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sas, is represented by the son of the exiled Gus. emperors Alexander I. of Russia, Francis of tavus IV. of Sweden, the present prince of Austria, and Frederic William III. of Prussia, Vasa. (See DENMARK.)
after the second abdication of Napoleon, and HOLT, a N. W. co. of Mo., separated from acceded to by most of the other powers of EuKansas and Nebraska on the S., S. W., and W. rope, excepting the holy see and England. Its by the Missouri river, and bounded E. by the ostensible object was to regulate the states of Nodoway; area, 470 sq. m.; pop. in 1856, 5,404, Christendom on principles of Christian amity, of whom 279 were slaves. It has an undulating but the real aim was to maintain the existing dysurface, with some bluffs on the Missouri river, nasties. Alexander himself drew up the agreeand a fertile soil. The productions in 1850 ment and gave to it its name. The three monwere 240,347 bushels of Indian corn, 48,355 of archs signed it at Paris, Sept. 26, 1815, but it wheat, 11,423 of oats, 870 tons of hay, and was not wholly made public till Feb. 2, 1816, 11,607 lbs. of wool. There were 3 saw mills, when it appeared in full in the “Frankfort 3 churches, and 330 pupils attending public Journal.” A special article of the treaty exschools. Capital, Oregon.
cluded for ever the members of the Bonaparte HOLT, SIR Jous, an English jurist, born in family from all the thrones of Europe. It was in Thame, Oxfordshire, Dec. 30, 1642, died in virtue of the holy alliance that Austria in 1821 March, 1709. He was educated at Oxford, be- suppressed the revolutions in Naples and Piedcame a student of law, was called to the bar in mont, and that France in 1823 restored abso1663, and rose to great eminence as an advo- lutism in Spain. After Alexander's death the cate. In 1685 he was elected recorder of compact lost much of its authority, and the London, but was removed at the expiration French revolution of 1830 may be said to have of a year and a half in consequence of his oppo- ended it. sition to the measures of the court. In the HOLY WATER, in the Roman Catholic convention parliament which met to arrange church, water which has been blessed by a the succession to the crown, after the depart- priest with various prayers and exorcisms, and ure of James II., he displayed so much ability with the admixture of salt. It is used in many that William III. appointed him in April, 1689, of the church services, and is cominonly placed chief justice of the king's bench, which position at the doors of churches, that the faithful may he occupied until his death. In 1700 he was sprinkle themselves with it on entering and solicited to accept the great seal, upon the re- leaving the sacred edifice. In many places it is moval of Lord Somers from the office of chan- customary for the priest to pass among the concellor, but declined. Of his integrity, courage, gregation and scatter it from a brush or sprinkand firmness in the discharge of his duties, & ler before mass. Catholics usually keep it in traditional instance is related upon the occa- their houses, and beside its symbolical usage, as sion of a summons from the commons to appear a memento of baptism, it is believed to have a at their bar, for deciding in favor of the Ayles- peculiar efficacy in repelling devils. Baronius bury burgesses, who had been committed for and others ascribe its origin to the apostles, complaining about the illegal rejection of their but many Catholic writers refer it to a period votes. He took no notice of the first message as late as that of Pope Alexander I. In the from the house; and upon being summoned by Latin church it is solemnly blessed on the day the speaker in person, he told that officer to re- before Easter. The Greeks perform the cereturn at once to his chair, or he would commit mony on Jan. 6, when they believe that Jesus him to Newgate. The reports of his decisions, Christ was baptized by St. John in the Jordan. compiled by his pupil and successor, Chief Jus- Twice a year they drink holy water in the tice Raymond, commencing with the Easter churches, viz., at the end of the midnight mass term, 6 William and Mary, give a good impres- of Christmas and on the feast of the Epiphany. sion of his judicial abilities. Sir John Holt HOLY WEEK, a name given in the Roman published in 1708 a folio volume of crown cases Catholic church to the week immediately precollected by Chief Justice Kelyng, with notes ceding the festival of Easter, because she then by himself, and 3 of his own decisions.
