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homme of Paris published an essay on the possi- guin commenced his school for idiots in Paris, bility of improving the condition of idiots; and Dr. Guggenbühl began his experiments in reo in 1828 a few were instructed for a short time gard to the treatment of cretins in Switzerland, at the Bicêtre, one of the large insane hospitals already detailed under GUGGENBÜHL and CREof Paris. In 1831 M. Fabret attempted the same TINISM; and 4 years later, Sägert, a teacher work at the Salpétrière, another hospital for of deaf mutes at Berlin, began to receive idithe insane in the same city. Neither of these otic pupils, and devoted himself to the study efforts met with sufficient success to be con- of medicine in order the better to understand tinued. In 1833 Dr. Voisin, a French physiol- their physiological condition. We have already ogist and phrenologist, organized a school for alluded to the difference between his views of idiots in Paris, but it was not of long duration the pathology of idiocy and those of Dr. Séguin. In 1839, with the aid of Dr. Leuret, at that time He relies to some extent upon medication in one of the physicians of the Bicêtre, he revived the treatment of idiotic children; and as many the school for idiots in that hospital, and sub- of those under his charge have some taint of sequently placed it under the charge of M. Val- cretinism, it is possible that it may be required lée. In 1838 Dr. Séguin opened a school for there. In the methods of instruction he does idiots in Paris, and was soon so successful that not, so far as we can learn, differ materially the school in the Bicêtre was placed under his from Séguin. In 1846 the results said to have charge; and within 3 years he received from followed Dr. Guggenbühl's labors on the Abendthe French academy, whose committee had care- berg, the success of Dr. Séguin, and of M. Valfully tested his system of instruction, a testimo- lée, who had adopted his plans at Paris, and the nial of their approval. The previous efforts for publication of Dr. Séguin's work, roused some the instruction of idiots had been made with no of the English philanthropists to attempt the definite ideas of their psychological condition, instruction of idiots in that country. The first but in the vain hope that, somehow, knowledge schools in England were small, and were susmight be imparted to them. We have seen that tained by some benevolent ladies, in the towns these efforts failed, or rather they were only of Lancaster, Bath, Ipswich, and Brighton. In successful in improving to some slight extent 1847 an effort was made to establish an instituthe personal habits of the idiots, and teaching tion in some degree commensurate with the them to do a few things by rote. Dr. Séguin wants of the class for whom it was intended. proceeded on an entirely different plan ; start- In this movement Dr. John Conolly, the Rev. ing with the postulate that idiocy is only a pro- Dr. Andrew Reed, the Rev. Edwin Sidney, and longed infancy, he consulted nature as to the Sir S. Morton Peto distinguished themselves by mode by which the physical powers are culti- their zeal and liberality. They first rented exvated and the mind educated in the infant. He tensive buildings, formerly the residence of a found in idiot children the infantile fondness for nobleman, at Highgate, near London, and a railbright colors, and availed himself of it to teach way hotel at Colchester, for the accommodation them the distinctions of color and form ; he of idiotic pupils, and then, by great exertion, noticed their liking for playthings, and furnish- secured a sufficient subscription to enable them ed them with builders' blocks, cups and balls, to erect an asylum with 400 beds for a permaand other toys, by which he could instruct nent institution. This edifice, known as the them in number, form, and size; he next taught royal idiot asylum, at Earlswood, Surrey, was them words, not letters (these came later), completed in 1856, at a cost, including fixtures, and the meaning of words by pictures; the re- of nearly $375,000. Their funds do not allow fractory organs of speech, not yet fully under them to receive the full number they can acthe control of the will, were moulded and ma- commodate. The establishment at Colchester, nipulated, until they could utter the sounds he now known as Essex hall, is still maintained as desired; the eye, the foot, the hand, were edu- a