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year of the Christian era, 4 years after the ed it in vain, though aided by the troops of birth of the founder of the Christian reli- Agrippa. The temple of Jerusalem, the ancient gion, for an account of whose life, doctrine, capital itself, and numerous strongholds in the and death (in the year 33, under the sway of country were taken by the insurgents (66). The the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate, the pos- Roman governor of Syria, Cestius Gallus, who sessions of Archelaus having been annexed hastened to Jerusalem, was routed near that to the Roman province of Syria) we refer the city. The zealots now organized a general reader to special articles under the appro- rising. The priest Josephus, the historian, was priate heads. The religious and literary insti- sent to arm and defend Galilee. But one of tutions of the people had in the meanwhile Nero's best generals, Vespasian, was already received a remarkable development during the approaching from the north (67); and Titus, Asmonean period, on the basis of the soferim, his son, brought new legions from Egypt. The and principally under the lead of the successive Jews fought with Maccabean valor near Joppa, schools of the hakhamim (scholars) Jose of at Mt. Gerizim, in the streets of Gamala, at Zeredah and Jose of Jerusalem, Joshua ben (son Jotapat, and other places. But Josephus's army of) Perachiah and Nittay of Arbel, Judah ben perished in the struggle about Jotapat, and he Tábbay and Simeon ben Shetah, and Shemaiah was made prisoner; Galilee was lost, and civil and Abtalion ; and it reached a most flourishing carnage raged within the walls of Jerusalem becondition under the school of the great Hillel tween the moderates under the priest Eleazar, the Babylonian, president of the sanhedrim like the terrorists under John of Giscala, and the all the first of the above named pairs, and the volunteers under Simon the Idumæan. Vesrival school of the austere Shammay, in the reign pasian now advanced and took most of the of Herod. The eminent philosophical book of strongholds (68). The events which followed Ben Sirach and the first book of the Maccabees the death of Nero, however, checked his proare the products of the earlier part of that gress. Vespasian himself being proclaimed emperiod, while the age of the books of Tobit, peror by his legions (69), Titus took the comJudith, Baruch, and other apocryphal writings, mand. Jerusalem, Masada, Machærus, and Heis unknown. The simultaneous literary activity rodium were still to be besieged. The northern of the Jews in Africa is evinced in the book of part of Jerusalem, Bezetha, was first taken by Wisdom, by their numerous contributions to Hel- the Romans with the external wall. The midlenistic poetry and history (Jason, Alexander dle wall, too, fell into their hands, but the dePolyhistor, Ezekiel, &c.), and especially to Pla- fenders, now united and heroically fighting, tonic philosophy, from Aristobulus, the Jewish drove them out. The Roman resolved upon teacher of Ptolemy Euergetes, tó Philo, the conquering by hunger, and this brought pestidistinguished deputy of the Alexandrian Jews lence to his assistance. Hay, leather, and into the Roman emperor Caligula. The emperors sects were finally consumed; the victims could were already becoming the exclusive masters no longer be buried, but were thrown over of Palestine. Archelaus was carried captive to the wall. Deserters and fugitives were muGaul under Augustus (8), and separate procura- tilated by the besiegers or driven back. The tors ruled Judæa, Samaria, and Idumea. Phil- castle Antonia, and with it the second wall, ip's possessions were attached to Syria after his were finally taken (June, 70). John and Simon death (35) by Tiberius, but afterward given by still refused to hear of surrender. In August Caligula to Herod Agrippa, a grandson of Herod, the temple was stormed, and Titus was unable and brother of Herodias, who, being unlawfully to prevent its becoming a prey to the flames. married by Herod Antipas, caused the deposi- The last defenders retired to the fortified upper tion of the latter, and the annexation of his city, which fell in September. Jerusalem was tetrarchy to the dominion of Agrippa, who even razed to the ground, its surviving inhabitants succeeded in