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chii (amphiosus), marsipobranchii or suckers and 3, plectognathi ; the latter include the sec(ammocætes, myxinoids, and petromyzonts), and tions eleutheropomi, plagiostomi, and cyclostomi. apodes lemniscati or ribbon apodals; order II., Dr. D. H. Storer, in his “ Report on the Fishes malacopteri, with the sub-orders apodes angui- of Massachusetts" (1839), and in the illustrated
formes (eels, congers, &c.), apodes arthropterygii edition of the same in the “ Memoirs of the (gymnotida), and abdominales (herring, salmon, American Academy” (1855–60), and also in his cyprinodonts, pike, carp, siluroids, &c.); order “Synopsis of the Fishes of North America" III., pharyngognathi, with the sub-orders mala- ("Memoirs of the American Academy,” vol. ii., copterygii (scomberesox, belone, flying fish, &c.), 1846), follows the arrangement of Ouvier. These and acanthopterygii (cyclo-labroids, &c.); or- works are of great value to the student of North der IV., anacanthini, with the sub-orders apodes American ichthyology. The Wilkes, North Pa. (ophididæ) and thoracici (cod, remora, and cific, and Japan expeditions sent out by the U. founder); order V., acanthopteri, the most S. government, and the various explorations by extensive of all, including the percoids, mullets, land for the survey of the Mexican boundary, mailed-cheeks, 'sciænoids, sparoids, labyrinthi- the Pacific railroad route, and military and civil branchs, scomberoids, dory, chætodonts, gobi- roads, have added largely to the materials, both oids, lophioids, &c.; order VI., plectognathi foreign and native, at the disposition of Amer(ostracion, diodon, &c.); order VII., lophobran- ican ichthyologists; these have been worked chii (hippocampus and pipe fish); order VIII., up principally by Messrs. Baird and Girard of ganoidei (lepidosteus, polypterus, amia, and stur- the Smithsonian institution, where the collecgeons); order IX., protopteri (lepidosiren); or- tions are deposited. The results are published der X., holocephali (chimæræ); and order XI., in the government reports on the naval explagiostomi (sharks and rays). -The most recent peditions, in vol. x, of the “Pacific Railroad Classification is that published by Prof. Agassiz Reports," in vol. ii. of the “Mexican Boundary in his “Essay on Classification," p. 187 (1857), Survey," and in the publications of the Philathe result of the systems of Cuvier and Müller delphia academy.-The disposition to make and of his own scale method, with additional new genera and subdivide old ones is carried to light from his extensive anatomical and embryo- a puzzling extreme in ichthyology as well as in logical researches. He divides the old class other departments of zoology; and the prevaof fishes into four; his 1st and lowest class is lent system of placing the name of the genusmyzonts, with 2 orders, myxinoids and cyclo- maker after the species, by whomsoever and stomes; 2d, fishes proper, with 2 orders, ctenoids whenever described, offers a premium for natand cycloids; 3d, ganoids, with 3 orders, cæla- uralists to make the greatest number possible canths, acipenseroids, and sauroids, and doubt of new genera, in their turn to be subverted or ful, the siluroids, plectognaths, and lopho. subdivided by the next author who examines branchs ; he was then doubtful whether this the subject and who parades his name after the class should be separated from ordinary fishes; species. With the present confusion among and 4th, selachians, with 3 orders, chimære, zoologists in regard to generic characters, the galeodes, and batides. These classes he re- prospect is that zoology will be overwhelmed gards as equivalent to amphibians, reptiles, with as many genera as there are species in the birds, and mammals. It is expected that the animal kingdom; and then, and not till then, more mature results of his investigations on may the names of the appended naturalists be this class will soon be made public.-The follow- considered as permanent. In getting rid of the ing have been the principal cultivators of this too great condensation of Linnæus, naturalists science in America. Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill have fallen into the worse extreme of too expublished in vol. i. of the “Transactions of the tensive subdivision; and until some second Literary and Philosophical Society of New York” Cuvier sets his face sternly against the present (1815) a history of 149 species of New York dilution of generic characters, we can exfishes, with many illustrations ; he adopts the pect nothing but utter confusion in our zooloLinnæan system; other descriptions of his species gical classifications. The recent powerful reare in the “Proceedings of the Philadelphia statement of the Lamarckian hypothesis by Mr. Academy” and in the “Annals of the Lyceum Darwin in England, will probably put some of Natural History of New