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which treat of the blood of Christ, the priest- HUSTINGS (Sax. hus-tynge, house of trial), hood, indulgences, the veneration of images, the name of an ancient court granted to the city and all the points at issue in that age concerning of London by Edward the Confessor, in 1052. ecclesiastical doctrine or practice. Of the class It is the supreme court of judicature of the city, of exegetical writings, there are 5 treatises, held annually before the mayor and common on the acts of Christ, the passion of Christ, a council. Winchester, York, Lincoln, and some commentary on 7 chapters of the 1st Epistle to other old English cities, have had similar courts. the Corinthians, and notes on other canonical The name is now applied to the booths wherein epistles, and an explanation of 10 of the psalms. parliamentary elections are conducted. In the class of sermons there are 38, two of HUSTON, LORENZO Dow, D.D., an Ameriwhich were written at Constance, but never can clergyman, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Feb. preached. There are two series of letters, the 24, 1820. He was educated at Woodford colfirst of 14, written before, and the second of 56, lege; entered the Ohio conference of the Methwritten after his departure from Prague to Con- odist Episcopal church in Sept. 1889; was stance. The complete works of Huss were pub- transferred to the Kentucky conference in 1842; lished in quarto at Strasbourg in 1525.-The was elected by the general conference of the M. Hussites, or followers of Huss in Bohemia, im- E. church, South, editor of the Home Circle" mediately made the offering of the cup to the and of the “Sunday School Visitor" in May, laity in the sacrament of the eucharist the badge 1854, and reëlected in 1858. He received the of their covenant. Upon the death of Wences- degree of D.D. from Emory college, Ga., in 1856. las (1419), they refused to recognize the em- HUTCHESON, FRANCIS, the founder of the peror Sigismund as king, whereupon the Hussite Scottish school of speculative philosophy, born civil war broke out. They were divided into in Ireland, Aug. 8, 1694, died in Glasgow in two parties, the more moderate Calixtines and 1747. He studied theology at Glasgow, and the more rigid Taborites. Ziska, the leader of became pastor of a Presbyterian congregation the latter party, assembled them on Mt. Tabor, in the synod of Ulster. His first work, an “Incaptured Prague, pillaged the monasteries, and quiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty in several engagements defeated Sigismund. and Virtue" (1720), gave him distinction among After the death of Ziska (1424), his place was philosophers, and gained for him the friendship filled by a monk named Procopius, who de- of Archbishop King of Dublin. In 1728 he pubfeated the mercenaries sent under the name of lished a treatise on the “Nature and Conduct crusaders by the emperor and the papal legates of the Passions and Affections," and in the folin the battles of Mies (1427) and Tachau (1431), lowing year was appointed professor of moral and whose troops ravaged Austria, Franconia, philosophy in the university of Glasgow, from Saxony, Catholic Bohemia, Lusatia, and Silesia. which he received the degree of doctor of laws. A council held at Basel in 1433 made conces- His Synopsis Metaphysicoe Ontologiam et Pneusions which were accepted by the Calixtines. matologiam complectens, and his Philosophia The Taborites, rejecting the compromise, were Moralis Institutio, were written as text books vanquished in the battle of Prague (1434), and for his classes. His most complete and elaborby the treaty of Iglau (1436) the compromise ate work, the “System of Moral Philosophy," of Basel was accepted by Bohemia, and Sigis- appeared after his death (2 vols., Glasgow, 1755), mund was recognized as king. On the death with an interesting biography by Dr. William of Sigismund (1437) controversies again arose, Leechman. His writings are marked by purity and civil wars were prosecuted with no decisive of style, copiousness of illustration, and an amiresults, till at the diet of Kuttenberg (1485) a able tone of feeling, and exerted a more general peace was established by King Ladislas which influence than the severe and profounder comsecured the Catholic and Calixtine parties in the positions of his contemporary Bishop Butler, possessions which they then beld.-See Schubert, with whom he coincided in his most important Geschichte des Hussitenkriegs (1825).