reuniting for a short time, in the were slaughtered by thousands, sold into slayreign of Claudius, the whole of Palestine. After ery, or doomed to perish in public fights with his death (44) his territory was again ruled by wild beasts before Romans and Greeks, at the procurators, and only a small portion was after- command of the future amor et deliciæ geneward given to his son Agrippa II. (53). The con- ris humani. Herodium, Machærus, and Madition of the country was dreadful. The empo- sada still defended themselves for a time. In rors, at that time the vilest of men, demanded the latter the conquerors found only a few childivine honors, their statues were erected in the dren, the last men having died by their own temple, the procurators grew rich by extortions, hands. A million of Jews perished in this war, the petty Herodian courts shamelessly imitated which found an eloquent but partial historian the licentiousness of the imperial, robbers infest- in the learned captive Josephus. The later and ed the mountainous regions, impostors and fa- still more furious risings of the scattered people natics raised the standard of rebellion, and insur- in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian in Cyrene, rections led to new oppression, both religious Egypt, Cyprus, and Palestine, where Bar-Coand civil. Nero's rule, and the extortions of his keba for years victoriously maintained himself procurator Gessius Florus, finally drove the peo- against the Roman generals until he fell with ple to despair. Death to the Romans or to his last stronghold Bethar, are known only from themselves

became the cry of the fanatics and scattered passages full of exaggerations, dictated the poor. The Sadducees and the rich oppos- by hatred on one side and patriotic admiration on the other. The last insurrection, and the which destroyed the schools of Babylonia, the bloody persecutions which followed it, finally results of those studies were also collected, broke the strength and spirit of the people. though in chaotic disorder, in the two Gemaras Their leaders prohibited every attempt at in- or Talmuds (literally, studies), the Palestinian surrection in the name of religion, and were and Babylonian. Other extant products of the obeyed. Hadrian's Ælia Capitolina rose on the time of the tanaim and amoraim were various sacred ground of Jerusalem, and his decrees ethical treatises (Derekh eretz, Aboth, &c.), hisforbade the Jews to enter its precinctş. Its en- torical, legendary, and cosmogonal writings virons were desolate. The land of Israel was no (haggadoth, stories, collectively Haggadah, a more; the people scattered all over the world. vast branch), prayers (tefilloth), additions' to The previous invasions and conquests, civil the Chaldee paraphrase (Targum) of scriptural strifes and oppression, persecution and famine, books, a new calendar, admirably adapted to the had carried hosts of Jewish captives, slaves, religious duties of the people, by Hillel (340),. fugitives, exiles, and emigrants, into the re- and some Greek fragments by Aquila and Symmotest provinces of the Medo-Persian empire, machus. The Chaldee, often with an admixture all over Asia Minor, into Armenia, Arabia, of Hebrew, was now generally used in literary Egypt, Cyrene, Cyprus, Greece, and Italy. The works, while the people used the various lanRoman conquest and persecutions completed guages of the countries in which they lived. the work of dispersion, and we soon find Jews More and more oppressed and degraded by the in every part of the empire, in the regions of emperors, of whom only Julian was favorable Mt. Atlas, on both sides of the Pyrénées, on to his Jewish subjects, and who even attempted the Rhine and Danube. Palestine, however, to rebuild the temple of Zion, and by the dofor some time continued to be a national cen- crees of the councils, the Jews of Palestine once tre through its schools of religious science, more hoped to recover their independence when which after the desolation of Jerusalem flour- they assisted the Persians in conquering Jerusaished at Jamnia, Lydda, Usha, Sephoris, Tibe- lem (610), but were soon severely chastised for rias, and other places, principally under the their rash attempt by the victorious emperor lead of the presidents of the sanhedrim (pa- Heraclius. But a new power springing from the triarchs, nesiim) of