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England, bringing with him Rousseau, who ty, and the mind is reduced to general sceptisought there a refuge from persecution. Hume cism. To these theories the Scottish philosoprovided Rousseau with retired lodgings in phers, led by Reid, opposed the doctrine of Derbyshire, and obtained for him a pension common sense, accepting as true whatever is from the king. But this singular person soon generally believed. Kant and his German fol. afterward wrote a letter to Hume, accusing lowers, excited by Hume's doubts, invented on him of desiring to destroy his fame. Their the other hand the theory that the mind creates, quarrel made a great sensation, and Hume in by its own action, a certain number of cogniself-defence published the letters that had pass- tions, which they have attempted to define. Sir ed between them. In 1766 Hume went to William Hamilton again, destroying the theory Edinburgh, but was invited by Gen. Conway of representation, asserts that of immediate perthe next year to become under secretary of ception. Each of these schools of metaphysics state. He remained in London until Conway therefore had its origin in the scepticism of was superseded, and in 1769 returned to Edin- Hume. But whatever may be thought of the burgh. He was now rich, being worth £1,000 a effect of his writings, it must be allowed that year, and employed himself in building a house, Hume's intellect presents a rare example of the and in the pleasures of society. By March 23, union of high philosophical power with great 1775, his health began to decline. The next refinement, and a clear and almost faultless spring he wrote a congratulatory letter to Gib- mode of expression.--Hume's history was conbon, who had sent him the first volume of the tinued by Smollett from the revolution to the “Decline and Fall.” In April, 1776, he fin- death of George II., and an addition has since ished his “Own Life," a concise narrative of been made, bringing it down to the year 1835, his literary career. After a journey to Bath, by the Rev. T. S. Hughes. One of the latest in company with John Home, he returned to editions is in 18 vols. 12mo. (London, 1856). Edinburgh to die. Five days before his death The best editions of his philosophical works he wrote to the countess de Boufflers : "I see are those of Edinburgh, 4 vols. 8vo., 1836, and death gradually approach without any anxiety of Boston, U. S., 4 vols. 8vo., 1854. The latter or regret. I salute you with great affection and is the more complete. See the “Life and Corregard for the last time." He died cheerfully respondence of David Hume," edited by John and easily, without apparent pain, and was bur- Hill Burton (2 vols. 8vo., Edinburgh, 1847). ied in Calton hill grave yard, Edinburgh, where HUME, JAMES Deacon, an English civila monument to him was erected. Hume's ian, born in Newington, Surrey, April 28, character was singularly pure and beneficent. 1774, died in Reigate, Jan. 12, 1842. He was He was charitable when he had little to spare, educated at Westminster school, and at the age his temper was mild and even, and his friends of 16 received a clerkship in the custom house. spoke of him as wise and good above other He married in 1798, and & few years later men. His enemies have accused him of insin- removed to Pinner, near Harrow, where he cerity, and of inculcating principles dangerous engaged in agricultural pursuits, at the same to human happiness. As a historian he is gen- time fulfilling his official duties in London. He erally allowed to hold the first rank among Eng- relinquished his farming occupations in 1822. lish writers. His narrative is interesting, his A report written by him for the use of the style almost faultless, and with happy ease he cominissioners of the custom house introduced blends profound thought, distinct portraiture, him to the friendship of Mr. Huskisson. With and skilful appeals to the feelings. He wants, the sanction of the lords of the treasury he however, accuracy and impartiality. His “Es- began in 1823 the task of consolidating the says" are clear, thoughtful, and novel, but show laws of the customs, which had accumulated little imagination or inventive power. He founds from the reign of Edward I. to the number of his ethical system upon utility, and would de. 1,500 often confused and contradictory statutes. termine the moral value of actions by their After nearly 3 years of labor by night and day, consequences. His metaphysical speculations he produced his compilation and revision, which cannot be said to form a complete or a well received the royal assent in 1825, and was proordered system. He asserts that the mind is nounced by Mr. Huskisson “the perfection of conscious only of impressions and ideas, and codification." In 11 intelligible statutes he that the impression always precedes the idea; contrived to preserve all that was requisite. there are therefore no cognitions but those The government immediately voted him £6,000 derived from external sources. He adopts the as an