York.” Lesueur check upon the creation of new species in all has described and exactly figured many species departments of zoology. For details on the in the Philadelphia academy's “Proceedings." structure and physiology of fishes, see FISHES. Rafinesque published in the same work, and in -ICHTHYOLOGY, FOSSIL. Fishes are by far his Ichthyologia Ohiensis (1820), descriptions of the most numerous of the vertebrates found many species which had escaped his predeces- in the strata of the earth, extending from the sors. Dr. Kirtland (1838) described the fishes silurian epoch to the tertiary; their number, of the Ohio river, and Dr. Holbrook several excellent state of preservation, and remarkable years after those of South Carolina; Dr. De forms, render fossil fishes of great interest in Kay, in 1842, in his “Zoology of New York,” explaining the changes of our planet's surface, divides fishes into bony and cartilaginous, the and in completing the chain of ichthyic releformer having the sections: 1, pectinibranchii, tions. The classic work on fossil fishes is the with spiny-rayed and soft-rayed abdominal, sub: Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, by Prof. brachial, and apodal orders; 2, lophobranchii, Agassiz (1833-'43); in this magnificent work about 1,000 species are described, with accurate ceans, but in the number of digits and of and elegant illustrations, the result of his ex- their constituent bones and appended bifuraminations of more than 20,000 specimens in cated rays they came near the structure of the the cabinets of Europe. He divides fossil fishes fins of fishes; the tail was long, the vertebra into the 4 orders of ganoids, placoids, ctenoids, gradually becoming smaller and flatter toward and cycloids, according to the structure and the end, and probably margined with a tegumenform of the scales, these portions of the external tary fin expanded or in a vertical direction; the skeleton being generally. well preserved; the tail was doubtless the principal organ of locomoorders he divides into families according to the tion, and presented the saurian character of structure and position of the fins, the form of length and gradual diminution, being cetacean the bones of the head and of the teeth, and the in its partially tegumentary nature, and fish-like structure of the gill covers and of the spinous in its vertical position. According to Dr. Buck. fin rays. His classification is as follows. Order land, the skin was scaleless and finely wrinkled, I., ganoidei, characterized by osseous plates cov- as in cetaceans. The skull is like that of the ered with enamel; the families are: 1, lepidos. dolphin, with a smaller cerebral cavity and an tei, having no representative among existing unanchylosed condition of the cranial bones; fishes, such as lepidotus, gyrolepis, osteolepis, the intermaxillaries are greatly developed, and palæoniscus, &c.; 2, sauroidei, like the existing the orbits immense, surrounded by numerous lepidosteus and polypterus, and the extinct di large sclerotic plates; in the convex articulatplopterus and megalichthys; 3, cælacanthi, ing surface of the occiput, the solid structure of with hollow fin rays and bones, like holopty- the back part of the skull, and the massive prochius and asterolepis ; 4, pycnodontei, like pyc- portions of the jaws and the bones with which nodus and phyllodus; 5, sclerodermi, like ostra- they are articulated, we see crocodilian affinicion and bastes of the present day; 6, acipense- ties. The nostrils are a short distance in front ridei, like sturgeons; 7, gymnodontei, like the of the orbits; the teeth are situated in an alvediodons; 8, lophobranchiati, like the pipe fishes; olar groove, with their bases free, and separated and 8, cephalaspidei, like pterichthys, coccos- by partial 'ridges, the roots being implanted teus, and cephalaspis. (See GANOIDS.) Order much as in the crocodile; hence this reptile is II., placoidei, with tabular scales, like sharks placed by Prof. Agassiz in the order of rhizoand rays; including the ichthyodorulithes, such donts. The structure of the hyoid apparatus as ctenacanthus and gyracanthus ; and the pla- indicates that it was an air breather, with a giostomi, with the families: 1, cestraciodontei, slightly developed tongue, and that it obtained such as hybodus, ptychodus, and acrodus, and its food in the water, having an apparatus, as the cestracion Phillipsii of Australia ; 2, equali, in the crocodile, to shut off the cavity of the or sharks, like many of the living genera; 3, mouth from the larynx. The ribs are well raja, or rays; and 4, chimæra. Order III., developed, extending from near the head to the ctenoidei, having many living representatives, tail, and attached to a large sternum; the clav. with scales serrated on their posterior margins, icles and shoulder blades are strong; the rewith the families percoidei, sparoidei, scienoidei, sulting pectoral arch