the house of Hillel, of whom Arabian desert was destined to humiliate all the Gamaliel Hazzaken (the Elder), his son Simeon, contending parties and sects between the Tigris his grandson Gamaliel, and great-grandson Si- and the Nile, the Byzantine emperors and the meon, with their celebrated fellow tanaim Sassanide shahs, Christians, fire worshippers, (teachers or scholars) Johanan ben Zakkay, and Jews. A new Semitic prophet arose in the Eliezer, Joshua, Eleazar, Ishmael, Tarphon, the vicinity of the Red sea, teaching his disciples and great Akiba, and others, had been successfully people a monotheism which was to be carried active during the previous disastrous period. triumphantly over a great part of Asia, Africa, The succeeding rabbis (rabbi, my master), Ben and Europe (622). Mohammed himself after á Azay, Ben Zoma, the 5 pupils of Akiba, Eliezer, long struggle conquered the castles of the inde Meir, Jose, Jehudah, Simeon, Nathan, and others, pendent Jews in Arabia, who, living from a very continued their work by public teaching, as remote period in that country, were masters well as by collecting, elucidating, systematizing, both of the poetical tongue and the sword of and further developing the decisions (halakhoth, the desert, their warlike Samuel ben Abdiah, collectively termed Halakhah) of the oral law, among others, being one of the most distinwhich was finally converted into a written code guished early poets of the peninsula. Omar and or compendium of teachings (Mishna) by the his generals conquered Jerusalem, Tiberias, Dapatriarch Jehudah the Holy and his school, dur- mascus, Antioch, and Alexandria from the Bying the mild reign of the Antonines. To this zantines, and subdued Persia, thus bringing were added the partly supplementary, partly most of the eastern Jews under the rule of explanatory works, Tosefta, Mekhilta, Safra, and Islam. This proving comparatively mild, and Sifre. These works became the basis of reli- the later caliphs favoring every science, Jewish gious study in the subsequent 3 centuries, in Pal- studies revived, especially in Babylonia, where estine, as well as in Babylonia, where the schools the Jews lived under the immediate rule of a of Sura, Pumbeditha, Nehardea, and others, prince of the captivity (resh gelutha), and where flourished under more favorable circumstances, their great schools, having been reorganized the most renowned teachers (in this period amo- under the seboraim (thinkers), were made flourraim) of both countries being Rab, Samuel, Jo- ishing under the geonim (the eminent), of whom shua ben Levi, Johanan, Simeon ben Lakish, the Saadia (died 941), the translator of the Pentapatriarch Jehudah II., Ame, Ase, Abahu, Elea- teach into Arabic, and Hai (died 1037), the son zar, Jehudah, Hanna, Hisda, Nahman, Rabbah, of Sherira, and son-in-law of Samuel ben Hofni, Joseph, Zera, Jeremiah, Abbayi, Raba, Pappa, are eminent as theological writers, poets, and Ashe, Abina, and Mar bar (ben) Ashe (died linguists. Numerous works of Haggadah, now 467). After new persecutions by the Christian mostly known as midrashim, and ethical writemperors, which destroyed the schools (353) and ings, wero composed; the critical notes of the the patriarchate (429) of Palestine, and by the Masora and the Targum of Jerusalem" elaboPersian kings Yezdegerd II., Hormuz, Firuz, and rated; the admirable system of scriptural voKobad in the latter part of the 5th century, calization introduced ; talmudical compendiums written; medical, astronomical, and linguistic Menahem, the astronomer Hassan, and the rich, studies, and also cosmogonal speculations (cab- liberal, and scientific Hasdai, the friend and phy bala), pursued. An anti-rabbinical sect, beside sician of the caliph Abderrahman III., at Corthe extinct Sadducees, the only one which de- dova; in the 11th the talmudical scholars Samserves that appellation, was founded abont uel Hallevi and Isaac Alfasi (of Fez), the gramthe middle of the 8th century by Anan in Baby- marian Abulwalid, the philosopher David Molonia, receiving from their strict adherence to kamez, the ethical writer Behay, and Solomon the letter of the Bible the name of Caraites Gabirol, equally celebrated as Hebrew poet and (Scriptorists). Their scholars, Salmon, Jeshua, Arabic philosopher; in the 12th the theologian and "Jefeth, flourished in the 10th