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ESTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by:

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Ofice of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of

New York.

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THE

NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA.

HAYNE

HAYNE. ARTHUR P., an American officer he was a senator in the state legislature. He and senator, grand nephew of the succeeding, took up arms on the invasion of the state by and brother of Robert Y., born in Charleston, S. the British, and was employed in a cavalry reO., March 12, 1790. He was educated for a mer- giment which kept the field during the final cantile career, but in 1807, indignant at the at- siege and capitulation of Charleston. The outtack on the frigate Chesapeake, he obtained a posts of an army, according to the usual rule, commission in the U. S. regiment of light dra- sharing the fate of the main body, Hayne's goons commanded by Col. Wade Hampton. In detachment was supposed to be included in the is12 he shared in the victory at Sackett's Har- articles of capitulation, and to partake of all the bor, and was promoted to the command of a privileges and securities accorded by the victor squadron of cavalry, with the rank of major. to the vanquished. He was, in other words, In the campaign of 1813 he accompanied Gen. paroled, under the sole condition that he should Wilkinson down the St. Lawrence for the con- not again serve against the British while they templated attack on Montreal. Early in 1814 held possession. When in 1781 the fortunes of he received the appointment of inspector-gen- the British began rapidly to decline, he and all eral. was ordered to join Gen. Jackson in the others in his situation were required to repair to Creek war, and in the temporary absence of the British standard as subjects. The call was Col. Batler served as adjutant-general. At the made upon him when his wife and several of storming of Pensacola (Nov. 7, 1814) he was his children lay at the point of death from one of the first to take possession of the Span- small pox, but his expostulations were unheard, ish batteries. He was conspicuous in the bril. and he repaired to the city after obtaining a liant night attack of Jackson on the British written pledge from the military commandant army, Dec. 23, 1814, which preceded the victory of his district that he should be allowed to reof New Orleans, in which he had a prominent turn. This pledge was ignored in Charleston, part. Jackson wrote in his despatch: “Col. and he was told that he must either become a Hayne was everywhere where duty and danger British subject or be placed in rigorous concalled." He was brevetted 3 times during the finement. With his family dying in his abwar. and at its close was retained in the army sence, he subscribed a declaration of allegiance as adiutant-general. During the 2d Florida cam- to the royal government, but only under propaign he was placed by Gen. Jackson at the head test against the advantage taken of him at such of the Tennessee volunteers. He retired from a moment. He declared that he could never the army in 1820, previous to which he had pre take up arms against his countrymen, and was pared himself for the bar and had been admit- assured that such duty would never be required ted to practice. He was elected to the S. O. at his hands. Thus enabled to return to his legislature in 1821, and was afterward appointed family, he maintained his pledge of neutrality minister to the court of Belgium, but declined so long as the British remained in possession the office In May, 1858, on the death of Mr. of the district and forbore calling on him for J. J. Evans, he was elected to the U. S. senate. military duty. But when, by the continued

HAYNE' ISAAC, an American revolutionary success of the Americans, they were driven officer, known as the martyr," born in South from all quarters, and nothing remained to Carolina Sept. 23, 1745, died in Charleston, S. them but the stronghold of Charleston, they 0.. Aug.' 4. 1781. He was the great-grandson resolved to impose the requisition of military of' John Hayne, who emigrated to the state service on all those who had given their parole. from near Shrewsbury, in Shropshire, England, Thus driven to the necessity of taking up the about 1700. In 1765 he married and became sword, Hayne did so in behalf of his countrya planter with large possessions in the districts men; he repaired to the American camp, and of Beaufort and Colleton, and was a proprietor was commissioned by the governor as colonel in extensive iron works in York district, sub- of a militia regiment. In July, 1781, he made sequently destroyed by the British. In 1780 an incursion to the Quarter House, a precinct