resembles much that of cottoidei, gobioidei, teuthys, aulostomata (fistu- the mammalian ornithorhynchus, and is very laria), chatodonta or squamipennæ, pleuronectes, different from that of the cetaceans, indicating and mugilloidei. Order IV., cycloidei, with that the anterior limbs were used not only in elliptical or circular scales without serrations; swimming but in crawling up the shores of the in the spiny-rayed division he places the fami. ocean for the purpose of depositing their eggs, lies scomberoidei, xiphoidei, sphyrænoidei, blen- &c. The arm and forearm are very short and nioidei, lophioidei, and labroidei ; in the soft- broad; after these come the bones of the wrist rayed division are the families cyprinoidei, cy- and fingers, arranged as flattened ossicles in prinodontei, esocidei, halecoidei (herring and series of from 3 to 6, só dovetailed together at salmon), and anguilliformes. The first order the sides as to form one powerful framework. is most abundant from the old red sandstone to The pelvic arch is not articulated to the spine, the chalk formation; the 2d extends from the but was merely suspended in the muscles, as in silurian throngh the tertiary epochs; the last fishes; the posterior limbs or paddles are genertwo are not found anterior to the chalk, from ally considerably smaller than the anterior, and which they extend through the tertiary strata. would seem to have been more serviceable in For details on the most interesting fossil fishes, terrestrial progression than in swimming. The the reader is referred to the geological works best known species, I, communis (Cony beare), of Hugh Miller.
.. grew to a length of 20 feet; the large conical, ICHTHYOSAURUS (Gr. xdus, fish, and longitudinally furrowed teeth are from 40 to 50 gavpos, lizard), a gigantic fossil marine reptile, above on each side, and 25 to 30 below; the belonging to the order enaliosaurians of Cony- jaws are prolonged and compressed, the vertebeare. The body was fish-like in form, with a bræ about 140, with the anterior paddles 3 times large head, neck of equal width with occiput and as large as the posterior; like all the species, thorax; the vertebræ had biconcave articular this is found in the secondary formations, prin surfaces, as in fishes and the perennibranchiate cipally in the lias and oolite of England. The reptiles; the paddles, 4 in number, were compar. I. intermedius (Conyb.), the most common and atively small, resembling in form those of ceta- generally distributed of the species, does not much exceed 7 feet in length; the teeth are emperor Leo the Isaurian, prompted by the more acutely conical, and ahout 48-49; the reproaches of Jews and Mohammedans who vertebræ are about 130, and the fore paddles charged the Christians with idolatry, published are much the largest. The 1. platyodon an edict in 726 commanding all images of saints (Conyb.), so called from the greater smoothness to be removed from the churches, and prohibitand fatness of the crowns of the teeth, must ing honors to be paid to them. The image of have attained a length of more than 30 feet; Christ on the cross was excepted from this the head is longer than in the preceding species, order. Leo was opposed by the Roman pontiff and the jaws more broad and powerful; the Gregory II., by a dangerous tumult in Constanteeth are about 18-11, and are frequently found tinople, and by insurrections in Italy, and the broken as if from its own violence; the verte- result was a conflict of 120 years between the bræ are about 120; the most remarkable char- East and the West, which terminated in the acter is the equality in size of the fore and hind defeat of the iconoclasts, though they were paddles, and the comparative simplicity of their zealously supported by 6 Byzantine emperors. structure. The I. lonchiodon (Owen), with In 730 Leo caused the statues in churches spear-shaped teeth, attained a length of more to be burned and the paintings on the walls than 15 feet, with a very large head and more to be effaced. Pope Gregory III. assembled robust structure than even the last. The I. & synod at Rome which decreed the orthotenuirostris (Conyb.) is characterized by the doxy of the veneration of images (732). The length and slenderness of the jaws, as in the successor of Leo, Constantine Copronymus, gavial; this, with the flat head and large orbits, assembled a council at Constantinoplo (754), gives to the skull, as Owen says, the appear- called by the Greeks the 7th general council, ance of that of a gigantic snipe with its bill which after a deliberation of 6 months pro. armed with teeth; the teeth are slender and nounced all visible symbols of Christ, except in very numerous, about 78=70, and directed ob- the eucharist, to be either blasphemous or heretliquely backward; it attained a length of about ical, and the use of images in churches to be a 15 feet, and was rather slender in its propor- revival of