century. Abraham ben David, the astronomer and geogScientific pursuits also spread among the Jews rapher Abraham ben Hiya, the poet Moses ben in Africa, who with slight interruptions en- Ezra, the traveller Benjamin of Tudela, the scijoyed peace under the Saracenic princes; and entific poet Jehudah Hallevi, whose glowing among the theological writers of Fez and Kair- songs rival the beauties and purity of the Psalms, owan in that period, of whom Nissim and Han- the great critic, philosopher, and poet Aben anel (both in the 1st half of the 11th century) Ezra, and finally Moses Maimonides, who as are the most celebrated, we find the physician a philosopher, as well as writer on the law, by and critic Isaac ben Soleyman, the lexicographer far surpassed all his contemporaries. The diffuHefetz, and the grammarians Ben Koraish, Du- sion of science among the Jews now attained nash, and Hayug. The Arabic was generally used its height in Europe, as well as in Egypt, whither by the scholars. The political and intellectual Maimonides fled after a persecution at Cordova condition of the Jews was worse in the Byzan- (1157), and where he and his son Abraham offitine empire and in the feudal states which arose ciated as physicians to the court of the sultan. on the ruins of the western. Deprived of most Spain numbered among its vast number of civil rights, they were_now and then bloodily scholars in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, persecuted, as by the Franks and Visigoths in the poets Charizi, the Hebrew imitator of the the 6th and 7th centuries, by the Byzantines in Arabian Hariri, and Sahola ; the astronomers the 8th, when many of them fled and even Aben Sid, the author of the Alfonsine tables, spread their religion among the Khazars about Israeli, and Alhadev; the philosophical theo the Caspian sea, and again in the 11th, about logians Palquera, Lattef, Caspi, Hasdai, Albo, which time they appear in Russia, though only and Shemtob; the celebrated commentators for a short time, and in Hungary. More toler- Nahmanides, Addereth, Gerundi, Behay, Yomable, however, was their situation in Italy, tob, and Nissim; the cabalists Todros, GecaSicily, and Sardinia, where they often found tilia, Abelafia, and De Leon. In Provence and protection through the influence of the popes. Languedoc, wliere high schools flourished in Bari and Otranto became the principal seats of Lunel, Nimes, Narbonne, Montpellier, and MarJewish learning. The renowned Eleazer ben seilles, from the 12th to the 15th century, we Kalir and other writers of piyutim (liturgical find the 3 grammarians Kimhi and their folsongs in Hebrew rhymed verse), the historian lower Ephodi; the poets Ezobi, Jedaiah, and Josipon, and the astronomer Shabthay Donolo, Calonymus; the commentators Zerahiah' Halflourished in Italy in the 9th and 10th centuries, levi, Abraham ben David, and Menahem ben and the lexicographer Nathan in the 11th. From Solomon; the philosophers Levi ben Abraham, Italy science spread to the cities on the Rhine, Levi ben Gerson, and Vidal ; the 4 Tibbons, to Lorraine and France. In the 11th and 12th all translators from Arabic into Hebrew, and centuries we find in Germany Simeon, the au- the lexicographer Isaac Nathan. Italy had in thor of the talmudical Yalkut (“Gleaning Bag”), the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries the poets the poet Samuel the Pious, and the writer of Immanuel, an imitator of Dante, Moses de Rieti, travels Petahiah; in northern France, Gerson, and Messir Leon; the talmudists Trani and surnamed the “light of the exiled," the liturgical Colon; the cabalist Recanate; the astronomer poet Joseph Tob Elem, the renowned commen- Immanuel; various grammarians and translatators Solomon Isaaki and his grandson Solomon tors from Arabic and Latin; and finally the ben Meir, and the authors of the talmudical philosopher Elias del Medigo. Germany had Tosafoth (“ Additions”), Isaac ben Asher, Jacob in the same period the talmudists Meir, Morben Meir, &e. Spain, after the conquest by decai, Asher and his son Jacob, and Isserlin, the Saracens, who carried thither culture, sci- the cabalist Eleazar, and others. The Caraites, ence, and poetry, was destined to develop the too, had a number of scholars, as Hadassi, the most prosperous and flourishing condition which two Aarons, and others. During the