principles. Following in the path of ShaftesHUSSARS (Hung. húsz, 20, and ár, rate), the bury, he maintained that beside the 5 external national cavalry of Hungary and Croatia. The senses we possess also internal senses, one of name is also applied to some bodies of light which occasions the emotions of beauty and cavalry in the armies of other countries of Eu- sublimity and introduces us to the realm of rope. It is derived from the fact that in the westhetics, and another gives rise to the moral 15th century every 20 houses in Hungary feelings. He introduced the term moral sense, were required to furnish a soldier with a horse which had been once employed by Shaftesbury, and furniture. The arms of the hussars are & and has continued to be a part of philosophsabre, a carbine, and pistols. Their regimentals ical language. This suggestion of an inward were originally & fur cap with a feather, a source of ideas was the first step taken by the doublet, a pair of breeches to which the stockings Scotch philosophy against the increasing materiwere attached, and a pair of red or yellow boots. alism of the school of Locke. He also maintained There were 5 regiments of hussars under Tilly the existence of certain metaphysical axioms or at Leipsic in 1631. The name first became universal propositions, which are derived not general in the 18th century, when regiments of from experience, but from the connate power of hussars were organized in the principal Euro the inind (menti congenita intelligendi vis). pean armies.
Benevolent sentiments and acts he regarded as the only objects of moral approbation, and do the island of Aquetneck, subsequently called nied that prudence, as long as its end was the Rhode island. There a body politic was formed profit of the agent, could be accounted virtuous, on democratic principles, in which no one was
HUTCHINSON, ANNE, the founder of the to be “accounted a delinquent for doctrine." Antinomian party in the New England colo. The church in Boston, from which she had been nies, died in Westchester co., N. Y., in Aug. excommunicated, vainly sent a deputation of 1643. She was the daughter of a Lincolnshire “four men of a lovely and winning spirit" to clergyman. In England she was interested in the island with the hope of reclaiming her. no preaching but that of John Cotton and her After the death of her husband in 1642, she brother-in-law John Wheelwright, and it was removed with her surviving family into the her desire to enjoy the ministry of the former territory of the Dutch, probably from apprewhich induced her to follow him to New Eng. hensions that Rhode island might not be a safe land. She arrived in Boston with her husband, place of refuge from the encroachments of MasSept. 18, 1634, was admitted a member of the sachusetts. The precise locality where she Boston church, Nov. 2, and rapidly acquired settled has been a matter of dispute, but accord. esteem and influence. She instituted meetings ing to the latest authorities it was near Hell of the women of the church to discuss sermons Gate, Westchester co., N. Y. The Indians and and doctrines, in which, with a ready wit, bold the Dutch were then at war, and in an invasion spirit, and imposing familiarity with Scripture, of the settlement by the former her house was she gave prominence to peculiar speculations attacked and set on fire, and herself and all which even on her voyage had attracted the her family, excepting one child who was carried attention and caused the displeasure of her fel. captive, perished either by the flames or by the low passengers. Such were the tenets that the weapons of the savages. person of the Holy Spirit dwells in every be- HUTCHINSON, John, a Puritan colonel in liever, and that the inward revelations of the the parliamentary service during the civil war Spirit, the conscious judgments of the mind, are in England, born in Nottinghamshire in 1617, of paramount authority. She had been two died in Sandown castle, Kent, Sept. 11, 1664. years in the country before the strife between He was a man of family and of good education, her supporters and her opponents broke out and was married at Richmond, July 3, 1638, to into public action. Among her partisans were Lucy, daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, governor the young governor Vane, Cotton, Wheelwright, of the tower of London, with whom he subseand the whole Boston church with the excep- quently settled on his estate at Owthorpe. tion of 5 members, one of whom was the asso- Being of a religious turn of mind, he devoted ciate pastor Wilson, while the country clergy much time to the study of divinity, from which and churches were generally