acknowledgment of his services. He soon representative theory, and infers that there is became connected with the board of trade, no clearer proof of the existence of mind than where he was so much in request at the consulthere is of matter. Belief is only a vivid idea. tations that in 1828 the office of joint secretary He traces the course of thought to the law of was created for him. At the same time he reassociation, which he founds upon three princi- signed the office of controller of the customs, ples, resemblance, contiguity, and cause and ef- which he had held for 38 years. “The history fect. But the doctrine of cause and effect is only of the board of trade," says Sir James Graham, a habit of the mind, resulting from experience. “from the time of Mr. Huskisson to the close There is no proof that similar causes will always of Mr. Deacon Hume's services at that board, produce similar effects. Thus all is uncertain may be considered as the history of Mr. Deacon
Hume himself; for he was the life and soul of larly the manufacturing towns, in the United that department, and every good measure Kingdom, and in 1810–11 making an extended which was adopted in rapid succession at that tour throughout southern Europe and Egypt. period either received his earnest support, or Too energetic to pursue the career of a man of may be traced to his wise suggestion." It was leisure, he immediately set about the acquisition through him that the forgeries of Fauntleroy of seats in parliament and in the East India were discovered in 1824. In 1840, in conse- board, with a view of devoting the remainder quence of the strain of his long and severe labors of his life to public business. In Jan. 1812, he upon his health, he retired from the board of was for a valuable consideration returned to the trade, received an annual pension from the gov- house of commons as one of the members for erment of £1,500, and fixed his residence at Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, commencing Reigate. He was, however, often consulted by his political career as a tory. Before the parSir Robert Peel, and his evidence before the liament was dissolved, however, in the succeedimport duties committee in 1840 had great ing July, he gave evidence of his independent weight with the leading men of all parties. Be- character by opposing a ministerial measure side his namerous and important official papers, for the relief of the Nottingham frame-work he wrote occasionally for periodicals on politico- knitters, on the ground that the masters would economical subjects. A memoir of his life has be thereby so inuch injured that the workmen been written by Charles Badham (London, 1859). would be reduced to a worse state than before.
HUME, JOSEPI, a British statesman and re- The reputation for independence and determiformer, born in Montrose, Scotland, in Jan. nation which Mr. Hume acquired during the 1777, died in Burnley hall, Norfolk, Feb. 20, first 6 months of his legislative career alarmed 1855. At about the age of 9 he lost his father, the conservative patrons of Weymouth and the master of a small fishing or trading vessel, Melcombe Regis, and at the succeeding election but was enabled by the thrift and industry of his they refused him a seat, notwithstanding he had mother, who established a retail crockery shop bargained for a second return. This proceeding in Montrose for the support of her children, to probably opened the eyes of the new member receive a tolerable education in the schools of to the evils of the borough system, for, although his native town. About 1790 he was placed offered seats from other boroughs, he refused to with a surgeon apothecary of Montrose, and 3 enter parliament again except as a perfectly free years later he became a student of medicine at member, a contingency which did not occur for the university of Edinburgh, where he remained several years. During this interval he busied until 1796, when he was admitted a member of himself with a variety of projects for the moral, the college of surgeons of Edinburgh. Being intellectual, and physical improvement of the las appointed as surgeon to an East Indiaman, boring classes, for whose benefit he also advocat. he made two voyages to India in the com- ed the establishment of savings banks. His chief pany's vessels, and in 1799 joined the medical efforts, however, were directed against the abuses establishment in Bengal. In his second voyage perpetrated by the East India direction, for a out he had given evidence of his energy and seat in which he was an indefatigable though capacity by acting temporarily as purser upon invariably an unsuccessful candidate. In Jan. the death of that functionary; and upon his ar- 1819, he reëntered parliament as a radical rival in India his temperate habits, his regular- member for the Aberdeen district of burghs, ity in the discharge of his duties, and his excel- comprehending his native town, Montrose ; and lent judgment, combined to recommend him for during the first session on several occasions he advancement. Finding