VOL. IX,-1

within 5 miles of Charleston, and captured Gen. guished for eloquence and ability. After servWilliamson, a Scotchman, who had gone over ing two terms he was elected speaker of the to the British from the Americans, and was an house, unexpectedly to himself; and before his object of scorn and hate to the patriots. It term expired he was elected, attorney-general was feared that he would be hanged as a traitor, of the state. Soon afterward President Monand to avert this fate the British commandant roe offered him the attorney-generalship of the at Charleston ordered out his entire force in United States, which he declined. He retained pursuit. The scouts and sentinels of Hayne's his office till 1823, when he was chosen a sencommand had wandered from their posts, and ator of the United States. He was the younghis party was consequently surprised and scat- est man that South Carolina had ever sent to tered, and he himself captured. He was brought the senate, and had barely attained the constito Charleston, and after a brief examination by tutional age for the office. He soon rose to a a board of officers, without any trial, and no high rank as a debater and as a practical man witnesses being examined, he was condemned to of business, and was made chairman of the be hanged by the joint orders of Lord Rawdon committee on naval affairs, in which post he and Lieut. Col. Balfour. He protested against displayed administrative abilities of a bigh order. this summary process, which was illegal, Mr. Calhoun pronounced him the best chairwhether he was regarded as a British subject man of a committee he had ever seen. In the or as a captive who had broken his parole. debates upon the question of protection to The citizens and ladies of Charleston united in American manufactures Mr. Hayne took a leadpetitioning for his pardon. But Rawdon and ing part, and in every stage of the discussion Balfour were inexorable; a respite of 48 hours he was an able, vigilant, and uncompromising only was allowed him in which to see and take opponent of the protective system. When the leave of his children, at the end of which period tariff bill of 1824 came before the senate, he he was hanged. This vindictive measure was made in opposition to it an elaborate and poweverywhere the occasion of horror and reproach. erful speech, in which, for the first time, the It was brought up and discussed with great abil- ground was taken that congress had not the ity in the British parliament, and while both constitutional right to impose duties on imports Rawdon and Balfour justified it, each was soli- for the purpose of protecting domestic manucitous to attribute it to the agency of the other factures. He was equally strenuous in his opPublic opinion ascribed it to revenge and mor- position to the tariff of 1828, which roused in tification, to the remembrance of Major André, South Carolina the spirit of resistance that and to the frequent defeats and impending fail- came to a crisis in 1832. In that year Mr. Clay ure of the British commanders. Lord Rawdon proposed a resolution in the senate declaring (earl of Moira) published a justification of his the expediency of repealing forth with the duconduct, which was analyzed and criticized by ties upon all imported articles which did not Robert Y. Hayne in the “Southern Review” come into competition with domestic manufacfor Feb. 1828.

tures. Mr. Hayne denounced this proposition HAYNE, JULIA Dean, an American actress, in a powerful speech, and submitted an amendborn in Pleasant Valley, N. Y., July 22, 1830. ment to Clay's resolution, to the effect that all She first appeared upon the stage in New York, the existing duties should be so reduced as at the Bowery theatre, in 1845, as Julia in the simply to afford the revenues necessary to de“Hunchback," and for a number of years, as fray the actual expenses of the government. Miss Julia Dean, was known throughout the He supported this amendment in one of his United States as a popular and successful actress ablest speeches, but it was rejected, and the in such parts as Jūlia, Pauline in the "Lady of principles of Mr. Clay's resolution were emLyons," Juliet, Marianna in the “Wife," &c. bodied in a bill which passed both houses and She has also appeared upon the English stage. received the sanction of the president. The Some years since she was married to Arthur people of South Carolina, in convention, reHayne of South Carolina.