united against her. his attention was soon diverted by the serions Wilson was censured by the church for a speech political questions which agitated the kingdom. which he delivered on the subject in a meeting A careful investigation of the matters at issue of magistrates and elders. Soon after (1637) between the king and the parliament satisfied Wheelwright was censured by the general court him of the justico of the latter's cause, and for a sermon in maintenance of his opinions after the commencement of the civil war he dewhich was pronounced seditious, but the gov- clared for the parliament and was appointed ernor protected him, and the Boston church governor of Nottingham castle, which he held petitioned against the proceeding. “The dis- until the close of the war. He afterward reppute,” says Bancroft, "infused its spirit into resented Nottingham in parliament, and, as a every thing; it interfered with the levy of member of the high court of judiciary appointtroops for the Pequot war; it influenced the ed for the trial of the king, concurred in the respect shown to the magistrates, the distribu- sentence pronounced on him, having first “adtion of town lots, the assessment of rates; and dressed himself to God by prayer." The subat last the continued existence of the two op- sequent course of Oromwell, however, met with posing parties was considered inconsistent with the disapproval of Hutchinson, who was one of the public peace.” The peculiar tenets of Mrs. the few honest and consistent republicans among Hutchinson were among the 82 opinions con- the public men of England. At the restoration demned as erroneous by the ecclesiastical synod he was comprehended in the general act of amat Newtown, Aug. 30, 1637; and in November nesty, but was subsequently arrested on a susshe was summoned before the general court, picion of treasonable conspiracy, and after a and after a trial of two days was sentenced with detention of 10 months in the tower was resome of her associates to banishment from the moved to Sandown castle, where he died of an territory of Massachusetts, but was allowed to aguish fever brought on by confinement in a remain during the winter at a private house in damp cell.-LUCY APSLEY, wife of the precedRoxbury. It was her first intention to remove ing, born in the tower of London, of which her to the banks of the Piscataqua, but changing father was at the time governor, Feb. 9, 1620, her plan she joined the larger number of her died in the latter part of the 17th century. She friends, who, led by John Clarke and William survived her husband many years, and left a Coddington, had been welcomed by Roger Wil- memoir of him, dictated by affectionate admiliams to his vicinity, and had obtained through ration of her subject, and valuable as a record his influence from the chief of the Narragansetts of events, and as presenting many striking por
traits of public men, although too strongly 1727. After engaging without success in combiassed by her husband's political views to be merce, he began the study of law with referconsidered an impartial record. One of its ence to public life. He represented Boston for most interesting features is the insight it gives 10 years in the general court, of which he was into the domestic life of the Puritan gentry, the for 3 years speaker. He became judge of proauthoress being, in the opinion of Professor bate in 1752, was a councillor from 1749 to Smyth,“ often a painter of manners as minute 1766, lieutenant-governor from 1758 to 1771, and far more forcible than even Clarendon." and was appointed chief justice in 1760, thus According to the same authority: “She will be bolding 4 high offices at one time. In the disthought to have united the opposite virtues of putes which led to the revolution he sided with the sexes, and to have been alike fitted to give the British government. His brother-in-law, a charm to existence amid the tranquillity of Andrew Oliver, was appointed distributor of domestic life, and in an hour of trial to add en- stamps under the law which was to go into terprise and strength to the courage of a hero." effect Nov. 1, 1765, but was compelled by mobs Her work was first published from the original to resign the office before that time. The manmanuscript in 1806 (4to., London), under the sion of Hutchinson was also twice attacked in editorial supervision of the Rev. Julius Hutchin- consequence of a report that he had written son, a descendant. Several other editions have letters in favor of the act, and on the second ocsince appeared, the last being that published in casion (Aug. 26), when the rioters were mad“ Bohn's Standard Library" in 1846.
