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of Saxony appeared as competitors for the im- fortune. A large part of this ho expended in perial dignity, and the great power of the Ho- hospitalities to the free thinkers of his time, henstaufen was the chief cause of the success whom he regularly entertained at his splendid of the Saxón. After the death of the latter table, so that Galiani styled him the premier (1137), however, Conrad, who had waged & maitre d'hôtel de la philosophie. The boldest long war against the emperor, the pope, and opinions and the most irreligious principles were the Guelphs, ascended the throne of Germany here discussed without restraint, D'Holbach as the third of that name. His nephew Frederic himself being among the bitterest assailants of Barbarossa became his successor (1152–90), Christianity. He meanwhile published anonywho was succeeded by his son Henry VI. (died mously several atheistic and materialist works, 1197). The son of the latter, Frederic, a child His first, Le Christianisme dévoilé, ou examen of 2 years, was not acknowledged as successor, des principes et des effets de la religion révélée, and his uncle Philip, too, had to struggle against appeared in 1767 under the name of Boulanger, rivals, and was finally slain by Otho of Wittels- who had previously written his Antiquité débach (1208). But soon after the young Frederic voilée. Next came L'esprit du clergé, ou le II. (1212–160) rose in defence of his rights, and Christianisme primitif vengé des entreprises et waged a gallant struggle against his enemies in des excès de nos prêtres modernes, which a decree Germany, as well as in Italy, where he had in- of parliament, Aug. 18, 1770, sentenced to be herited from his mother Constance the Norman burned by the public executioner. The same possessions. His son Conrad IV. died early in year he published his most celebrated book, Le Italy (1254), where all the remaining male in- système de la nature, ou des lois du monde phyheritors of the name of Hohenstaufen soon af- xique et moral, under the fictitious name of Mirater perished in their struggle against Rome and baud, secrétaire perpétuel de l'académie Franthe house of Anjou: Manfred, a son of Frede- çaise; this created such scandal that Voltaire rio II., in the battle of Benevento in 1266; himself thought proper to refute it in the artiConradin, the young son of Conrad IV., on the cle Dieu of his Dictionnaire philosophique, while scaffold at Naples in 1268; and Enzio, a natural Goethe declared that he recoiled from it in abson of Frederic, and the sons of Manfred, in horrence as from a "cadaverons spectre.” It prison. The possessions of the house were di- passed, however, through 8 editions between yided among various families, and now belong 1817 and 1824, and a new edition in German was to Baden, Würtemberg, and Bavaria. The published in Leipsio in 1843. In 1772 a short principal work on the history of the family pamphlet, Le bon sens, ou idées naturelles opposées is Raumer's Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und aux idées surnaturelles, reproduced in a more ihrer Zeit.
familiar form the principles he had previously HOHENZOLLERN, a territory of S. W. Ger- advocated; and this pamphlet, which has been many, since Dec. 7, 1849, an administrative frequently reprinted and largely circulated under division of Prussia, but which previous to that the title of Le bon •sens du curé Meslier, has date formed two small independent principali- more powerfully than any other publication ties of the Germanic confederation under the contributed to diffuse the principles of infidelity names of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohen- among the middle classes in France. Le système zollern-Sigmaringen, Hechingen and Sigmaring- social, ou les principes naturels de la morale et en being the capitals. The territory forms a de la politique, appeared in 1773, and La morale long and narrow strip of land, surrounded by universelle, ou les devoirs de l'homme fondés sur Würtemberg, except on the s. w., where it is la nature, in 1776. Most of these works were, bounded by Baden ; area, about 400 sq. m.; as soon as they appeared, proscribed by the pop. 65,000. It is watered by the Neckar and church and the parliament, and were even dissome of its affluents, and by the Danube, which claimed by philosophers. D'Holbach himself is crosses it. Its mountains belong to the Rauhe said to have been a much better man than would Alps. Agriculture, cattle raising, and the man- be inferred from his books; he was genial, kindufacture of wooden ware are the chief oc- hearted, and liberal. He rendered a service to cupations of the inhabitants. The Roman science and natural philosophy by translating Catholic is the predominant religion. The ter- some valuable German works. In his literary ritory derives its name from an old mountain performances he had the help of