that few of the com- recorded his views in favor of the repeal of the pany's servants had taken the trouble to acquire usury laws, of the corn laws, and of other restricthe native languages, he at once applied himself tions upon commerce and manufactures. Ho to the study of them, and was soon able to speak continued to represent the Scotch burghs until them with fluency--& circumstance which un- 1830, when he was returned unopposed as one doubtedly laid the foundation of his fortune. At of the members for Middlesex. In 1837 he was the outbreak of the Mahratta war in 1802 he was defeated by a small majority, but was immeattached to the division of the army under Gen. diately returned through the interest of Mr. Powell, and upon a sudden emergency officiated O'Connell for Kilkenny, which he represented as Persian interpreter with so much efficiency, until 1841, when in the great conservative rethat he was appointed to discharge the duties of action of that year he was an unsuccessful canthat office permanently. At the same time he was didate for the town of Leeds. In the succeedat the head of the inedical staff, and for long pe- ing year he offered himself once more to the riods acted as paymaster, postmaster, prize agent, elcctors of Montrose, in whose service he died. and commissary-general. These multifarious In variety and importance his legislative labors employments brought him not merely reputa. were not surpassed, if indeed they were equaltion but handsome and fairly earned emoluments; led, by the most eminent of his contemporaries. and in 1808 he was able to retire from profes- His speeches alone would fill many volumes of sional life, and return to England with a fortune “Hansard's Debates," and his motions, returns, of between £30,000 and £40,000. For several reports, and other acts in the house of commons, years he devoted himself to travel and study, independent of his vigorous agitation of public visiting every place of importance, and particu- measures outside of its doors, were almost innumerable. Possessing an unusual degree of of age he exhibited such remarkable precocity patience, courage, and tenacity of purpose, he that Mozart, contrary to his custom, offered to proposed and advocated sweeping reforms in all direct his musical education. At the age of 9 departments of government, civil, military, and he could play so skilfully on the piano that his ecclesiastical, with a perseverance which repeat- father was induced to exhibit his talents in coned defeats and the coarsest ridicule could never certs. He excited universal admiration through. overcome. He early advocated the abolition out Germany and subsequently in England, and of military flogging, naval impressment, and returned home, after an absence of 6 years, the imprisonment for debt, and, almost unaided, most brilliant pianist of the German school. effected the repeal of the acts prohibiting the He gave his attention for several years to the export of machinery and the emigration of work- study of harmony, accompaniment, and counmen. His efforts against colonial abuses, elec- terpoint, and soon rendered his name famous tion expenses, the licensing system, and duties on in Germany by his operas and masses, and paper, tea, tobacco, &c., were not the less stren- particularly by his instrumental compositions. uous because futile; while those against Orange He retained his supremacy as a pianist until the lodges and close vestries were completely suc- close of his life. cessful. It is scarcely necessary to add that HUMMING BIRD, the common name of a Catholic emancipation, the repeal of the test large family (trochilida) of slender-billed birds, and corporation acts, and the reform act of 1832 found in America and its adjacent islands. There found in him an energetic supporter. As a keen are 3 sub-families, grypina or wedge-tailed humunraveller of accounts he had no superior, and ming birds, lamporninæ or curved-billed hum. for the manner in which in 1821 he procured ming birds, and trochilino or straight-billed from the ministry a pledge that the ordnance esti- humming birds. These delicate and beautiful mates should be submitted to the house in detail, creatures, peculiar to America as the sun birds he was publicly complimented by Sir James are to the old world, have always attracted atMackintosh and other members of the opposi- tention even from the aboriginal inhabitants of tion. Commencing his career as a reformer al- this continent; the ancient Mexicans worked most single-handed, he was soon at the head of their feathers into mantles, pictures, and various a real minority which was subsequently devel. ornamental articles. No epithet has been spared oped into an undoubted majority, and which to convey an idea of the richness of coloring of gave the key note to various species of reform, these birds, and yet all fail in comparison with In the face of neglect, contempt, and almost the reality ; "the lustres of the topaz, emeralds, open insult, he worked his way up to a first- and rubies,” “the hue of roses steeped