dened by liquor, his house was sacked, the furHUTCHINSON, JOHN, an English philoso- niture burned in bonfires in the street, and many pher, founder of a mystical school of philoso manuscripts relating to the history of the proyphy and theology, born in Spennithorne, York- ince, which he had been 30 years in collecting shire, in 1674, died Aug. 28, 1737. After receiy- and which could not be replaced, were lost. ing a careful private education, he served as The inhabitants of the town on the following steward in several noble families. As riding pur day in public meeting voted their abhorrence veyor of the duke of Somerset, then master of of the proceedings; but though many of the the horse, he availed himself of his excellent op- actors were well known, no one was punished. portunities for the study of natural history, and He, however, received compensation for his made a large collection of fossils. In 1724 ap- losses. In 1767 he took a seat in the council, peared the first part of his “Moses's Principia," claiming it ex officio as lieutenant-governor; but in which he disputed the Newtonian theory of both the house and council resisted his pretengravitation. In the second part (1727) he con- sion, and be abandoned it. The legislature was tinued his criticisms of Newton, and maintained inclined to restore him to the council in 1768, on biblical authority the doctrine of a plenum in until it was announced by his opponent James opposition to that of a vacuum. From this time Otis that he received an annual pension of one or more of his uncouthly written volumes, £200 from the crown. When in 1769 Gov. containing a sort of cabalistic interpretation Bernard was transferred to Virginia, the gov. of the Hebrew Scriptures, appeared annually. ernment of Massachusetts fell to Hutchinson. His leading idea is that the Scriptures contain The popular excitement had already been inthe elements of all rational philosophy as well creased by the arrival of British troops, and as of general religion. The Hebrew language after the Boston massacre a committee of citihas not only its literal but its typical sense, zens, headed by Samuel Adams, forced him to every root of it being significant of hidden consent to the removal of the regiments. He meanings. With this elastic principle of exe- received his commission as governor in 1771, gesis he deduces a system from which the occult and his whole administration was characterized powers of attraction, gravitation, magnetism, by duplicity and an avaricious love of money, and electricity are excluded, but according to writing letters which he never sent, but which which the whole mechanism of the heavens is he showed as evidence of his zeal for the liberthe result of the agency of fire, light, and spirit, ties of the province, while he advised the estabthe 3 material elements which were set to work lishment of a citadel in Boston, the stationing in the beginning, and which typify the 3 per- of a fleet in its harbor, the proclamation of sons of the Trinity. His views found numer. martial law, and the transportation of "incenons followers, among the more eminent of whom diaries" to England. In 1772 Dr. Franklin, 'were President Forbes, Bishops Horne and then in London, procured some of his confidenHorsley, Jones of Nayland, Parkhurst the lexi- tial letters, which were forwarded to Massacographer, Robert Spearman, Julius Bates, Lee, chusetts, and ultimately communicated to tho Hodges, Wetherell, and Holloway, His philo- legislature in secret session. They proved that sophical and theological works were published he had been for years opposing every part of in London in 13 vols. (1749–65).
the colonial constitution, and urging measures HUTCHINSON, THOMAS, governor of the to enforce the supremacy of parliament; and province of Massachusetts, born in Boston, the result was a petition to the king from the Sept. 9, 1711, died at Brompton, near London, assembly and the council praying for his rein June, 1780. He was the son of a merchant moval from the government. The last of his of Boston who was long a member of the coun. public difficulties was when the people of Boscil, and he was graduated at Harvard college in ton and the neighboring towns determined to resist the taxation on teas consigned by the East logne, however, the new spirit of classic study India company, two of the consignees being had found a home under the care of Johannes sons of Gov. Hutchinson. The popular com- Rhagius, generally known as Rhagius Æsticam. mittees were resolved that the tea should not pianus, who, encouraged by Count Nuenaar, be landed, but should be reshipped to London. endeavored to form a taste for the works of A meeting of several thousand men, the most classical antiquity and what was then termed numerous ever held in Boston (Dec. 14, 1773), poetry, a word limited by the Obscurants to pure demanded the return of the ships, but the gov- and ancient Greek and Latin metrical composiernor refused & pass. The consequence was tion. Hutten became his friend and scholar, that on that evening between 40 and 50 men and, when he was driven away by the dominant disguised as Indians repaired to the wharf, and party under the accusation of corrupting both emptied 340 chests of tea, the whole quantity youth and theology, followed him to Frankfortthat had been imported, into the bay. In the on-the-Oder, where a new university dedicated following February the governor sent a message to liberal studies was opened April 27, 1506. to the legislature that he had obtained his ma- Among the eminent men here he found an old jesty's leave to return to England, and he sailed friend, Eitelwolf von Stein, who had been inon June 1. The privy council investigated his strumental as privy counsellor in inducing the official acts, and decided in favor of “his honor, margrave of Brandenburg to found the univerintegrity, and conduct,” which decision was ap- sity, and who at once took him under his care, proved by the king. He was rewarded with a At the inauguration Hutten published his first pension. He published the following valuable poem, Carmen in Laudem Marchio, in praise of works: the “History of the Colony of Massa- the mark of Brandenburg. Here he received chusetts Bay, from the First Settlement thereof the degree of M.A., and remained till 1508. in 1628 until the Year 1750" (2 vols., 1760_67); The disease which had driven him from Erfurt a “Brief State of the Claim of the Colonies' again seized on him, and in despair he sought (1764); and a “Collection of Original Papers health in long, aimless travel. In northern relative to the History of the Colony of Massa- Germany he was everywhere warmly received, chusetts Bay" (1769). From his manuscripts a but was wrecked on the Baltic and reduced to volume treating the history of Massachusetts great poverty. In this condition he went to from 1749 to 1774 was prepared by his grand the university of Greifswalde, and took lodgings son, the Rev. John H. Hutchinson, of Trentham, with the burgomaster Wedeg Lötz, a rapacious England (London, 1828).