Lagrange, the castle near Hechingen. This was the original teacher of his children, of Naigeon, to whose abode of the afterward princely house of Ho- hands he confided all his works, and of Diderot. henzollern, to which the reigning dynasty in HOLBEIN, HANs, or JOHANN, a German Prussia belongs. Count Thassilo (800) is men- painter, born in Augsburg or Gründstadt in 1495 tioned as the most ancient progenitor of this or 1498, died of the plague in London in 1554. house, which, after various divisions, finally He was the son of a painter of the same name ceded'its possessions to Prussia, being unable to (Hans der ältere) of considerable eminence durmaintain its position after the storm of 1848–9. ing the latter half of the 15th century, and while
HOLBACH, PAUL HENRI THIRY D', baron, & & boy followed his father to Basel. He early French philosopher, born in Heidelsheim, in the manifested great ability in portraits and in comPalatinate, in 1723, died in Paris, Jan, 21, 1789. positions of an elevated religious character. He was taken to Paris when very young by his About 1526 he contracted an intimacy with father, from whom he inherited a considerable Erasmus, whose portrait he painted, and soon after visited England, where he passed the re- which commissioned him to examine and report mainder of his life. A letter from Erasmus upon the Lutheran schools of Holland. This recommended him to Sir Thomas More, who mission led to further travel, and he visited introduced him at court. Henry VIII. at once Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, and Rome. Notwithmade him court painter, with a liberal pension, standing narrow resources and wretched health, and thenceforth Holbein was intrusted with he wandered about in whatever direction fancy many commissions, chiefly for portraits, both or passing influences suggested. Returning at from the king and the principal personages of length to Copenhagen, he resumed the teaching the kingdom. He is distinguished as a historical of French and other languages; and in 1718 painter, portrait painter, and engraver on wood. he was appointed professor in the university, The painting in the Dresden gallery, represent- first of metaphysics, but ultimately of rhetoric ing the Virgin as queen of heaven, with the child (1720). He now wrote & mock heroic poem, in her arms, and the family of the burgomaster called Peder Paars, a national satire, in imiJacob Meyer of Basel kneeling before her, is a tation of the style of Hudibras, which passed noble specimen of his style. In the library at through three editions in the course of a year Basel is also a fine series of the “Passion of and a half. Other satirical pieces followed imChrist" on panels. His portraits of Henry mediately, which were also successful, but which VIII, and four of his queens, Edward VI., Sir created for their author many enemies. He Thomas More and his family, the duke of Nor- gave his attention next to a work upon the folk and his sons, Surrey the poet, Cromwell, ecclesiastical and civil constitution of Denmark Pembroke, and Somerset, are noted works; and and Norway. Toward the close of 1722, King so fully was he occupied, while in England in Frederic IV. undertook to found a national painting portraits of eminent public characters, theatre. Previously there had been in Copenthat he was compelled in a measure to abandon hagen no other dramatic representations than historical painting. Of his skill in executing those of a troupe of French players who enjoylarge portrait pieces commemorating important ed the exclusive privilege of giving comedies, public events two admirable specimens are pre- ballets, and puppet shows, or of occasional served, the one representing Henry VIII. giving strolling companies who gave representations a charter to the company of barber-surgeons, of legends of the middle ages. The king sent now in surgeons' hall, London, and the other, for a famous French actor, named Montaigu, to Edward VI. giving to the lord mayor of London teach the national players the art of declamathe charter for the foundation of Bridewell hos- tion. The first representation was given in pital His pictures formerly in the royal col- 1722. Holberg now first conceived the plan of lection have been widely dispersed; but soon a comedy; and in a few weeks his “Political after the accession of George II. a noble collec- Tinman" was produced. He was thus the true tion of original drawings by him was discovered founder of the Danish theatre, and the kingin the palace at Kensington. As a colorist he dom rang with his name. The first comedy possessed extraordinary merit, and his heads was received with unbounded applause; and are distinguished by free and spirited design, at very short intervals 14 other pieces were by their surprising relief, and their fulness and composed and played with increasing success. force of expression. He painted in oils and His