. He was the son of pagan parents, and and one where about 600 children are provided was sent by them to Alexandria to be educated, with education and occupation. where at the age of 15 he became a Christian. HILDRETH, RICHARD, an American author Returning to Palestine after the death of his and journalist, born in Deerfield, Mass., June parents, he embraced monasticism, gave away 28, 1807. His father, the Rev. Hosea Hildreth, his property, and entered upon a life of remark- was a clergyman of the Congregational de able austerity, He attracted to his retreat in nomination. Mr. Hildreth was graduated at the Syrian desert crowds of visitors. After the Harvard college in 1826. While studying the death of St. Anthony, he made with some of law in Newburyport he furnished a series of his monastic brethren a pilgrimage to the cell contributions to a magazine of Boston edited by and tomb of the saint in Egypt. To escape as Mrs. Sarah J. Hale. To these succeeded other well the importunities of friends as the perse- articles which appeared in Willis's “Boston Macution of foes, he sailed for Cyprus, where he gazine" and Joseph T. Buckingham's “New was soon discovered and joined by his disciple England Magazine." Having entered upon the Hesychius. Hence he passed to the Dalmatian practice of law in Boston, he abandoned it in coast, and finally settled in Cyprus. A vast July, 1832, to become the editor of the “ Bosnumber of miracles are ascribed to him. His ton Atlas." In this position a series of articles festival, which is kept on Oct. 21, was celebrated from his pen in 1837, relative to the movement, as early as the 5th century.
then not generally suspected, for the separation HILARY, a pope of Rome, successor of St. of Texas from Mexico, did much to stimulate Leo I., born in Sardinia, died in 467. From the obstinate resistance which it encountered in the beginning of his priesthood he had been the free states. In the autumn of 1834 Mr. noted for his zeal for the faith and his hostility Hildreth went for the benefit of his health to to heresy. At the "robber council ” of Ephe. the South, where he resided about a year and sus, in 449, he appeared as the representative a half on a plantation. While here, his antiof Leo, sustaining the doctrine of the church slavery novel, “ Archy Moore," was written. It against the theory of Eutyches. He was chosen was republished and favorably received in Engto the Roman see in 461. He improved the land, and in 1852 an enlarged American edition discipline of the church; confirmed the ana- appeared under the title of " The White Slave." thema against Nestorius and Eutyches; prohib. In 1836 Mr. Hildreth translated from the ited the long-established practice of bishops French of Dumont Bentham's “ Theory of Lenominating their successors; forbade men who gislation" (2 vols. 16mo., Boston, 1840). His had been twice married or who had married next publication was a “ History of Banks," an widows to receive holy orders; held at Rome argument for the system of free banking with in 465 a council for reforms, and solemnly rati- security to bill-holders, now adopted in New fied the former æcumenical councils.
York and several other states. After passing HILARY, SAINT, bishop of Poitiers, born in the winter of 1837–8 in Washington as correPoitiers about the beginning of the 4th century, spondent of the “Boston Atlas," Mr. Hildreth redied there, Nov. 1, 367, or according to other sumed his editorial post as an ardent advocate of anthorities in 368. He was probably the child Gen. Harrison's election to the presidency, and of pagan parents, and was married before he wrote a pamphlet biography of his favorite canwas converted. About 353 he was chosen bishop didate. He then abandoned journalism, and in of his native city. The Arian controversy was 1840 published, under the title of "Despotism at this time at its height, and Hilary signalized in America," a volume on the political, economhimself by his zeal and his ingenuity in defence ical, and social aspects of slavery, to which in of the orthodox creed, in consequence of which the edition of 1854 was appended a chapter on he was exiled to Phrygia by the emperor Con- the "Legal Basis of Slavery." His controverstantius II., who was an Arian. Here he em- sial pamphlets, including a letter to Prof. Anployed bimself in writing various works, the drews Norton of Cambridge on “Miracles," chief of which is his treatise on the Trinity, in were contributions to a long and exciting theo12 books. A nearer intimacy with the Arians logical discussion in Massachusetts. A residence softened Hilary's opposition, and at one time of three years, commencing with 1840, in Demhis orthodoxy was suspected; but he was ablo erara, British Guiana, stimulated his anti-slavery at the council of Seleucia to vindicate his faith activity; and, as the editor successively of two against the charge of Sabellianism. After ő newspapers in Georgetown, the capital of the years of exile, he was allowed to return to Gaul. country, he earnestly advocated the system of
HILDEBRAND. See GREGORY VII. free labor. His “ Theory of Morals" (Boston,
HILDESHEIM, capital of a Hanoverian prov. 1844), and his “Theory of Politics" (New York, ince of the same name, 16 m. by rail from Han- 1853), were written during his sojourn in Guiover ; pop. 16,300. It is irregularly built, sur. apa. These were attempts to apply rigorously rounded with ramparts which are now convert to ethical and political science the same induc