paganism. This decision was effitions. Five other species, and details on all, ciently executed by Leo IV. (775–780), but the will be found in Prof. Owen's “Report on empress Irene, who succeeded him as regent for British Fossil Reptiles to the British Associa. her son, successfully upheld the restoration of tion," in 1839. Their remains extend through images. With the sanction of Pope Hadrian she the whole of the colitic period, including the assembled a council at Constantinople in 787, lias and oolite proper to the wealden and chalk which was removed to Nice in Bithynia on acformations, in Great Britain and central Europe. count of a tumult of the iconoclasts, and which For fuller details the reader is referred to the decreed that the cross, and the images of Christ, writings of Cony beare, Cuvier, and Buckland. the Virgin, the angels, and the saints, were entiThese reptiles, of gigantic size and marine in tled to reverential worship (TIUNTIKT AT POOKUVOIS), their habits, must have been very active and but not to divine worship (arpa). The condestructive; their food, as indicated by the test was prolonged in the East under successive bones and scales found with their remains, con- emperors, till Theodora assembled a council at sisted principally of fishes. From the great size Constantinople (842), which confirmed the deof the eyes, they could probably see well by cisions of the Niceno council, and established night; being air breathers, like the crocodiles, the veneration of images among the Greeks, they doubtless seized their prey near the sur though subsequently the Greek church took the face rather than deep in the ocean; the im- position which it holds to this day that no mense cuttle fishes of the secondary epoch carved, sculptured, or molten images of holy probably furnished a portion of their food. persons or things are allowable, but only picThese strange creatures formed the connecting tures, which are held to be not images but link between reptiles and fishes, as do the representations. Rome and Italy had already perennibranchiate amphibia in the actual crea- accepted the decree of the Nicene council, tion; and by some they have been considered, which the Latin church accounts the 7th of the like the last, as possessors of both gills and general councils. The term iconoclasts is also lungs, at least in some stage of their existence, applied in history to those Protestants of the and therefore to a certain extent amphibious. Netherlands who at the commencement of the This reptile, with the muzzle of a dolphin, troubles in the reign of Philip II. tumultuthe teeth of a crocodile, the head of a lizard, ously assembled and destroyed the images in the paddles of a whale, and the vertebra of á many of the Roman Catholic churches. These fish, buried for myriads of years, was intro. tumults began Aug. 14, 1566, at St. Omer duced to the scientific by Sir Everard Home, in in the province of Flanders, where several the “Philosophical Transactions” for 1814. churches were broken into and defaced, the ICOLMKILL. See Iona.
images being overturned and broken and the ICONIUM. See KONIEH.
pictures ruined. The insurgents next attacked ICONOCLASTS (Gr. Elkwy, an image, and the cathedral at Ypres, which they served in klaw, to break), in ecclesiastical history, the the same manner. The excitement speedily violent opponents of the veneration of images spread all over Flanders, and the churches, in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Byzantine chapels, and convents of Valenciennes, Tournay, Menin, Comines, and many other cities and many misrepresentations on the subject, not towns, were assaulted and sacked. At Ante because he wished to flatter heresy and rebel. werp shortly afterward a mob ravaged the fa lion." The whole time occupied by this remous cathedral, destroyed the statues of Christ, markable outbreak was less than a fortnight. the Virgin, and the saints, cut into pieces tho It was warmly disapproved of at the time by paintings, the pride of Flemish art, that lined William of Orange, Egmont, and the other the walls, demolished the great organ, the larg- statesmen of the patriotic party in the Netherest and most perfect in the world, overthrew lands. Its immediate effect was to detach the the 70 altars of the vast edifice, and carried off Catholics from the national cause, and it probathe garments and the gold and silver vessels bly was the principal means of preventing the used in the performance of the rites of worship southern provinces of the Netherlands from beThe devastation of the cathedral occupied them coming independent of Spain in concert with till midnight, when they left it with little more the 7 northern provinces. than bare walls standing, and sallied forth to IOTINUS, a Greek architect, contemporary deal in the same way with the other churches of with Pericles. He was chief architect of the the city and its suburbs. For 