earlier the Jews enjoyed in the middle ages. Persecu- part of this long period of literary activity in tions became rare and exceptional. The Jews the West the Jews enjoyed peace and prosenjoyed civil rights and rose to high dignities perity, with various interruptions, in Spain, Porin the state under the Moorish princes, and tagal, Italy, Greece, the islands of the Mediwere almost as well treated by the Christian terranean, in Hungary, especially under the monarchs, and their culture and progress in national kings, and in Poland, which hospitably science not only kept pace with their prosperi- received the numerous exiles from all neighty, but also outlived occasional adversity. In boring countries, under the Piasts, particularly the 10th century we see there the lexicographer the last of them, Casimir the Great; but there

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were none in Moscovy and in the Scandinavian to remain for a few months, in Africa, Italy, states; and in England, where they appear Turkey, and other countries. Not the 5th part before the time of Alfred, in France, where of them survived the horrors of compulsory only the early Carlovingians, and especially expatriation, shipwreck, and subsequent famCharlemagne, favored them, and throughout ine. The feeling observer may find a compenGermany, their condition was in the last de- sation in the fact that while these events hapgree deplorable. Circumscribed in their rights pened propitious winds carried three small caraby decrees and laws of the ecclesiastical as well vals across the Atlantic to a new world, whose as civil power, excluded from all honorable enervating treasures were destined to assist the occupations, driven from place to place, from inquisition in undermining the power of the opprovince to province, compelled to subsist pressors, and whose future institutions were to almost exclusively by mercantile occupations inaugurate an era of freedom to the descendants and usary, overtaxed and degraded in the cities, of the oppressed. The Jews of Portugal were kept in narrow quarters and marked in their banished soon after (1495) by King Emanuel, dress with signs of contempt, plundered by being robbed of their children under 14 years lawless barons and penniless princes, an easy of age, who were sent to distant islands to be prey to all parties during the civil feuds, again brought up as Christians. The numerous conand again robbed of their pecuniary claims, verted Jews of the peninsula and their doowned and sold as serfs (Kammerknechte) by scendants were still persecuted for more than the emperors, butchered by mobs and revolted two centuries by governments, inquisitors, and peasants, chased by the monks, burned in thou- mobs. These persecutions, which eventually sands by the crusaders, who also burned their carried the bulk of the European Jewish brethren of Jerusalem in their synagogue, tor- population into the provinces of Poland and mented by ridicule, abusive sermons, monstrous Turkey, similar events in the East during the accusations and trials, threats and experiments crusades, a long series of persecutions in Gerof conversion, the Jews of those countries offer many, and in central and southern Italy in the in their medieval history a frightful picture of 16th century, and bloody massacres by the rehorrors and gloom. In England they had their volted Cossacks under Chmielnicki in the S. E. worst days in the reigns of Richard I., at whose regions of Poland, together with a general and coronation they were frightfully massacred at minutely developed system of petty oppresYork (1189), John, Henry III., and Edward I., sion, extortion, and degradation, to which the who expelled them altogether from the realm Jews were subjected in most parts of Europe (1290). From France they were for the last during the 250 years following their expulsion time banished under Charles VI. (1995). Ger- from the Iberian peninsula, could not but exmany, where the greatest anarchy prevailed, ercise a disastrous influence upon the culture was the scene of their bloodiest persecutions, and literature of the people. The spirit of the most frightful of which took place in the cheerful inquiry, study, and poetry which discities on the Rhine during the great desolation tinguished the Spanish-Provençal period, was by the black plague, which