distinct institution, though under the same cated by the use of steps, dumb bells, and other management. There are two idiot asylums in gymnastic exercises; as fast as they could com- Scotland: one at Baldoran, near Dundee, on the prehend them, ideas-at first only concrete, but estate of Sir John Ogilvie, founded in 1853, and afterward, as they attained to higher conscious- supported by Sir John and Lady Ogilvie; the ness, those of an abstract character-were in- other at Edinburgh, founded in 1855 by Drs. Coldstilled into their minds. The moral nature was stream and J. Smith, and now under the charge cultivated at times by simple instruction, but of Dr. David Brodie. At the Hanwell insane oftener by a pure example. The process was asylum, England, there is a department for adult long, but in the end it triumphed. Dr. Séguin idiots, but they receive no instruction. In the continued the instruction of idiots in Paris till United States, the movement for the instruction 1848, a part of the time in a private establish- of idiots commenced almost simultaneously in ment, and in 1846 published his treatise on the New York and Massachusetts. There had been treatment of idiocy, which placed him at once efforts made, in isolated cases (apart from the in the front rank of living psychologists. In attempts at the American asylum already re1848 he visited the United States, and assisted ferred to), to instruct idiot children, in the Perin the organization and improvement of several kins institution for the blind in Boston, and in institutions for idiot instruction, and since 1856 the New York deaf and dumb institution, as he has resided in Ohio. Two years before sé early as 1838 or 1839; but the feasibility of organizing an institution for their treatment tion, with some modifications. The gymnasium and training does not seem to have been is relied upon for developing the physical systhought of, till the attention of philanthro- tem, and rousing and fixing the attention. The pists was drawn to it by the eloquent letters rudiments of arithmetic are taught, and a conof Mr. George Sumner, describing his visits siderable number of the pupils are able to add, to the schools of M. Vallée and Dr. Séguin subtract, multiply, and divide, in numbers below in Paris. These letters were published in 1845, 100; but, in most cases, they grasp the idea of and Dr. S. B. Woodward, long known as the numbers with great difficulty. In geography superintendent of the hospital for the insane at they make more progress. In penmanship and Worcester, Mass., and Dr. Frederic F. Backus drawing many of them are very expert, and of Rochester, N. Y., soon after corresponded most of the girls and some of the boys exhibit upon the subject. Dr. Backus was elected a considerable skill in needle-work. One boy at member of the N. Y. state senate in the autumn Syracuse has invented a machine for which a of 1845, and in Jan. 1846, read a report which patent has been secured. In moral training he had drawn up on the subject of idiot instruc- they have generally exhibited a remarkable sustion, and the necessity of an institution for the ceptibility for improvement. The American purpose. A few weeks later he reported a bill schools do not for the most part receive chilfor such an institution. During the same month dren above 16 years of age, and prefer those a bill passed the Massachusetts legislature, ap- not over 12, as those who are older have bepointing a commission to investigate the condi- come so fixed in awkward and sometimes vition of the idiots of Massachusetts, and report cious habits, that it is extremely difficult to on the necessity of measures for their instruc overcome them. In the royal institution at tion. The result was the establishment of an ex. Earlswood, England, on the contrary, pupils perimental school in Oct. 1848, and subsequent are taken at all ages, some even 30 years old, ly, in 1851, of a permanent institution under or more; they receive very little intellectual the name of the "Massachusetts school for idi. instruction, but are taught to sew, knit, make otic and feeble-minded youth.” Meantime, Dr. mats, shoes, &c., and enjoy careful religious Hervey B. Wilbur, a young physician of Barre, training. A large proportion of the papils in Mass., had opened a school for idiot children this institution are not truly idiots, but feeblein Barre, in July, 1848. In 1851 the institution minded persons, and of slow and imperfect dewhose organization