solved that the law should not be law within HAYNE, ROBERT Young, an American their limits, and that the act of congress should statesman, born in St. Paul's parish, Colleton be nullified so far as South Carolina was condistrict, S. C., Nov. 10, 1791, died in Ashville, cerned. Mr. Ilayne on this occasion was the N. O., Sept. 1840. He was educated in Charles- first to declare and defend in congress the ton, studied law with the celebrated Langdon right of a state, under the federal compact, Cheves, and was admitted to practice before he to arrest the operation of a law which she conwas 21 years old. At the beginning of the war sidered unconstitutional. This doctrine led to of 1812 he volunteered and served as a lieuten- the celebrated debate between Mr. Webster and ant in the 3d regiment of South Carolina troops himself, in which the eloquence and the arguraised for the protection of the seaboard. To- mentative powers of both statesmen were disward the close of the war he resumed practice played to their fullest extent. In consequence in Charleston, and succeeded in a great degree of the passing of the tariff bill the legislature to the large professional business of Mr. Cheves of South Carolina called a state convention, on the election of that gentleman to congress. which met at Columbia, Nov. 24, 1832, and In 1814 Mr. Hayne was chosen a member of the adopted the celebrated ordinance of nullifica:state legislature, where he soon became distin- tion. In the following December Mr. Hayne

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was elected governor of the state, while Mr. legislator, and dear to the people by his benev. Calhoun, resigning the vice-presidency of the olent virtues and his disinterested conduct." United States, succeeded to his place in the sen- No man was more respected by the colonists of ate. Gov. Hayne was soon called upon to face Connecticut, and few if any did more for the a great emergency. On Dec. 10 President true interests of the colony. Jackson issued his proclamation denouncing the HAYNES, LEMUEL, a colored minister, born nullification acts of South Carolina. The gov- in West Hartford, Conn., July 18, 1753, died in ernor replied with a proclamation of defiance. Granville, N. Y., .Sept. 28, 1834. His father South Carolina meanwhile prepared for armed was a negro and his mother a white woman. resistance. Congress, however, receded from The latter abandoned her offspring, who at the its position on the protective question, a com- age of 5 years was bound out as a servant in a promise was made, the tariff was for the time family at Granville, Mass., where he was treated satisfactorily modified, and South Carolina in with great kindness, and educated as one of the another convention, of which Gov. Hayne was children. From his youth every leisure moment, president, repealed her ordinance of nullifica- . and even some of the hours ordinarily given to tion. In Dec. 1834, Mr. Hayne retired from sleep, were devoted to the acquisition of knowl. the office of governor, and was soon after elected edge. In 1774 he enlisted as a minute man; in mayor of Charleston, with a view to the inau- 1775 joined the revolutionary army at Roxbury; guration of a more enlarged policy in the muni. in 1776 was a volunteer in the expedition to cipal affairs of that city. He entered with char- Ticonderoga; after which he returned to Granacteristic ardor and energy into the project of ville and engaged in agricultural pursuits. Beconnecting Charleston with the West by means tween this time and 1780 he studied Latin and of a railroad, was elected president of the com- Greek, and became a highly respectable scholar pany formed for that purpose, and was in attend- in both, beside devoting much attention to theance on a railroad convention at Ashville in mid- ology. In 1780 he received license as a preachsummer when he contracted a fever of which he er of the gospel, and was at once unanimously died.--PAUL H., an American poet, nephew of invited to supply the pulpit of a new church the preceding, born in Charleston, S. O., Jan. 1, in Granville. Here he remained for 5 years, 1831. He was educated in Charleston, and has his character and services being highly apbeen a frequent contributor to the “Southern preciated. In 1785 he was ordained, and, after Literary Messenger” and other periodicals. He preaching two years in Torrington, Conn., was was formerly editor of the “Charleston Litera- called to a parish in Rutland, Vt., where he ry Gazette," was connected with the Charles, was settled in the pastoral office for 30 years. ton “Evening News," and has been from its He afterward preached at Manchester, Vt., beginning (1857) a principal editor of “Rus- about 3 years; and then at Granville, N. Y., sell's Magazine," a monthly periodical published from 1822 till his death. He was a man of in Charleston. A volume of poetry from his great shrewdness, wit, and common sense. One pen was issued in Boston in 1854, and a 2d in of his sermons, delivered on the spur of the New York in 1857. These collections consist moment, in reply to the well known Hosea chiefly of brief poems, sonnets, and lyrics, the Ballou, on the subject of Universaliem, has gone " Temptation of Venus, a Monkish Legend," through many editions on both sides of the Atbeing the longest. A third volume, entitled lantic. A memoir of his life and character has “Avolio, and other Poems," was published in been published by the Rev. Dr. Cooley. Dec. 1859, and he is said to have in preparation HAYS, a central co. of Texas, drained by an elaborate poem on the subject of Sappho. Pedernales and San Marcos rivers; area in 1857,