3 days these scenes Parthenon, and built the temple of Apollo Epicontinued at Antwerp, when they were stopped curius near Phigalia in Arcadia. The former was by a few knights of the golden fleece, who with completed in 438 B. O., and the latter probably their retainers attacked and dispersed the riot- about 431. He also built the fane at Eleusis in ers. From Antwerp the excitement against which the mysteries in honor of Ceres were images spread over the northern provinces, and celebrated. All these edifices were in the throughout Holland, Utrecht, and Friesland the Doric style. No details relative to the life of churches were ravaged. At Rotterdam, Dort, Ictinus have come down to us. Haarlem, and some other places, the magistrates IDA, a W. N. W. co. of Iowa, drained by averted the storm by quietly removing the branches of Little Sioux river; area, about 400 images from the buildings. "The amount of sq. m.; pop. in 1859, 38. It has but recently injury inflicted during this dismal period," says been organized. Grain, potatoes, and sorghum Prescott, “it is not possible to estimate. Four are the principal crops; cattle raising is also hundred churches were sacked by the insur- carried on to a considerable extent. The progents in Flanders alone. The damage to the ductions in 1859 were 813 bushels of wheat, cathedral of Antwerp, including its precious 11,452 of Indian corn, 5,791 of potatoes, 1,721 contents, was said to amount to not less than of oats, 7,862 lbs. of butter, and 820 gallons of 400,000 ducats. The loss occasioned by the molasses. Capital, New Ida. plunder of gold and silver plate might be com- IDA. I. A mountain range (now Kas-dagh) puted; the structures so cruelly defaced might of Phrygia, forming the s. boundary of the be repaired by the skill of the architect; but Troad. Its highest peak was Mt. Gargarus, about who can estimate the irreparable loss occasioned 4,650 feet above the sea. The principal rivers by the destruction of manuscripts, statuary, and flowing from Mt. Ida were the Simois, Scapaintings? It is a melancholy fact, that the mander, and Granicus. From Mt. Ida Gany. earliest efforts of the reformers were everywhere mede was stolen; here Paris pronounced judgdirected against those monuments of genius ment on the beauty of the rival goddesses; and which had been created and cherished by the here the celestials stationed themselves to begenerous patronage of Catholicism." Motley, hold the battles for Troy on the plain below. in his “History of the Rise of the Dutch Repub- II. A mountain (now Psiloriti) of Crete, and lic,” maintains that the iconoclasts committed the loftiest of the range which traverses that no act of plander nor of outrage on persons. island, of which it occupies the centre, termiHe says: “Catholic and Protestant writers agree nating in 3 peaks crowned with snow for 8 that no deeds of violence were committed against months of the year. Its bighest summit is said man or woman. It would be also very easy to to be over 7,500 feet. Of the legends with accumulate a vast weight of testimony as to which its name is connected, those relating to their forbearance from robbery. They destroy the infancy of Zeus are the most celebrated. ed for destruction's sake, not for purposes of IDELER, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG, & German plunder. Although belonging to the lowest savant, born in Gross-Brese, near Perleberg, classes of society, they left heaps of jewelry, Sept. 21, 1766, died Aug. 10, 1846. His earliest of gold and silver plate, of costly embroidery, work was the editing in 1794 of an astronomical lying unheeded upon the ground. They felt almanac for the Prussian government. For sev. instinctively that a great passion would be con- eral years he taught mathematics and mechantaminated by admixture with paltry motives. ics in the school of woods and forests, and also In Flanders a company of rioters hanged one of in the military school, and in 1821 became protheir own number for stealing articles to the fessor in the university of Berlin. His princivalue of 5 shillings. In Valenciennes the icon- pal works are : Historische Untersuchungen oclasts were offered large sums if they would über die astronomischen Beobachtungen der Alrefrain from desecrating the churches of that ten (Leipsic, 1806): Handbuch der mathemacity, but they rejected the proposal with disdain tischen und technischen Chronologie (Berlin, The honest Catholic burgher who recorded the 1825–6), “the first work which ever gave the fact, observed that he did so because of the world a clear view of the computation of time by ancients and moderns;" and Die Zeitrech- as incapable of holding property; and by the nung der Chinesen (Berlin, 1839). His manuals codes of Europe at the present day they are, if of the French and English languages and liter- they inherit property and their parents are dead, atures were at one time very popular.