Dr. Backus had sought in velopment. The continental schools are mostly 1846, but which by adverse influences had been small; and while some of them, as for instance delayed, was finally established, first as an ex- those at Berlin, Winterbach, Gohlis, Bendorf, perimental school at Albany, and subsequently and the Hague, are conducted with much abilas a permanent state asylum at Syracuse. The ity, others have fallen into the practice of teachstate in 1855 erected a fine edifice for it at Sy- ing the children to repeat a few things by rote, racuse, at a cost of between $80,000 and $90,- and pay small regard to awakening independent 000, with accommodations for 150 pupils. It thought.-It is estimated that of idiots not afhas been from the first under the charge of Dr. fected by epilepsy, who are brought under inWilbur, who was called from Barre to organize struction in childhood, from } to may be made the experimental school. It is now full. In capable of performing the ordinary duties of 1852 a "training school for idiots” was estab- life with tolerable ability. They may learn to lished at Germantown, Penn., which received read and write, to understand the elementary aid from the state. In 1857, having received a facts of geography, history, and arithmetic, to grant from the state, and liberal subscriptions labor in the mechanic arts under proper superfrom individuals, its trustees purchased a tract vision, and to attain sufficient knowledge of gov. of land at Media, Penn., about 20 m, from Phil. ernment and morals to fulfil many of the duties adelphia, and commenced the erection of a of a citizen. A larger class, probably of the building for a state asylum, which they now whole, will become cleanly, quiet, able perhaps occupy. This institution is under the care of Dr. to read and write imperfectly, and to perform Parish. The legislature of Ohio in 1857 organ- under the direction of others many kinds of ized an experimental school, with a view to the work requiring little thought. This class, if establishment of a permanent institution for neglected after leaving school, will be likely to idiots, at Columbus, under the care of Dr. R. J. relapse into many of their early habits. A small Patterson. There are also 3 private schools for number, perhaps the most promising at enteridiots and imbeciles in the United States, viz: ing, will make little or no progress. Nor can the original school at Barre, Mass., founded by the result in any particular case be predicted Dr. Wilbur, and since 1851 under the care of beforehand, and no methods of instruction yet Dr. George Brown; a school for idiot children adopted will invariably develop the slumbering at Harlem, N. Y., under the charge of Mr. J. intellect, and confirm and correct the enfeebled B. Richards, formerly superintendent of the or depraved will.-In the following table we prePennsylvania training school; and a school for sent a view, necessarily imperfect, but derived idiotic and feeble-minded children at Lakeville, from the latest sources, of the schools for idiot Litchfield co., Conn., under the care of Dr. H. instruction in Europe and the United States. M. Knight. The American schools have gen- The number of pupils is rather the average than erally adopted Dr. Séguin's methods of instruc- the exact number attending at any one date.
cy” (Edinburgh, 1852); Dr. Eschricht, “On Nebuchadnezzar. They were able to extend the Possibility of Educating Idiotic Children to their power as far north as Hebron, while their become Useful Members of Society" (Copenha- ancient seats were invaded and occupied by the gen, 1854); Rev. Edwin Sidney, “Idiot Train Nabathæan Arabs. The Idumea of Roman and ing, a Lecture” (London, 1855); Dr. W. Blackie, the later Jewish writers, therefore, embraces “Oretinism and Idiocy" (Edinburgh, 1855); parts of southern Palestine and northern Arabia "Report of Commissioners on Idiocy in Con- Petræa. The Maccabees subjected the Idunecticut” (New Haven, 1856); Dr. L. P. Brock- mæans, and an Idumwan dynasty was subseett, “Idiots and the Efforts for their Improve- quently established on the Jewish throne. (See ment” (Hartford, 1856); Dr. Ferd. Kern, “Es- HEROD.) In the Augustan age, Idumæa and say on Idiot Instruction" in Allgemeine Zeit. Judæa were often used indiscriminately by Roschrift für Psychiatrie (1857); James Abbot, man writers, but the former disappears from “Handbook of Idiotcy" (London, 1857). history after the destruction of Jerusalem.