celebrates the most sacred mysteries with solemHÖLTY, LUDWIG HEINRICH CHRISTOPH, a nities of peculiar interest. It was anciently German poet, born in Mariensee, near Hanover, called the great or painful week, or week of. Dec. 21, 1748, died in Hanover, Sept. 1, 1776. sorrows. The ceremonies begin on Sunday, He studied theology at Göttingen, became ac- when Christ's entrance into Jerusalem is comquainted with Bürger, Miller, and Count C. Stol memorated by blessing palm or other green berg, and was a member of the society of poets branches and distributing them to the people, which they had formed. In 1773 he went to whence the day is called Palm Sunday. On the Leipsic, and in 1775 to Hanover to restore his Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday evenings the health, which was greatly impaired. He was pre- office of the Tenebrce (darkness) is chanted. paring & collection of his poems when he died. This consists of the matins and lands for the They were afterward edited by his friends Stol- following mornings, which it is customary to berg and Voss in 1783. He translated the phil- recite over night. During the service a large osophical works of the earl of Shaftesbury and candlestick supporting 15 lights arranged in other English works into German.
form of a triangle, which denote Christ and the HOLY ALLIANCE, a league formed by the prophets who predicted his coming, stands in the
sanctuary; the lights are one by one extin-, situated in a churchyard surrounded by a stone guished, until only the upper one remains, fence which appears to have been a Roman which is taken down and placed under the al- fortress. Holyhead unites with Amlwich, Beautar until the close of the office, and then brought maris, and Llangefni, in sending one member to back; this symbolizes Christ's burial and resur- parliament. It is a terminus of the Chester and rection. On Thursday, sometimes called Holy Holyhead railway. or Maunday Thursday (from the word manda- HOLYOKE, å township of Hampden co., tum, commandment, with which one of the Mass., on the right bank of the Connecticut services begins), the institution of the Lord's river, and on the border of Hampshire co., 9 supper is commemorated, and in some places m. N. from Springfield and 107 m. W. from the priests wash the feet of 12 poor persons, in Boston; pop. in 1855, 4,639. It is an important imitation of the action performed by Jesus to- manufacturing place, owing its prosperity chiefward his apostles. It is done by the pope to 13 ly to the Hadley Falls company, incorporated priests, though why the number should be 13 in 1848, with a capital of $4,000,000, for the instead of 12 is not well understood. The bells construction of a dam across the Connecticut are not rung nor instruments of music sounded river at Holyoke. This work was completed from the Gloria in excelsis in the mass of Thurs- in 1849. It is 1,017 feet long and built of timday until the same time on Saturday. A con- ber, with solid masonry abutments at each end. secrated host is carried in procession to some The foundation and all the spaces between the temporary altar prepared for it, and kept there timbers are filled in with stone to the height of until the next day, when the priest carries it back 10 feet, and the structure has withstood the to the main altar and consumes it. There is no heaviest freshet ever known in the Connecticut mass on Good Friday, and the altar is stripped river without damage or settling in any part. of all its ornaments. The ceremony of kissing The water is admitted by 13 gates to a main the cross, sometimes called the adoration of the canal faced with masonry, 110 feet wide at cross, is performed on this day by all the faithful. bottom, 144 at the top, and 22 feet deep, branchOn Saturday the services begin by the blessing ing at a distance of of a mile from the river of fire and water, and of the paschal candle, an into 2 mill races, for the use of factories on emblem of Jesus Christ, which is lighted in different levels. The water from the upper race, token of his resurrection, and burns during part after moving the mills on its proper level, is of the mass from Easter until the Ascension. It conveyed back to a point near the river, where
was on the Saturday in Holy Week that the it falls into the lower race. The motive power • early church used to administer baptism to secured by these works is said to be the best in catechumens, and parts of the service still relate the United States. The principal manufacturing to this custom.