in liquid rate position as a legislator, and lived to see fire," "the locks of the star of day," the “beams nearly every important measure which he had of the sun," and similar expressions, fall far advocated, and which at the outset had been short of the changing tipts of their “gorgeous met by insolent opposition, ultimately adopted. plumery.” The most brilliant species live in Although several times invited to take office, he the tropical forests, amid the rich drapery of invariably declined, preferring his independent the orchids, whose magnificent blossoms rival position; and notwithstanding that in the dis- the beauty of the birds themselves. As we charge of his public duties he frequently ex- leave the tropics their numbers decrease, and pended large sums from his private purse, "ho but a few species are found within the limits of passed the whole of a long life," to adopt the the United States, some however reaching as words of one of his contemporaries, “in serving high as lat. 67° N. In whatever latitude, their the people without fee or reward." His private manners are the same; very quick and active, character was without a stain, and his gentle- almost constantly on the wing, as they dart ness and consideration for others extorted the in the bright sun they display their brilliant admiration even of his opponents, among others colors. of the late Sir Robert Peel, who also publicly
Each rapid movement gives a different dye: eulogized his integrity, and the valuable charac Like scales of burnish'd gold they dazzling show, ter of his long services. His capacity for labor
Now sink to shade, now like a furnace glow. was almost proverbial, and probably no man of When hovering over a flower in which they are his time attended parliamentary sessions so reg- feeding, their wings are moved so rapidly that ularly or sat upon such a variety of committees. they become invisible, causing a humming As a speaker he never rose to eloquence, and sound, whence their common name, their bodies even in the most heated debates so completely seeming suspended motionless in the air. They preserved his equanimity that it was said of rarely alight on the ground, but perch readily him by Lord Palmerston, in noticing his decease, on branches; bold and familiar, they frequent that “any feeling excited by his party conflicts gardens in thickly settled localities, even enternever went even to the door of the house." A ing rooms and flitting without fear near passers statue of him was in 1859 erected in his native by; they are very.pugnacious, and will attack place, to commemorate his efforts in behalf of any intruder coming near their nests. The nest the people.
is delicate but compact, and lined with the HUMMEL, JOHANN NEPOMUK, a German softest vegetable downs; it is about an inch in composer, born in Presburg, Nov. 14, 1778, diameter, and the same in depth, and placed on died in Weimar, Oct. 17, 1837. At ī years trees, shrubs, and reeds. The eggs, one or two in number, are small in proportion, averag- the throat, and the deeply forked tail brownish ing about } by of an inch, generally of & white violet; the female has not the red throat, and color, and hatched in 10 or 12 days. It is very the tail is rounded, emarginate, and banded with difficult to keep these birds in cages; but they black. The corresponding species on the Pacific have been kept in rooms and conservatories, coast is the black-chinned T. Alexandri (Bourc. even in New England, for months, feeding on and Mulsant). The last two belong to the subsugar or honey and water and the insects at family of trochilincs or mellisugino, having tracted by these, and have become so tamo as straight bills; their genus is given by Gray as to take their sweetened fluids from the end of mellisuga (Briss.), of which there are more than the finger. They are incidentally honey-eaters, 100 species. The largest of the humming birds but essentially insectivorous; their barbed and belongs to this sub-family, and is the hylocharis viscid tongue is admirably adapted for drawing gigas (Vieill.); it is nearly 8 inches long, browninsects from the depths of tubular flowers, over ish green above and light reddish below; the which they delight to hover. The family of wings are longer than the deeply forked tail, trochilida may be recognized by their diming, and the general appearance is that of a brilliant tive size, gorgeous plumage, long, slender, and swallow, with a long straight bill. Species acute bill, but little cleft at the base, and pecu- of the genera selasphorus (Swains.) and atthis liar tongue; the species are very numerous, (Reich.), 2 of each, are described by Prof. Baird probably as many as 400, some of which have à in vol. ix. of the Pacific railroad reports. Those very limited range. The bill when closed forms wishing to study in detail the complicated ar. & tube, through which the long, divided, and rangement of this beautiful family are referred thread-like tongue may be protruded into deep to the illustrated works of Lesson (Histoire naflowers; there are no