and cruel wretch, who in some way drove him HUTTEN, ULRICH VON, a German scholar from the town. While flying, the son and serand reformer, born in the castle of Steckelberg, vants of Lötz, having laid in wait, caught him, Hesse-Cassel, April 20 or 22, 1488, died in beat him cruelly, and robbed him of all his Switzerland, Aug. 29, 1523. When 11 years money and papers, even stripping him naked. old he was placed in the monastery of Fulda, In this condition, diseased and wounded, he that he might there become a monk; but when came to Rostock, where he was well received. only 15 he ran away from the cloister to the Here he wrote a famous satire on Lötz (Klagen university of Erfurt, where he became intimate gegen Lötz), calling on all the scholars of the with such men as Crotus Rubianus and Eobanus new school in Germany to avenge him. In Hesse, Temonius, and many others who were Rostock he lectured on the classics, established zealously pursuing ancient literature and form- intimate relations with the professors, and ing a vigorous opposition to the regular monk- worked for the interests of the classic school. ish party, which viewed with disfavor studies His work against Lötz soon spread over Gerwhich were in fact often carried so far as to ap- many, and his friends learned from it what had parently threaten a revival of heathenism. Here become of him. Orotus Rubianus, now teacher he was supported by his friends and relations. of Latin at Fulda, informed him that his father, A disease then new to Europe raged in many who had never forgiven him since he ran away places, and when it appeared in the summer of from Fulda, was at heart glad to hear of his 1505 in Erfurt both students and teachers took growing reputation. “Sometimes he admits to flight. Among the former were Hutten that you would have made a bad monk, and and his friend Crotus. It was still deemed ne- then hints a wish that you would study law in cessary for an educated man to be familiar with Italy." But Hutten could not bring himself to the scholastic philosophy, and Hutten accord break off his vagabond life. In 1511 he went ingly studied industriously at Cologne the writ- to Wittenberg, where he published his Ars ings of Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus. This Versificatoria, regarded in its day as a mastercity was the stronghold of the old system, led piece, Thence he wandered, literally at times by the since notorious Ortwein or Ortuinus as a beggar, through Bohemia and Moravia to Gratius, Jacobus Hoogstraten, Arnoldus Tun- Vienna. Yet he inet with some friends, one of gern, their friend Pfefferkorn, and all who were whom, Bishop Stanislas of Turzo, gave him a then termed Dunkelmänner or “ Obscurants." horse and money. At Vienna he found another Here, in the head-quarters of monkish peculiar- patron in Vadian, and here for a time he apities, Hutten collected rich material for the pears to have been prosperous and courted. strongly characterized, biting sketches of the Finally arriving at Pavia in April, 1512, Hutten Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum. Even in Oo resolved to study law in order to be reconciled
with his father. But 3 months later the city was Paris, where he established intimate relations besieged, and Hutten, who had taken part in the with the learned. Retiring to his family castle contest, believed himself in danger of death, and of Steckelberg, Hutten, having written by way wrote his famous epitaph. Plundered of all he of introduction several epigrams on Pope Jupossessed by the Swiss troops of the emperor lius II., edited the work of Laurentius Valla, Maximilian, he fled to Bologna. Here his mal- entitled De Falso Credita et Ementita Donaady returned, and, repulsed by every one, badly tione Constantini Magni (1517). This daring treated, and starving, he enlisted as a soldier in book caused a great sensation ; Luther himself the emperor's army." The results of bis Italian spoke of it in 1520 in high terms. In 1618 studies were embodied in the elegant satire of he found a protector in Albert, margrave of Outis (Nemo), in which the subjugation of Ger- Brandenburg, whom he invited in a glowing many to Italy was closely criticized, and a de- panegyric to place himself at the head of united cided inclination shown toward the reformers. Germany. In the same year he accompanied In 1514, worn out by wretchedness, he left the the margrave to the diet of Augsburg, where army and returned to Germany. He was in Luther was to reply to Cajetan. But "Hutten, but indifferent condition to seek