establishments are the Hampden cotton mills, HOLYHEAD (Welsh, Caer Gybi, fort of Gybi), commenced in 1853, with a capital of $100,000; a parliamentary borough, market town, and sea- the Lyman cotton mills, commenced in 1854, port of N.Wales, on a small island of the same capital $1,470,000; the Parsons paper mills, comname at the W. extremity of the county of Angle- menced in 1854, capital $60,000; and the Holysea; pop. in 1851, 5,622. An embankment of oke paper mills, commenced in 1857, capital a mile in length, 16 feet high, with a bridge mid- $50,000. In 1855 the value of goods manufacway, through which the tide rushes with great tured was $1,669,482, the production of which violence, connects the island across a sandy employed 1,998 hands and an aggregate capital shallow with the island of Anglesea. The town of $2,026,720. The village of Holyoke is reg. is irregularly built, but the houses are massively ularly laid out on high ground W. of the canals. constructed of stone. The pier is of limestone, It is lighted with gas, supplied with water from 900 feet in length, with 14 feet water at the the Connecticut by forcing pumps worked by head in low tides. A harbor and breakwater hydraulic power, and has a large hotel. In have been some years in construction, at the 1858 the town contained 7 churches (2 Baptist, national expense, and is being formed by liter- 2 Congregational, 1 Methodist, 1 Roman Cathoally casting a mountain into the sea. Holyhead lic, and 1 Universalist), a bank, a savings bank, a mountain, or Pen Caer Gybi, from which the high school, and a weekly newspaper office. materials are drawn, is a hill of limestone 700 The Connecticut river railroad passes through feet high. The N, breakwater has been carried it.-Holyoke was originally part of Springfield. out 6,400 feet, the E. 2,500. Since the com- It was incorporated as part of West Springfield mencement in 1849 over 5,000,000 tons of stone in 1786, receiving the name of Ireland parish, have been used in the work, and upward of and became a separate township in 1850. £500,000 expended on it. The harbor when HOLYOKE, EDWARD AUGUSTUS, M.D., an completed will enclose 316 acres, with 64 fath- American physician, and a centenarian, born in oms depth of water. A considerable propor. Essex co., Mass., Aug. 1, 1728, died in Salem, tion of the population is employed in connec- Mass., March 31, 1829. He was graduated at tion with these works, the remainder being Harvard college, of which his father, Edward mostly engaged in rope making, ship building, Holyoke, was president, in 1746, and began to and the coasting trade. The parish church is practise as a physician at Salem in 1749. At his an ancient structure, dedicated to St. Gybi, with death he had practised in Salem for 79 years, some rude but curious carving on its walls, and and had never been 50 miles from that city.
He was married in 1755, and a second time in gambling tables, where large amounts are an1759, and was the father of 12 children, only nually lost in play, and which furnish the chief two of whom survived him. He was reputed source of revenue to the government. The a skilful and learned physician, and was one of efforts of the Frankfort parliament in 1849 to the founders and the first president of the Mas- put a stop to gambling were unavailing. Hom. sachusetts medical society. He was temperate burg has become within the last few years a in his diet, eating freely of fruit; was accus favorite resort of Russians and Englishmen and tomed to walk in his professional practice until other visitors during the season. The gardens his 80th year; and regarded his constant care immediately attached to the palace were laid to have a full proportion of sleep as one of the out in the style of English pleasure grounds by causes of his longevity. At 80 years of age he the late landgravine Elizabeth, daughter of had lost his teeth, and his hearing and memory George III. had begun to fail. Between the ages of 45 and HOME, Sir EVERARD, a Scottish surgeon, 85 his sight required the aid of convex glasses; born at Greenlaw castle, Berwickshire, May 6, it gradually improved afterward, till at his death 1746, died Aug. 31, 1832. He studied medicine he could read the finest print with his naked with his brother-in-law, the celebrated John eyes. On his 100th birthday about 50 of his Hunter, and afterward practised with great sucmedical brethren of Boston and Salem gave cess in London for more than 40 years. In him a public dinner, when he appeared at the 1813 he was created a baronet and appointed table with a firm step, smoked his pipe, and sergeant surgeon to the king, in which office he gave an appropriate toast. A memoir of his was continued by William IV. He was also life was published by the Essex medical society. professor of surgery and anatomy, and for
HOLYROOD PALACE. Seo EDINBURGH. many years president of the royal college of
HOLYWELL, & municipal and parliament- surgeons. His “Lectures on Comparative Anary borough and market town of Flintshire, N. atomy" (6 vols. 4to., London, 181428) is his Wales, near the left bank of the estuary of the most important work, being a collection of his Dee, and on the Chester and Holyhead railway, contributions to the “ Philosophical Transac15 m. N. W. from Chester; pop. in 1851, 5,740. tions." There seems to be little doubt that It takes its name from the holy well of St. he is indebted for his reputation as an anthor Winifred, formerly celebrated for its virtue in to the folio volumes of minutes of dissections the cure of diseases. The well discharges 21 left by John Hunter, which he took from the tons of water per minute, and now serves as Hunterian museum under the pretence of prethe motive power of most of the machinery in paring a catalogue of tho museum, and subsethe place. Margaret, countess of Richmond, quently burned. mother of Henry VII., erected a handsome HOME, HENRY, Lord Kames, a Scottish juGothic building over the spring, the upper part rist and author, born in Kames, Berwickshire, in of which is now used as a school house. Holy. 1696, died Dec. 27, 1782. He was educated in well rose into consideration in the beginning of the law at the university of Edinburgh, and, the present century, by the extension of the after nearly 30 years' practice at the bar, was mines and the establishment of cotton mills, in 1752 elevated to the bench as a judge of the smelting houses, and founderies. In the vicinity court of session. In 1763 he was made a lord are collieries, and valuable mines of lead, cop- of justiciary. Under the title of Lord Kames per, and zinc. The chief manufactures are he filled both offices with ability and integrity copper wire, bolts, nails, sheathing, white and until the close of his life. As an author he is red lead, shot, flour, and flannels. Limestone known by numerous works on law, metaphysis largely exported. Holywell unites with Flint ics, criticism, agriculture, &c., covering a pein sending one member to parliament.