depopulated Eu- gone. The critical knowledge and use of the rope from the Volga to the Atlantic (1348–50). Hebrew was neglected, the study of the Talmud Pointed out to the ignorant people as having and its commentaries became the almost exclucaused the pestilence by poisoning the wells, the sive occupation of the literary youth, and cabaJews were barned by thousands on the public listic speculations replaced philosophy, producsquares, or burned themselves with their fami- ing in Poland various schools of religious enthulies in the synagogues. Almost every imperial siasts called Hasidim (pietists). A bold Turkish city had a general persecution of the Jews." The Jew, Shabthay Tzebi, who, like the Persian Swiss towns imitated their neighbors, almost all Aldaud or Alroy in the 12th century, was probanishing their Jews. With the growing influ- claimed by his cabalistic followers the expected ence of the inquisition the Jews of southern Eu- Messiah of Israel, found numerous adherents rope, too, suffered the same fate. The protec- even in various parts of Europe (1666), whose tion of the popes being gradually withdrawn, delusion was destroyed only by his compulsory they were banished from the cities of Italy into conversion to Mohammedanism. Literature separate quarters (ghetti), and obliged to wear and science, however, still found scattered distinctive badges; persecutions became more votaries, especially in northern Italy, Turkey, frequent; in 1493 all the Jews of Sicily, about and Holland; and beside the great talmudists, 20,000 families, were banished. In Spain, theologians, or commentators of this period, during a long drought in 1391-2, the Jewish Don I. Abarbanel, I. Arama, J. and L. Habib inhabitants were massacred in many cities. Mizrahi, O. Bartenura, O. Sforno, I. Luria, T. The condition of the Jews grew worse in the Karo, the author of the talmudical abridgment following century, until their extirpation from or code Shulhan arukh, E. Ashkenazi, Alsheikh, the whole country was determined upon, and, S. Luria, M. Isserels, M. Jafeh, Sirks, S. Cohen, after repeated but fruitless attempts at conversion Lion of Prague, E. Lentshitz, J. Trani, J. Hurby the stake, finally carried into effect by Fer- witz, H. Vital, S. Edels, Y. Heller, Shabthay dinand and Isabella (1492). More than 70,000 Cohen, A. Able, D. Oppenheimer, the collectfamilies sought refuge in Portugal, where for a or of the best Hebrew library (now in Oxlarge sum of money the fugitives were allowed ford), Tzebi Ashkenazi, H. Silva, J. Rosanis, D. Fränkel, J. Eybeschütz, J. Emden, H. Lan- Mendelssohn (1729-'86) among this long despised dau, Elias of Wilna, &c., we find the philo- people. The influence of the latter upon Jews sophers and men of science Bibago, S. Cohen, and Christians through his works, example, Amatus, Almosnino, De Castro, A. Zacchuto, J. fame, and friends (the great Hebrew poet Wessedel Medigo, M. Hefetz, and Nieto; and among ly, Euchel, Löwe, Friedländer, &c., among Jews, the poets, grammarians, critics, lexicograph- and Lessing, Dohm, Abt, Nicolai

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, Engel, Ramler, ers, and historical writers, De Balmes, Elias &c., among Obristians), was immense; and his Levita, A. Farissol, Solomon ben Melekh, Jacob admirers could say: “Between Moses (the law. ben Hayim, Gedaliah Jahiah, A. de Rossi, Do' giver) and Moses (Mendelssohn) there was only Pomi, D. Gans, S. Arkevolte, Lonsano, Manas. one Moses (Maimonides).” Progress now beseh ben Israel, the defender of the Jews before came general among the Jews, and the noble Cromwell, S. Norzi, S. Luzzato, Leo de Modena, philosopher lived to see the first dawn of freeS. Mortera, J. Orobio, Shabthay ben Joseph, B. dom in the land of Franklin and Jefferson. The Mussaphia, De Lara, J. Cardoso, J. Abendana, great revolution in that of Voltaire and RousS. Hanau, M. H. Luzzato, J. Heilprin, Azulai, and seau came next, and the triumphs of republican others. Beyond the limits of the Turkish empire and imperial France destroyed the medieval there was scarcely any trace of Jewish literature institutions on the Rhine and Po. Liberty, in the East, though there were and are still nu- crushed in Poland by the Russians, when 500 merous Jewish communities in Persia, northern of Kosciuszko's Jewish volunteers fell fighting to Arabia, Independent