HAYNES, JOnn, governor of Massachusetts, 970 sq. m., since which time it has been reand afterward of Connecticut, born in Essex, duced by the formation of Blanco co.; pop, in England, died in 1654. He came with Hooker 1858, 1,997, of whom 762 were slaves. A chain and his company to Boston in 1633, was of thickly wooded hills crosses it from N. E. to soon after chosen assistant, and in 1635 gov- S. W., and the rest of the surface is generally ernor of Massachusetts. In 1636 he removed undulating. The soil is well adapted to farming. to Connecticut, being one of the prominent The productions in 1850 were 19,000 bushels founders of that colony. In 1639 he was chosen of Indian corn, 800 of oats, 380 of sweet potaits first governor, and every alternate year toes, 7,350 lbs. of butter, and 1,091 of wool. afterward, which was as often as the constitu. There were 40 pupils attending public schools. tion permitted, till his death. He was one of Value of real estate in 1858, $339,300. Capital, the five who in 1638 drew out a written con- San Marcos. stitution for the colony, which was finished in HAYS, WILLIAM JACOB, an American painter, 1639, the first ever formed in America, and grandson of Jacob Hays, who was for many which embodies the main points of all our sub- years high constable of New York, born in sequent state constitutions, and of the federal New York in 1830. He studied drawing with constitution. Bancroft describes him as a man John Rubens Smith, a well known teacher, and " of large estate, and larger affections; of heav- in 1850 exhibited his first picture, “ Dogs in a enly mind and spotless life; of rare sagacity, Field,” at the national academy of design. His and accurate but unassuming judgment; by na- - Head of a Bull-Dog," painted in 1852, attractture tolerant, and a friend to freedom; an able ed considerable attention, and in the same year he was elected an associate of the academy. He rato Samana from the main, and afford comsubsequently produced many pictures of dogs munication from the enclosed bay to the sea on and game birds, some of which have been en- the N. shore of the island ; reappearing on the graved. His last important work, painted for opposite side of this marshy tract, the heights the collection of Mr. August Belmont of New are continued to Cape Samana, the E. extremity York, in 1859, is entitled “Setters and Game." of the peninsula. Between these two ranges In 1859 he resigned his position as associate of extends the Vega Real, or Royal valley, 130 m. the academy. With the exception of a few long, watered by the Yaqui and Yuma rivers, and fruit pieces, he has painted almost exclusively presenting almost boundless pasture lands. The animals, aiming at an imitation of their charac- third or Š. mountain range commences on the teristics, and great elaboration in the execution. W. at Cape Tiburon, extends E. through the S.