riod of more than 50 years, and all evincing a HOMBURG, a German watering place, cap- vigorous intellect and remarkable industry. To ital of Hesse-Homburg, about 9 m. from Frank- legal literature he contributed a series of refort-on-the-Main, with which city it is con- ports, consisting of an abridgment of the “Denected by railway via Bonamös, and beautifully cisions of the Court of Session" from its situated on an eminence, which affords a delight- foundation, arranged like a dictionary (2 vols. ful view of the Taunus mountains ; pop. 5,000. fol., 1741), "Remarkable Decisions of the Court It consists of a long main street, on one side of of Session" (2 vols. fol., 1728-'66), covering which are the wells and Kursaal, and at the end nearly the whole period between 1716 and 1752, of the other the palace of the landgrave. The and "Select Decisions of the Court of Session mineral springs were discovered about 1834, from 1752 to 1768" (1 vol. fol., 1780); “Statpartly by boring Artesian wells, and are considute Law of Scotland abridged, with Historical ered very beneficial in cases of disordered liver Notes" (8vo. 1757); “Principles of Equity" (fol., and stomach. The Kursaal, built by some French 1760), &c. In 1751 appeared his “Essays on speculators, at a cost of $100,000, is one of the the Principles of Morality and Natural Relimost magnificent in Germany; it is decorated gion” (8vo.), a work of ability, but which gave internally with frescoes and other works of art offence to the Scottish church from the supby Munich artists, and contains a saloon for posed irreligious tendency of some of the aumusical assemblies, dining, coffee, and smoking thor's views. The work however upon which rooms, and a reading room. It contains the his reputation chiefly rests is his “Elements of Criticism" (3 vols. 8vo., 1762), which was great- of a character," says his biographer Mackenzie, ly admired at the time of its appearance, pos- “ and that on which his own was formed, sessing, in the opinion of Dugald Stewart, “in- was the ideal being Young Norval in his own finite merits," but of which Goldsmith' once play of Douglas.'" His literary reputation said: “It is easier to write that book than to rests entirely upon his “Douglas,” which is still read it.” He also published: “The Gentleman highly esteemed, notwithstanding Dr. Johnson Farmer, being an Attempt to improve Agricul- said “there were not 10 good lines in the whole ture by submitting it to the Test of Rational play," and still frequently performed, notwithPrinciples" (1772); “Sketches of the History standing the declaration of Garrick that it was of Man" (2 vols. 4to., 1774); "Loose Hints on totally unfit for the stage. He also wrote a “HisEducation" (8vo., 1781), written the year be- tory of the Rebellion of 1745” (4to., London, fore his death. As a member of the board of 1802), which is commended by Prof. Smyth. trustees for the encouragement of the fisheries, His complete works, with an account of his life arts, and manufactures, and a commissioner for and writings, were published by Henry Macthe management of forfeited estates, he labored kenzie (3 vols. 8vo., Edinburgh, 1822). earnestly to promote the material prosperity of HOMER, or CHOMER, among the Hebrews, the Scotland. In 1807 appeared an account of his largest dry measure, equal to 10 ephahs, or to life, by Lord Woodhouselee (2 vols. 4to.). 19,857.7 Paris cubic inches. It was in later
HOME, JOHN, a Scottish author, born in Leith, times replaced by the cor. Sept. 22, 1722, died in Edinburgh, Sept. 5, 1808. HOMER. The extant biographies of the He was educated at the university of Edin- greatest of the Greek poets preserve little but burgh, and after a course of theological studies untrustworthy traditions of his life. In anwas licensed to preach in April, 1745. He was tiquity there were at least 16 works on the life naturally of an impulsive and chivalric nature, and poems of Homer. Two biographies only and upon the outbreak of the rebellion in 1745 remain, one attributed to Herodotus, and one to took up arms on the Hanoverian side. He Plutarch. Both have been pronounced, on the was taken prisoner at Falkirk in 1746; but most satisfactory evidence, to be forgeries; but having effected his escape, he resumed his pro- both are ancient, and contain the current legends fessional studies, and in the latter part of the and traditions relating to the life and adventures year was presented to the parish of Athelstane- of the poet. His mother is said to have been ford, made vacant by the death of the Rev. Rob- Critheis; and one legend represents him to have ert Blair, author of “The