patron Frederic was succeeded in 1730 by distemper, and excelled in miniatures. As an King Christian VI., a prince whose excessive engraver Holbein is chiefly known by the cele- religious zeal led him to forbid theatrical enbrated “Dance of Death," a series of 63 wood- tertainments ; but there had been time enough cuts engraved from his own designs, although for Holberg's “Sleeper Awakened,” “John of it is seldom found with above 46, in which a ter- France," "Lying-in Chamber,” “False Savant," rible subject is treated with a bitter, ironical hu- and others, all pictures in caricature of the manmor, and fantastic extravagance. This series has ners of the Danish middle classes, to be stamped been frequently engraved, and the prints of Wen- indelibly upon the public mind. With a well zel Hollar are particularly fine. It is mentioned filled porse, and a reputation by no means conof him that he used the left hand in painting. fined to Denmark, he set out anew upon foreign
HOLBERG, LUDVIG, baron, a Danish drama- travel. Returning to Copenhagen, he wrote tist and historian, born in Bergen, Norway, a satirical romance in Latin (1741) called the Nov. 6, 1684, died in Copenhagen, Jan. 28, 1754. “Subterranean Travels of Nicholas Klim," which He lost his father when a boy, and was placed was translated into many languages immediately under the care of the bishop of Munthe, his rela- after its appearance; and a history of Denmark, tive, who caused him to be sent to the college which is valued equally with his epistles, fables, of Bergen, whence at the age of 18 he went to and epigrams, and only less than his dramas. the university of Copenhagen. He studied the Christian V. died in 1746, and his successor ology and languages, and, having passed his Frederic V. lost no time in restoring the theexamination in 1705, visited Amsterdam, and atre, and after a long silence Holberg saw his taught for a while in Christiansand, he went to comedies again delighting the audience. He Oxford to study philosophy. Fifteen months af. was rewarded by the new king with a patent terward he had returned to Copenhagen, where, of nobility, and lived until 1754, the delight of through some historical essays, he became con- his countrymen. He had never married, and nected with the university, the directors of bequeathed his property chiefly to an academy which had been founded-at Soröe by Christian maker by trade, who, having served some time IV. for the education of young noblemen. He as a groom, owned several horses, and added gave 16,000 crowns as a fund to portion a num- to bis income by letting them. His mother ber of Danish young women. As a dramatic dealt in greens and oysters. He passed his early writer Holberg evinced great comic originality, life in London and in Berkshire, following the His wit was animated and refined, inventive and same occupations pursued by his father. He subtle. The “False Savant," & satire upon was afterward in the service of a trainer of race pedantry, is considered one of his most admira- horses at Newmarket, then a schoolmaster, and ble works. There is discoverable in all his per- then an actor, picking up in these varied modes formances a moral purpose which even his wild- of life considerable knowledge and a kind of est extravagances do not conceal. His delicate education, including some acquaintance with the health rendered him occasionally hypochon- French, German, and Italian languages. He driacal. His manners and habits were those of & had but moderate success as an actor in Iremethodical and reflecting man; and he preferred land and in England, and soon abandoned the the society of women to that of his own sex, on stage for the profession of a dramatic author, the score of greater honesty and originality in writing some original plays and some translaconversation. His “ Thoughts on the True Cause tions from the French. The most popular of of the Greatness of Rome," and "Moral Re- his dramatic compositions is the “Road to flections," are much extolled. A collection of Ruin” (1792), which still keeps its place upon his works in 27 vols. appeared at Copenhagen in the stage. In 1789 he lost his son, and in the 1826. He left an “Introduction to Universal following year his third wife. At the time of History” in Latin, translated into English by the French revolution he was a zealous advoGregory Sharpe, LL.D. (8vo., London, 1755), cate of the popular cause, incurring the suspiand his autobiography, an English translation of cions of government as a member of the society which also appeared in London in 1880. A for constitutional information, and with Horno Holberg association was established in Copen- Tooke, Hardy, Thelwall, and others, was in hagen in 1842, under whose auspices a critical 1794 indicted for high treason. Some of the edition of his comedies was prepared by Lieben- accused were acquitted, and Holcroft was disberg (Copenhagen, 1843–7).