Tartary, and Afghanistan, the last on the ramparts of Praga (1794), was as well as scattered colonies, mostly of more or successively victorious in the West. Proclaimed less mixed race and religion, in India, China, in the United States and France, the rights of Cochin China, Yemen, Abyssinia, and other the Jews were recognized in Holland, Belgium, parts of Africa, partly of very ancient date, Denmark, parts of Germany, Canada, and Japartly founded by escaped Portuguese and Span- maica; in 1848–9 throughout Germany, Italy, ish New Christians, some of whom also settled and Hungary; and finally in Norway and Eng. in parts of Brazil and Guiana during the occu- land. Among the most zealous defenders of pation by the Dutch. In Europe the last of the the rights of the Jews were the Frenchman three great religious struggles, against pagan- Grégoire, the Pole Czacki, the German Welcker, ism, against Mohammedanism, and between the the Irishman O'Connell, the Englishman Lord contending Christian sects, all of which were John Russell, the Italian D'Azeglio, and the Hundestructive to the Jews, was terminated by garian Eötvös, all Christians; the Jews by dethe peace of Westphalia (1648). Catholicism scent Börne and Disraeli, and the professing Jews was triumphant in the south and in France, Jacobssohn, Tugendhold, Riesser, Philipssohn, Protestantism in the north and north-west. Montefiore, and Crémieux. The revolutionary The greater persecutions of the Jews now ceased. movement of 1848–9 proved the immense proThey became flourishing in the republics of Hol- gress of the Jews as well as of public opinion land and Venice and their dependencies, were since Mendelssohn and Lessing. The Jews CréTeadmitted into England by Cromwell (having mieux, Goudchaux, and Fould (now minister also entered Denmark and returned into France), of state) were among the ministers of the French spread with the Dutch and English to various republic; Pincherle was a member of the proparts of America, reëntered Russia under Peter visional government in Venice; Jacobi of Köthe Great (to be expelled afterward), were admit- nigsberg was the leader of the opposition in the ted in Sweden, and were protected and often em- Berlin parliament; Riesser was vice-president ployed in high stations by the sultans of Tur- of that of Frankfort; Dr. Fischhof stood at the key and Morocco. In Germany and Switzer. head of affairs in Vienna after the flight of the land, where the struggle was not terminated by court; Meisels, the rabbi of Cracow, was elected any decisive triumphs, the mediæval treatment to the Austrian diet by Polish patriots; and of the Jews was continued longest, its worst Hungarian barons and counts willingly fonght features being maintained and developed in Aus- under Jewish officers of higher rank, of whom tria (excepting in the reign of Joseph II.), where the adjutant of Gen. Nagy-Sándor, Freund, down to the revolution of 1848 the Jews were afterward became Mahmoud Pasha during the excluded from all civil rights, numerous profes- war in Turkey. The subsequent reaction, as in sions, and various provinces, districts, towns, Austria, where it was checked by the events of villages, and streets, paying beside a tax for 1859, was mostly temporary, and the Mortars toleration in Hungary, in spite of the remon- case in Italy in 1858 has excited a very general strances of the legislatures, a tax upon their sab- expression of opposition to the antique legislation bath lights in Galicia, and a residence tax when by which it was decided. Of the vast number of visiting Vienna; while their houses in Moravia Jewish writers after Mendelssohn we mention were often searched in the night of the sabbath only a few: the talmudists Jacob of Dubno, Jafor the purpose of surprising the returned Jewish cob of Slonim, Pick, Jacob of Lissa, Bonet, Eger, peddlers who had been secretly married before Sofer, Chajes; the Hebrew poets, philologists, or the extinction of all older brothers, which was critics, E. Luzzato, S. Cohen, Satanow, Wolfsohn, prohibited by a Pharaonic law. The general Bensev, Pappenheim, Troplowitz, Heidenheim, progress of freedom was promoted in the age of Löwisohn, S. Bloch, Simha of Hrubieszow, philosophy by the appearance of Spinoza and Jeitteles, Landau, Reggio, Perl, N. Krochmal

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