to be recon- now the brilliant knight, troubled himself but ciled to his family; his literary reputation was little as to the poor Augustinian monk;" he was in those days an effectual barrier to church full of a project for uniting the princes of Eupreferment, and he was identified with the rope against the Turks, and was fascinated with party out of power. An accident now, how- the idea of becoming an influential statesman. ever, led him to the very height of popular The work in which he preached this crusade he fame. Duke Ulrich of Würtemberg had fallen printed himself at Steckelberg in 1519, entitling in love with the wife of his cousin Johann it, Ad Principes Germaniæ, ut Bellum Turcis von Hutten, and murdered the husband. All invehant Exchortatoria. In it he upbraids the Germany sent forth a cry of indignation at court of Rome and the German nobility. These the outrage; “the murderer's own defence," latter had been previously more fiercely atsays Gervinus, “condemned instead of excul- tacked in his “Dialogue of the Court Enemy," pating him.” When Hutten heard of this he in which Hutten boldly assumes a tone like that was travelling, but his indignation went beyond of modern republicanism. In 1519 be left the bounds, and without waiting for a more fitting margrave to join Franz von Sickingen in the place he wrote on horseback his “Deplora- Swabian league against his old enemy Ulrich tions,” in which he cried for vengeance. He of Würtemberg. Yet during this war he wrote availed himself of this deed to call on German the “Triad," "the most vehement thing which towns to free themselves from ducal tyranny had hitherto been written against Rome," pub" He so pointed out to the Germans the tyrant, lished his treatise De Guaiaci Medicina et that he became a by-word." The orations Morbo Gallico, and edited two books of Livy, themselves obtained for Hutten the renown of hitherto unpublished. The war over, he rea Demosthenes. But a short time elapsed be tired to the castle of Sickingen, whence he sent fore Hutten found himself in a new quarrel, forth the bitterest attacks on Rome. He disardently defending Reuchlin, who as a scholar covered in the library of Fulda a manifesto of was protesting against the wholesale destruction Henry IV. against Gregory VII., and turned its of all Hebrew books for which the Cologne Ob- German sentiment to such account that Leo X. scurants were clamoring. With the aid of many demanded him as a prisoner. Driven from his friends he published the celebrated Epistola castle by persecution, he took refuge in EbernObec urorum Virorum, a work which aided the burg, whence he again sent forth bold writings reformation more than any other one writing; addressed even to common soldiers. He now and previous to this his Triumphus Capnionis, a began to write, in prose and verse, in German, vigorous book, whose publication was long de- and these tracts are among his most daring layed by the scruples of “the prudent Eras productions. For a short time he fought in the mus." In Oct. 1515, Hutten went again to army of Charles V. at the siege of Metz; and at Italy to study law and regain the favor of his this time Francis I. offered him the place of family; but at Rome, having vanquished in councillor at his court with 200 florins a year. fight single-handed 5 Frenchmen, one of whom Hutten next wandered to Switzerland, and he slew, he fled to Bologna, which he was soon Æcolampadius led him to Basel, where he hoped obliged to quit for a somewbat similar cause, for support from Erasmus, who however turned having taken part in a battle between Italian against him, and even took pains to set the and German students. He visited Ferrara and council of Zürich against him. Finally Zwingli Venice, but, having published satires against obtained for him an asylum in the house of the those in power, found it advisable to take ref. clergyman Schnegg on the island of Ufnau in the uge in Germany. At Augsburg he was pre- lake of Zürich. Here, “worn out by war and sented by the celebrated Conrad Peutinger to suffering, he ended, in view of the Alps, a lifo the emperor, who gave him in public the spurs which had been so short, so tumultuous, and so of knighthood, while Constance Peutinger, said full of generous aspirations." Among his other to have been the most beautiful girl in Ger- works are: Dialogi, Fortuna, Febris (including many, crowned him with laurel. He was then the Trias, Mentz, 1620), and his poems (Franksent by the elector of Mentz on a mission to fort, 1538). His collected works were publish