charged with others, without being brought to HOLBROOK, JOHN EDWARDS, M.D., an trial. He wrote some 30 plays and 4 novels : American naturalist, born in Beaufort, S. (., in "Alwyn" (1780), - Anna St. Ives" (1792), 1795. He early removed with his parents to Mas- "Hugh Trevor" (1794), and “Bryan Perdue” sachusetts, was graduated at Brown university (1805). He published translations of Lavater's in 1815, received his medical diploma from the “Physiognomy," and the works of Frederic the university of Philadelphia, and soon after went Great; and “Travels in France and Germany" (2 abroad to continue his professional studies in vols. 4to., 1806). He was the first who introLondon and Edinburgh. He spent two years in duced the modern melodrama upon the British Italy, Germany, and Paris, where he resided in stage. He paid much attention to the fine arts, the jardin des plantes, of which he is an élève. and attempted to write an opera. His "Memoirs," He returned to South Carolina, established him written by bimself and edited by Hazlitt, were self in Charleston in 1822, and in 1824 was published in 8 vols. 12mo. (London, 1816). chosen professor of anatomy in the medical col- HOLDER. The law merchant, which is now lege of South Carolina, a chair which he still a part of the common law of the country, gives occupies. His most important work is the to the bona fide holder of negotiable paper cera “ American Herpetology, or a Description of tain important rights, and imposes upon him Reptiles inhabiting the United States" (5 vols., certain duties; and it has rules by which it dePhiladelphia, 1842). The difficulties in the termines who is such a holder as to be entitled preparation of the work were increased by the to those rights. In general, it may be said, that lack of museums in this country for the compari- he is one who has lawful possession of the pason of specimens, and of libraries for reference. per, with a right to demand payment from any Yet the "Herpetology" of Dr. Holbrook is the persons bound to pay the note, and with an obfoundation of that branch of natural history in ligation of giving the notices to which the perAmerica. His descriptions are remarkable for sons bound to pay are entitled. (See NEGOclearness and precision, and the figures of the TIABLE PAPER.) animals are correct and finely colored, being all, HOLDICH, JOSEPH, D.D., an American clerwith one or two exceptions, drawn from living gyman and author, born in Thorney Fen, Camspecimens. He began a work on “Southern bridgeshire, England, about 1800. His father Ichthyology," which was discontinued after two was a scientific farmer, and during the latter numbers, the field being too extensive for his part of his life was editor of the “Farmer's survey, as he made all his drawings from life. Journal and Agricultural Advertiser." Being He has since been employed on the “Ichthyol- partial to the United States, where he spent ogy of South Carolina' (Charleston, 1854 et several years of his early life, he sent his son Joseq.), 10 numbers of which have appeared. seph across the Atlantic for the purpose of fin
HOLCROFT, THOMAS, an English novelist ishing his education and studying law. The and dramatist, born in London, Dec. 10, 1745, son was, however, led to devote his attention to died March 23, 1809. His father was a shoe- theology, and in 1822 was admitted into the
Philadelphia conference of the Methodist Epis. at the head of 60,000 horse, took the city of copal church. In 1826 he made a visit to Eng. Muttra and advanced upon Delhi. Here, howland. In 1835 he was elected professor of moral ever, he was routed by Lord Lake and pursued science and belles-lettres in the Wesleyan uni- to Furruckabad, where he was again defeated. versity at Middletown, Conn., where he remain- In 1805 he entered the Punjaub with a fresh ed until 1849, when he was elected one of the army, closely followed by Lord Lake, and in secretaries of the American Bible society, which December concluded a treaty with the British office he still holds. In connection with his at Umritsir, by which he retained nearly all his duties as secretary he edits the “Bible Society possessions. He murdered Kasi Row, the legitRecord," a monthly publication. He is the au- imate son of Tookajee Holkar, and Kundi Row, thor of " Bible Questions," " A Bible History," the child of another legitimate son, and died “ Memoirs of the Rev. Aaron H. Hurd,” and insane in 1811. He was succeeded by his the “Life of Wilbur Fisk, D.D.,” president of mistress Toolsee Bye, acting as regent for Multhe Wesleyan university.
har Row Holkar, the natural son of Jeswunt by HOLINSHED, HOLINGSHED, or HOLLYNSHED, another woman. The regent was assassinated RAPHAEL, an English chronicler, born in thé in 1817, and young Mulhar was seized by the first half of the 16th century, died about 1580. army, who began hostilities with the British He probably received & university education, under his ostensible command. A treaty was and is supposed to have taken orders, although concluded, however, Jan. 18, 1818, soon after the latter point is doubtful. Little else is known a decisive battle at Mahidpoor, by which the of his life. The “ Chronicles of England, Scot- Mahrattas ceded a large part of their posses. land, and Ireland ” (2 vols. fol., London, 1577), sions, and retained the rest under British prowith which his name is connected, although the tection. Mulhar Row died in 1833, and was whole work was not written by him, is a mon- succeeded by a distant relative, Martund Row ument of his industry and learning. Holinshed's Holkar, who was dethroned to make room for share of it comprises the histories of England Hurree Row Holkar, an imbecile prince who and Scotland, the latter being for the most part left his sovereignty to an adopted son, Kumdeo a translation from the Latin of Hector Boëthius. Row Holkar. The last died soon afterward The other portions were done by Stow, Harri- without heirs, and the East India company son, Hooker, and others. The 2d edition con- thereupon assumed the right of nominating as taining matter added by Thynne, which was his successor the young Mulkerjee Row Hol. offensive to Queen Elizabeth, means were taken kar, with the stipulation that inheritance by to suppress certain sheets in that edition, which adoption should no longer be recognized. Durwere restored in that of 1807. The value of ing his minority the rajah was educated under the materials which it embodies renders the the auspices of the British government, and work indispensable to the student of early Eng- displayed remarkable ability. He assumed the lish annals.