placed under strict guardianship. The causes IDES, in the Roman calendar, the 15th day assigned for idiocy are numerous, and not all of March, May, July, and October, and the 13th of them well ascertained. Intermarriage of day of the other months. The 8 days preced- near relatives, intemperance in eating or drinking the ides were named from it, and styled the ing, and especially sexual congress leading to 1st, 2d, 3d, &c., day before the ides. Under conception while one or both parties are intoxithe empire the senate sat regularly on the ides cated, excess of sexual indulgence or solitary and on the calends, with the exception of the vice, grief, fright, or sudden and alarming sickides of March, the anniversary of Cæsar's death, ness on the part of the mother during gestawhich was regarded as a dies ater.
tion, the habitual use of water impregnated with IDIOCY, or IDIOTOY, a term now used to ex- magnesian salts, bad and insufficient food, impress a condition of mental imbecility, though pure air, hereditary insanity, and scrofulous or this idea was not originally contained in the syphilitic taint, are the most commonly alleged root from which it is derived. The idiot (idiwrns) causes of congenital idiocy. Convulsions, epiamong the Greeks was primarily the private leptic fits, hydrocephalus, and other diseases of individual, in distinction from the man who the brain, small pox, scarlatina, and measles, participated in public affairs ; next, as the blows on the head, or the translation of scrofaeducated classes, especially in Sparta, where lous or other eruptive diseases to the brain, are the word is believed to have originated, alone the usual influences which arrest mental develtook part in public life, LOLwTns came to mean opment in children. The causes of cretinism an ignorant or unlettered man; and finally, have been stated under that bead.-No attempt as ignorance tended to mental degradation, is known to have been made to improve the it was applied to one who did not possess the condition of idiots till the 17th century. When capacity to learn. Numerous attempts have St. Vincent de Paul took charge of the priory of been made to define idiocy, but none of them St. Lazarus, he gathered a few idiots, and, fithave been perfectly satisfactory. Most psychol- ting up a room in the priory for their accomogists at the present day regard it as an arrest modation, took charge of them in person, and of mental development, either from congenital attempted to instruct them. His labors, though defect or disease occurring subsequent to birth, continued for many years, seem not to have in which the will has but partial control over the been very successful. The next effort was muscular system, and external impressions are made by the eminent philosopher and surgeon not readily communicated to the mind. Dr. E. tard, the friend and disciple of Condillac. In Séguin, perhaps the most philosophical author 1801 a wild boy was found in the forests of who has yet written upon the subject, considers Aveyron, and brought to Itard, who hoped idiocy as a prolonged infancy, in which, the in- to find in his instruction the means of verifantile grace and intelligence having passed fying the philosophical theories of his master, away, the feeble muscular development and and labored patiently for 6 years to develop mental weakness of that earliest stage of growth his intellectual faculties by means of sepsaalone remain. Dr. Sägert of Berlin, a high au- tions. The young savage proved to be an thority on the subject, on the other hand, re- idiot of low grade, and hence unfit for the gards it as depending upon a faulty organiza experiment; but the attempt to instruct him tion of the brain. Psychologists have agreed had satisfied Itard that it was possible to eleupon the following classification of the differ- vate the mental condition of idiots. His iment forms of idiocy: 1, idiocy proper, divided mense practice, and the severe suffering induced into congenital idiocy, and that which is the by the malady which finally caused his death, result of disease occurring in childhood ; 2, prevented him from devoting much time to the cretinism; 3, imperfect and irregular develop- subject; but he had gathered many facts, and ment, as manifested in the case of persons who these he committed to his pupil, Dr. Edward possess some faculties in their full power, while Séguin, who entered upon the work as a labor others are deficient. Some writers also add of love, and devoted several years to a thorough moral idiocy, or arrested development of the research into the causes and philosophy of moral sense, while the physical and intellectual idiocy, and the best methods of treating it. powers are not deficient; but the propriety of Meantime others had become interested in the this addition is not fully settled. Fatuity, or the subject. In 1818, and for several years subsemental blight resulting from disease or disor- quently, the effort was made to instruct idiot ganization of the brain in adults, though resem- children at the American asylum for the deaf bling idiocy in its apparent results, is to be dis- and dumb in Hartford, Conn.; the measure of tinguished from it; it is a disease incapable of success was not large, but their physical conany amelioration.-Idiocy has existed in all ages dition was improved, and some of them were and countries. There is no language, either of taught to converse in the sign language. In Europe' or Asia, which has not among its earli. 1819 Dr. Richard Pool of Edinburgh, in an essay est words one or more expressive of this mental on education, advocated the establishment of condition. The Justinian code regarded idiots an institution for imbeciles. In 1824 Dr. Bel.