Grave.” He gave been born on the bank of the river Meles, near much time to historical reading and dramatic Smyrna, whence the name Melesigenes; another composition, and in 1749 went to London with relates, that Critheis was married to Mæon, a tragedy entitled “Agis," which Garrick, then king of the Lydians, who brought up her sonmanager of Drury Lane, declined to accept the offspring of a dæmon or genius—as his own, Although much mortified by his ill success, he whence the name Mæonides. Ephorus, accordset about the composition of another tragedy, ing to Plutarch, refers the origin of the name "Douglas,” founded on the old ballad of “Gil Homer to the poet's blindness, 'Ounpos, accordMorrice," which, upon being presented by the ing to him, signifying a blind man. Other exanthor to Garrick in 1755, was likewise refused planations, equally fanciful, were invented by by him. It was produced at Edinburgh in De- the ancients. Another legend states that Homer cember of the succeeding year with great suc- became a schoolmaster and poet in Smyrna; cess; but so violent a storm was raised by the that he was induced by Mentes, a foreign merfact that a minister of the church of Scotland chant, to travel; that while visiting Ithaca he had written a play, that, notwithstanding the was attacked by a disease in the eyes, which national pride was exceedingly flattered by the resulted in total blindness; that he composed performance, Home was threatened with depo- verses, which he recited wherever he went; sition, to avoid which he resigned his living in that Thestorides, a schoolmaster of Phocæa, June, 1757. He removed to London in the carried a copy of Homer's poetry to Chios, and same year, and had the satisfaction of seeing recited it as his own; that Homer followed him “Douglas" brought out at Drury Lane with thither, and resided long at Bolissos, a town in complete success, on which occasion the exul- Obios; and finally, that he died on the little tation of his countrymen was carried to a ludi- island of Ios, when journeying to Athens. A crous excess. By the aid of the sinecure office legend repeated by Plutarch is that the poet of conservator of Scots privileges at Campvere, when on his way to Thebes landed at Ios, and presented to him by the earl of Bute, and of a there died of vexation at being unable to solve pension of £300 bestowed upon him by George & riddle propounded to him by some young III., he was enabled to pass the remainder fishermen, in answer to his question if they had of his long life in comparative affluence. He got any thing. “As many as we caught," said wrote 4 other tragedies, the “Fatal Discovery," they, "we left; as many as we did not catch, we “ Alonzo,” “ Alfred,” and “Aquileia,” which, carry." Most of these traditions are evidently with his early effort “Agis," were originally fictitious; and, as is well known, the very experformed with success, but have long been istence of Homer has been denied. But the forgotten. The last 40 years of his life were want of authentic records of the particulars of passed in Scotland. “ His own favorite model his life is no proof that he did not live, when
weighed against the facts: 1, that a remarkable meanings, more or less confusing or effacing the body of poetical composition has come down images they at first presented. The Ionic diafrom remote antiquity under his name; 2, that lect, moulded under the happy influences of a he is referred to by the Greek writers who serene and beautiful heaven, amid the most vastand nearest to his supposed age, in point of ried and lovely scenery in nature, by a people time, without the slightest suggestion of a doubt of manly vigor and exquisite mental and physiof his existence, and of his being the author of cal organization, of the keenest susceptibility to the poems; 3, that the unanimous opinion of the beauty of sound as well as form, of the most antiquity, in all the subsequent periods of an- vivid and creative imagination, combined with cient literature, is unequivocally in favor of this a childlike impulsiveness and simplicity, had view; and finally, an analysis of the Iliad and attained, when Homer appeared, a descriptive Odyssey demonstrates the unity of authorship, force and harmony which made it the most adconsequently the individual existence of the mirable instrument on which poet ever played. author, whether we call him Homer or by some For every mood of mind, every shade of pasother name; and as no other name has been sion, every affection of the heart, every form, suggested, either in ancient or in modern times, sound, and aspect of the outward world, it had it would be absurd