reins of government on coming of age in Feb. HOLKAR, the name of a powerful Mahratta 1852. When the mutiny broke out in 1857 he family which now holds the territory of Indore hastened to take the field for the British, but in Hindostan. Mulhar Row Holkar, the first of his troops deserted him and held him virtually the name in history, born in 1693, abandoned a prisoner for some days in bis own palace. the life of a shepherd in the Deccan to become HOLLAND, KINGDOM OF. See NETHERLANDS & soldier, and, distinguishing himself in battle HOLLAND, a province of the kingdom of against the nizam-ul-mulk, was taken into the the Netherlands, divided into North Holland service of the peishwa, and gradually rose to be and South Holland, and lying between lat. 51°40' one of the most illustrious of the Mahratta and 53° 10' N., and long. 3° 56' and 5° 30' E.; leaders. The peishwa made him large grants area, 2,094 sq. m.; pop. in 1858, 1,166,774. It of territory, and in 1733 gave him the town and has a low flat surface, in many places below the district of Indore. He was one of the Mahratta level of the sea, and protected from inundagenerals at the battle of Paniput with the tion by enormous dikes. The soil is marshy, Afghans, in 1761. He died in 1766, and was and better adapted to pasturage than to calsucceeded by his grandson, who died insane after tivation. Tillage, however, is conducted with a few months, leaving the sovereignty to his great care and patience. An excellent kind of mother Alia Baee. After the death, in 1797, fax, barley, oats, orchard fruits, and garden of one Tookajee Holkar, to whom she had com vegetables, are the principal crops. Dairy farmmitted the command of her forces, Jeswunt ing and the raising of sheep and cattle are carRow Holkar, an illegitimate son of Tookajee, got ried on very extensively. The polders, or lands possession of Indore, but was defeated and ex. which have been recovered from the sea or pelled by the Sindia family, another branch of lakes by draining, are among the most rethe Mahrattas. Employing European officers markable features of the country. Those of to discipline his army, he was able in 1802 to Beemster and Haarlem are the largest. Timrecover his possessions; but taking advantage ber is scarce throughout the province.--North of a season of prosperity to indulge in an enor- Holland is bounded N. and E. by the Zuyder mous system of plunder, he drew down the Zee, S. E. by Utrecht, s. by South Holland, vengeance of the British. He defeated the first and w. by the North sea; area, 928 sq. m.; detachment sent against him, and in Aug. 1804, pop. in 1858, 544,789. It comprises several islands in the Zuyder Zee and at its entrance, ster, with whom he bad formed an intimacy in one of which, Texel, is 13 m, long by 5 broad. Italy which induced her husband, Sir Godfrey The river Y, on which Amsterdarn is built, ex- Webster, to procure a divorce. On this occatends into the territory from the Zuyder Zee, sion he took by royal license the surname of and reaches alınost to the North sea. The Hel- Vassall, which was that of his wife's family, in der ship canal connects this inlet with the strait lieu of his patronymic of Fox; but his children that separates Texel from the mainland; it is 120 have retained the latter name. In 1798 he made feet wide, 25 feet deep, and 50 m. long. The his first speech in the house of lords, and thenceprincipal rivers are the Amstel, Vecht, and Zaan, forth was a frequent participator in debates, and the chief towns, Amsterdam, Haarlem, and being to the close of his life a steady and conAlkmaar.-South Holland is bounded N. by sistent whig. Between 1802 and 1805 he made North Holland, E. by Utrecht and Gelderland, another long visit to Spain, and in 1806 he was S. by the Mease, separating it from North Bra- appointed joint commissioner with Lord Auckbant, W. and N. W. by the North sea; area, land to arrange with Messrs. Monroe and Pink1,166 sq. m.; pop. in 1858, 621,985. Its S. part ney, the American commissioners, the matters is cut up into several islands by the mouths of controversy between England and the United through which the Meuse finds its way to the States. In October of that year he entered the sea. The other rivers are the Old Rbine, the cabinet as lord privy seal, a position in which Yssel, and the Lech. The Hague, Rotterdam, he was succeeded in March, 1807, by the earl of Leyden, Delft, Dort, and Briel, are the most im- Westmoreland, who came in with the duke of portant towns.