bristly feathers around its turelle des oiseaux-mouches, and Les trochilidées base, as in birds which catch insects on the ou les colibris), Temminck (Planches coloriées), wing; the tongue has its cornua elongated back Audebert and Vieillot, and especially to Gould's ward, passing around the back to the top of the monograph on the Trochilida ; also to vols. xiv. skull, as in woodpeckers; the wings are long and xv. of the “Naturalists' Library." and falciform, with very strong shafts, the 1st HUMPHREY, HEMAN, D.D., an American quill of the 10 the longest; the secondaries divine, born in Simsbury, Conn., March 26, usually 6; the tail is of various forms, but al. 1779. From the age of 16 he was engaged for ways strong, and important in directing the several successive winters as a teacher in the flight; the tarsi short and weak; the toes long common schools of his native state. He was and slender, and capable of sustaining them in graduated at Yale college in 1805, and immea hanging position, as is known from their be- diately entered upon the study of theology, first ing not unfrequently found hanging dead from under President Dwight, and afterward under branches in the autumn after a sudden cold change the Rev. Asahel Hooker of Goshen, Conn. He in the weather. The sub-family grypino have was ordained in 1807 over the Congregational the bill slightly curved, and the tail long, broad, church in Fairfield, Conn., where he remained and wedge-shaped; of these the genus phætornis 10 years. Resigning this charge in 1817, he was (Swains.) is found in the warmer parts of South installed as pastor of the church in Pittsfield, America, and is numerous in species; oreotro. Mass. Six years afterward he was elected to chilus (Gould) inhabits the mountains of the the presidency of Amherst college, and was western side of South America immediately be inaugurated to that office in Oct. 1823. When neath the line of perpetual snow, feeding upon called to that institution, it was contending the small hemipterous insects which resort to against adverse influences for a charter of incor the flowers; grypus (Spix) is found in the neigh- poration, and its success in the succeeding year borhood of Rio Janeiro. The curved-billed was greatly due to his influence and energy. hamming birds, more than 100 species, are not He presided over Amherst college 22 years, and represented in the United States, unless the resigned his office in 1845, leaving the institumango hummingbird (lampornis mango, tion firmly established, and retired to his former Swains.) be admitted; this may be distin- home in Pittsfield, where he has since devoted guished from the common species by the ab- his leisure chiefly to literary pursuits and to the sence of metallio scale-like feathers on the promotion of the religious and benevolent enthroat, and by the serrations of the end of the terprises of the age. President Humphrey has bill; the prevailing colors are metallic green and been for 50 years a frequent contributor to the golden above, and velvety bluish black below, periodical literature of his times. His earlier with a tuft of downy white feathers under the papers appeared chiefly in " The Panoplist” and wings. The common species throughout the "Ohristian Spectator.” In 1880 he published a eastern states, extending to the high central volume of prize essays on the Sabbath, which plains and south to Brazil, is the ruby-throated was republished in England. His other princihumming bird (trochilus colubris, Linn.). The pal works are: “Tour in France, Great Britain, length of this "glittering fragment of the rain- and-Belgium” (2 vols. 12mo., New York, 1838); bow" (as Audubon calls it) is about 31 inches, "Domestic Education" (1840); “Letters to 8 with an extent of wings of 41 inches; thé Son in the Ministry" (1845); “Life and Writings upper parts are uniform metallic green, with a of Prof. W. Fisko" (1850); “Life and Writings ruby red gorget in the male, a white collar on of T, H. Gallaudet" (1857); “Sketches of the
History of Revivals" (1859). A collection of his HUMUYA, a river of Honduras, rising at the public addresses and reviews has also been pub- S. extremity of the plain of Comayagua, and lished, and a volume entitled “ Revival Conver- flowing due N. for a distance of about 80 m. to sations." Dr. Humphrey was, if not the first, a point near the town of Yojoa, where it unites one of the earliest pioneers in the modern tem- with the rivers Blanco and Santiago or Venta, perance reformation. In 1810 he preached 6 forming the great river Ulua, which falls into sermons on the ravages of intemperance; and the bay of Honduras, about 25 m. to the eastin 1813, in connection with the Rev. Messrs. ward of the port of Omoa. For the greater Swan and Bonney, drew up a report to the part of its course it is a rapid stream, and only Fairfield consociation, which had a wide circu- navigable for canoes. It is principally interestlation, and is believed to have been the first ing in connection with the proposed interoceanic tract published on that subject.