HAYTI, or Haiti, forinerly called Española or W. peninsula, and terminates at the Rio Neyva, Hispaniola, and also Santo Domingo, one of the about midway between the cities of Port au Greater Antilles, and after Cuba the largest, Prince and St. Domingo. Beside the Vega richest, and most beautiful of the West India Real, there are other extensive plains and valislands, lying between lat. 17° 36' and 19° 59' leys, as the llanos or flats of the S. E. 80 m. N., and long. 68° 20' and 74° 28' W.; length E. long, also a rich pasture district, and the plain and W. from Cape Engaño to Cape Tiburon, of Cayes at the W. end of the island. The lat406 m.; maximum width N. and S. from Cape ter has been greatly extended by the formation Beata to Cape Isabella, 163 m.; area, including of a kind of rock consisting of comminuted shells the islands of Tortuga, Gonaive, &c., 27,690 and coral, incrusted with calcareous cement, sq. m. The island is separated from Cuba and resembling travertine; and this kind of rock is Jamaica on the W. by the Windward passage, now in process of formation throughout the the distance from Cape San Nicolas to Cape whole of the West India islands; fragments of Maisi, Cuba, being 54 m., and from Cape Tibu- pottery and of other human works have been ron to Morant point, Jamaica, 116 m. In this found in it at a depth of 20 feet. The proximity passage, about 40 m. W. of Cape Tiburon, is the of the mountains to the N. coast prevents the guano island of Navasa, claimed by Hayti, but formation of any considerable rivers, and hence now (1859) occupied by adventurers from the the principal streams have their courses either United States under the provisions of the act of in a W., S., or E. direction. The Artibonite congress of Aug. 18, 1856. The island of Tor- flows W., and the Monte Christo or N. Yaqui N. tuga lies a short distance from the N. W. coast, W.; the Yuma flows S. E.; and the Neyva or S. and that of Gonaive in the great bay enclosed Yaqui, the Nisa, and the Ozoma flow S. to the by the vast peninsular projections which stretch sea. They are all obstructed by sand þars, and W., the one toward Cuba and the other toward few of them are navigable even for short disJamaica, 85 m. apart. On the E., Hayti is di- tances. The Ozoma, however, admits vessels vided from the island of Porto Rico by the drawing 12 to 124 feet. Lakes are numerous ; Mona passage, 76 m. wide. At the present time those of Enriquillo and Azua are salt; the the island is occupied by two independent former, in the valley of the Neyva, is 20 m. long states, the republic of Hayti in the W. and the by 8 m, broad, and the latter half that size. S. Dominican republic in the E., corresponding in of these lies the fresh water lake of Icotea or territory to the ancient French and Spanish Limon, about the size of Azua. Mineral springs possessions. The island is of very irregular exist in various parts; in the E. are the hot form, being deeply indented by bays and inlets, springs of Banica (temperature 112° to 125° F.), and having corresponding projections of land; Biahama, Jayua, and Pargatal, and in the W. and hence its coast line, estimated at 1,200 m. in the chalybeate spring of Sainte Rose, the salength, is relatively very extensive and affords line of Jean Rabel, and the sulphur of Dalnumerous excellent harbors. Of the great pen- marie. The minerals found in the island are insulas, that of the S. W. is the most conspicu- various, including gold, silver, platinum, merous, being 150 m. long by 18 to 40 m. wide; cury, copper, iron, tin, sulphur, manganese, anthat of the N. W. is about 50 m. long by 30 to timony, rock salt, bitumen, jasper, marble, and 45 m. wide; and that of Samana on the N. E. several kinds of precious stones. The gold about 40 m. long by 6 to 8 m. wide. The island mines have been abandoned, and gold washing is intersected W. and E. by 3 chains of moun- is only carried on by the poorer classes in the tains, connected by transverse chains or offsets, N. streams. Indeed, all the minerals are negand intervening are extensive plains and savan- lected for want of machinery and capital. The nas. The principal central chain, which culmi- climate is hot and moist, but generally salunates in Mt. Cibao, 7,200 feet high, commences brious; in the N., and especially in the more on the W. at Cape San Nicolas, traverses the elevated localities, there is a perpetual spring. island in an E. S. E. direction, and terminates The seasons are divided into wet and dry; in at Cape Engaño. Nearly parallel with this some localities years have passed over without chain, another, commencing on the W. near a single heavy shower. The rainy season ocMonte Christo, closely skirts the N. coast, and cars on the opposite shores of the island at difterminates abruptly on approaching the penin ferent periods of the year; and it is only on the sula of Samana, subsiding into a low isthmus S. coasts that hurricanes are common. At St. interlaced by estuaries and channels which sepa. Domingo the extremes of temperature are 60°

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