Portland. In the long interval of tory ascendHOLLAND, EDWIN CLIFFORD, an American ency Holland remained out of office, but upon the poet and essayist, born in Charleston, S. O., accession of the whigs to power in 1830 he again about 1793, died Sept. 11, 1824. He was edu- entered the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of cated for the bar, but preferred a literary career, Lancaster, which office he retained almost unpublished a volume of poems in 1813, afterward interruptedly until his death. In 1806 he pubedited a newspaper, the Charleston “ Times," lished " Some Account of the Life and Writings and wrote for magazines, and in 1818 drama- of Lope Felix de Vega Carpio," of which a zd tized the “Corsair” of Lord Byron. As & edition was issued in 1817, containing in addition pamphleteer and controversialist he became & a notice of Guillen de Castro and other matter. sort of local terror, and sustained a sharp con- This work, the fruit of its author's visits to troversy with Bishop England. He was asso- Spain, without aiming at profoundgess, treats ciated with William Crafts and Henry J. Far- the subject in a genial and appreciative manmer in editing the “Omnium Botherum," in- ner, and is commended by Mr. Ticknor and tended to satirize the “Omnium Gatherum," other authorities on Spanish literature. It was edited by Thomas Bee.
followed in 1807 by "Three Comedies from the HOLLAND, Sir HENRY, an English physi- Spanish," and in 1808 he edited, with a long cian, born in Knutsford, Cheshire, Oct. 27, 1788. preface, Mr. Fox's fragment entitled "A HisHe was graduated at the university of Edin- tory of the Early Part of the Reign of James burgh in 1811, shortly after which he made a II. Since his death have appeared his "Fortour through Greece and the Ionian isles, of eign Reminiscences” (8vo., London, 1850; new which he published an account in 1815. Upon ed. 1851), & work full of gossip and scandalous his return to England he established himself in anecdotes; and the first two volumes of “MeLondon. In 1852 he became physician in or- moirs of the Whig Party during my Time, by dinary to the queen, and in 1853 was made a Henry, Lord Holland” (London, 1854, edited by baronet. He is the author of several medical his son), which is of a character inferior to treatises, the most important of which is his that of his earlier works. A publication en“ Medical Notes and Reflections," which has titled the “Opinions of Lord Holland, as rebeen reprinted in the United States. In 1834 corded in the Journals of the House of Lords he was married, for the 20 time, to Saba, daugh- from 1797 to 1841," appeared in London soon ter of Sydney Smith.
after his death, affording a complete view of his HOLLAND, HENRY RIOHARD VASSALL, baron, public career. He had projected a life of his an English statesman and author, born at Win- uncle, but never advanced beyond the collecterslow house, Wilts, Nov. 21, 1773, died at tion of a few notes and materials, which are inHolland house, Kensington, Oct. 22, 1840. He cluded in Lord John Russell's “Memoirs and was the son of Stephen Fox, 2d Lord Holland, Correspondence of Charles James Fox," Lord and nephew of Charles James Fox. He suc- Holland was much esteemed in private life ceeded to his father's title when a little more for his courtly grace of manner, genial humor, than a year old, and was educated at Eton, and and amiability, and Holland house, his subursubsequently at Oxford, where he was gradu- ban residence, a building having many interated in 1792. In 1793 he travelled extensively esting historical associations, and stored with over Spain, making himself familiar with the much that was rare and beautiful in art or litlanguage and literature of the country, and erature, was for nearly 50 years the resort of subsequently visited other portions of the con- eminent personages, and the scene of elegant tinent. He returned to England in 1796, and was hospitality. Although in mental calibre inferior married in the succeeding year to Lady Web- to Charles James Fox, to whom he bore a strong