railway through Honduras, which is laid out HUMPHREYS, a N. W. co. of Tenn., bound through its valley. Comayagua, the capital of ed E. by Tennessee river, and intersected near Honduras, stands on its E. bank its S. border by Duck river, a tributary of the HUNDRED, the name given in some parts former stream; area, 375 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, of England to the subdivision of a shire, wbich 6,422, of whom 1,097 were slaves. The surface may have received the appellation from having is moderately uneven, and the soil is fertile. comprised 100 families, 100 warriors, or 100 The productions in 1850 were 419,387 bushels manors. The existing divisions of this name of Indian corn, 30,173 of oats, 23,149 of sweet differ greatly in area and population. The hunpotatoes, 11,045 lbs. of tobacco, and 89,656 of dred is by some considered to have been a Danish butter. There were 18 grist mills, 6 saw mills, institution, adopted by King Alfred about 897, 21 churches, and 1,922 pupils attending public each county being divided into tithings, of schools. Capital, Waverley.
which 10 or 12 made a hundred, presided over HUMPHREYS, David, an American poet, by a decanus, head borough, or hundred-man. born in Derby, Conn., in 1753, died in New The hundreds were represented in the "shireHaven, Feb. 21, 1818. He was educated at Yale mote," which, under the presidency of its earl college, where he was connected with Dwight and bishop or sheriff, regulated the affairs of the and Trumbull, entered the army at the beginning county. The jurisdiction of the hundred was of the revolutionary war, and in 1780 became & vested in the sheriff, although it was sometimes colonel and aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington. a special grant from the crown to individuals, He resided more than & year with Washington and he or his deputy held a court baron, or after his retirement to Virginia, and again in 1788. court leet. The hundred was held responsible In 1784 he accompanied Jefferson to Europe as for felons until delivered up. secretary of legation, was elected to the legisla- HUNGARY (Hung. Magyarország, Magyar ture of Connecticut in 1786, and was soon asso- land; Germ. Ungarn), a country of Europe, ciated with Hopkins, Trumbull, and Barlow in formerly an independent kingdom, subsequently the composition of the “Anarchiad,” being thus united with Austria, and since 1849 a crownland one of " the four bards with Scripture names" or province of the latter. Before 1849 it emsatirized in London. He was minister to Lis- braced in a constitutional sense, beside Hungary bon from 1791 to 1797, and afterward min- proper, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Hungarian ister to Spain till 1802, and on his return im Littorale (coast land on the Adriatic), and in its ported from Spain 100 merino sheep, and en- widest acceptation also Transylvania, the Miligaged in the manufacture of woollens. He held tary Frontier, and Dalmatia, with an aggregate command of two Connecticut regiments in the population of about 15,000,000. All these dewar of 1812, after which he lived in retirement. pendencies having been detached, and beside His principal poems are: an “Address to the them from Hungary proper the counties of Armies of the United States" (1772); a “Poem Middle Szolnok, Zaránd, and Kraszna, and the on the Happiness of America;" a tragedy, en district of Kövár, to be reunited with Transyltitled the “Widow of Malabar,translated from vania, and the counties of Bács, Torontál, Temes, the French of Le Mierre; and a “Poem on and Krassó, to form the new crownland of the Agriculture." His “Miscellaneous Works" Servian Waywodeship and Banat, the crownland (New York, 1790 and 1804) contain beside his of Hungary in its most limited sense under poems a biography of Gen. Putnam and several Francis Joseph is bounded N. W., N., and N. E. orations and other prose compositions.
by the Carpathians, which separate it from MoHUMUS (Lat, humus, the ground), a name of ravia, Austrian Silesia, Galicia, and Bukovina, S. no definite signification, that has been applied E. and E. by Transylvania, s. by the Waywodeto various compounds resulting from the decay ship and Banat (from which it is partly separatof woody fibre or of different vegetable and ed by the Maros), by Slavonia and Croatia (from animal substances, presented in the form of a which it is separated by the Drave), and W. by brown pulverulent substance, as that which Styria and Austria, being situated between lat. forms a large portion of vegetable mould. 45° 30' and 49° 40' N., and long. 16° and 25° E.; Boullay regarded it as identical with ulmic acid, pop. about 9,000,000. Hungary in its chief parts but no definite compound is now recognized by forms a large basin surrounded almost entirely this name, nor by that of humic acid, formerly by mountain ranges, of which the principal are, separated from it.
the Carpathians, which encircle tho north, with