not to accept the one its clear, appropriate, and rich expression. Its adopted by the concurrent voices of antiquity. words and sentences seem to place the things We may assume then the extreme probability described before the eye of the reader. In that there was, in the earliest period of Greek structure, it obeys the impulse of thought and poetical literature, a great poet named Homeros feeling, rather than the formal principles of -Homer-whatever may be the meaning of grammar. It expresses the passions of robust the name. We cannot determine his age with manhood with artless truth. In its freedom, much precision. Herodotus believes him to its voluble minuteness of delineation, its rapid have lived about 400 years before himself; an changes of construction, its breaks, pauses, sigopinion which, if true, places him in the second nificant and sudden transitions and irregularihalf of the 9th century B. C. But the various ties, it exhibits the intellectual play of natural dates of his age range from 1184 to 684 B. C.; youth; while in boldness, splendor, and majestic the last is undoubtedly too recent, and the first sweep, it bears the impress of genius in the probably too early. It is almost certain that he full strength of its maturity. On the mainmust have lived considerably before the date land of Greece, the earliest poetical compositions of the Olympiads, 776 B. O. If we place him were oracular and religious; the next undoubtbetween 1000 and 800 B. C., we shall probably edly were the songs of the bards, celebrating the come as near the truth as we now can. It seems warlike deeds of leaders and kings. In passing certain that Homer must have been an Asiatic over to the islands of the Ægæan and the coast Greek, first, from the nearly unanimous opinion of Asia Minor, they carried with them this body of the ancients, and second, from the internal of legendary lore. In this way groups of heroic evidence of the poems themselves, which are ob- characters, founded on tradition, but embellishviously composed from an Asiatic point of view, ed by the imagination of the successive gener so far as local allusions, the coloring of nature, the ations of singers, were formed. In the colonial direction of winds, and other physical phenome- societies of Asia Minor, the traditions of former na are concerned. But the well known fact that times, embodied in the ballad poetry of Greece, 7 cities contended for the honor of being his were fondly cherished; and in the rapid progress birthplace shows how little his history was really of national prosperity, which appears to have known. It may be said that, in addition to the crowned the early youth of the Greek life in uncertain approximation to the period in which Asia, these national minstrelsies served to dehe lived, and to the fact that he was an Asiatic light the multitudes, when delivered by the Greek of the Ionian race, we only know that singers or rhapsodists, in the popular and relihe was an aoldos or bard. The perfection of the gious festivals, or in the halls of princes. The language, as found in the Homeric poems, implies singers found in the ballads thus composed, and a long and careful poetical cultivation. There perhaps orally transmitted, the richest mines of is an early stage in the progress of society when legendary poetry; and in process of time pieces all the influences seem most favorable to poet- of greater length, with more fully developed ical composition, at least to poetry of the epic characters, and varied dramatic action, were character. It is a period of social refinementrequired by the advancing culture of the race. before luxury bas corrupted the purity of moral The Greek epic was a species of story-telling, feeling, and broken down the strength of the for the entertainment of assemblies. It was manly character; and it generally follows a delivered in a kind of musical recitative, with a time of great struggles in the formation or slight accompaniment of the phorminx, or fourthe preservation of the state. It is when lan- stringed lyre. In Ionia the ballad minstrelsy guage has lost the meagreness of its early flourished with the greatest luxuriance, and growth, and ceasing to be rude is still marked by finally was developed by the genius of Homer its primitive and picturesque significancy, and into the full form of the epic. Antiquity paid before the speculations of philosophy, scientific divine honors to the name of the poet. From abstractions, and multiplying social relations his poems the ablest critics inferred the laws and have imparted to words numerous secondary cited the highest examples of epic composition.