IDOORASE, a mineral species of the garnet IFFLAND, AUGUST WILHELM, a German section of the silicates, named from Gr. Edw, actor and dramatist, born in Hanover, April to see, and kpagis, mixture, indicating resem: 19, 1759, died in Berlin, Sept. 22, 1814. At blance to other species in its crystalline forms. the age of 18 he eloped from home and made It occurs variously colored, as brown, sulphur his debut upon the stage at Gotha, in one of yellow, green, and blue; and of vitreous, fre- Engel's comedies, in which he took the part of quently somewhat resinous lustre. Its hard- an old Jew. In 1779 he joined the theatrical ness is 6.5; specific gravity, 3.35-3.45. It was company at Mannheim, and was the leading first observed in the lavas of Vesuvius, and actor in this city when in the latter part of was called Vesuvian. Numerous localities of 1781 Schiller put into his hands the manuscript it are known in gneiss rocks, serpentine and of the “Robbers." The play was produced in granular limestone. It is particularly abundant the succeeding January, with Imand in the part at Parsonsfield and Phippsburg, Me., occurring of Franz Moor, and the success which attended in massive forms as well as in crystals. the representation at once brought Schiller into
IDRIA, a mining town of the circle of Adels- notice, and confirmed the rising reputation of berg, duchy of Carniola, in Austrian Illyria, 32 Iffland. The latter remained in Mannheim m. N. N. E. from Trieste, and 35 m.W.S.W. from until 1796, when he was invited to Berlin to Laybach ; pop. 4,400. The town is situated in assume the direction of the national theatre of a deep, narrow Alpine valley, on a small river of that city. In 1811 he was appointed general the same name. Its quicksilver mines are the director of all the royal plays, and about the second in importance in Europe, and now pro- same time made an extended professional tour duce annually about 3,000 cwt., beside about 650 through Germany. From the commencement cwt. of artificial cinnabar. The rich hepatic mer- of his career Iffland cultivated dramatic comcurial ore is found in a formation of clay slate position, and in time became not less celebrated forming a bed in compact limestone. · The ex- as a playwright than as an actor. His plays, cavations are horizontal galleries diverging from chiefly of the class known as the domestic draa shaft which has been sunk to a depth of more ma, were very successful in their day, and are than 1,000 feet. The entrance is from the still occasionally performed on the German Schloss, a building within the town. Descent stage; but the vein of lachrymose sentiment is accomplished partly by some 800 steps cut in which pervades them is less palatable to the the rock, and partly by ladders. The miners present than to former generations. Among are a uniformed corps, 500 in number, and the the best of his works are Die Jäger, Der Spieservice is eagerly sought for, the higher rate of ler, Die Hagestolzen, &c. A collection of 47 wages and contingent advantages being balanced of them was published in 16 vols. in Leipsic in against the unhealthiness of the occupation. 1798-1802, including a memoir of his theatrical The mines were discovered in 1497, and are the career. Subsequent volumes containing other property of the crown. Amsterdam was for- pieces were published in 1807–9 and in 1827; merly the chief market for the quicksilver, for and in 1844 his select works appeared. South American account, but it is now sent to IGLAU, a town of Moravia, Austria, on the Vienna for use in the gold and silver mines of right bank of the Iglawa, 49 m. W. N. W. from Hungary and Transylvania.
Brünn; pop, about 14,000. It consists of the IDUMÆA (the Greek form of the Semitic town proper, which is walled, and 3 suburbs, name Edom), the country around Mt. Seir, ex- and contains a military school. tending N. and E. from Mt. Horeb to the IGNATIUS, SAINT, surnamed Theophorus, southern border of Canaan. Its more ancient one of the primitive fathers of the church, lived name was Seir, which it derived from a patri. in the latter part of the 1st and early part of arch of its early inhabitants, the Horims (Deut. the 2d century. He was a native of Syria or ii. 12, 22). It was peopled by the descendants Asia Minor, and succeeded Evodius as bishop of Esau, and was added to the Israelitish mon- of Antioch about A. D. 69. Ignatius was & archy by David. The Edomites recovered their contemporary of the apostles, and, according independence during the reign of Joram over to Theodoret, was consecrated by St. Peter himJudah, and avenged themselves on the Jews by self. He had been a hearer, and was probably their cruelties at the capture of Jerusalem by a convert of the apostle John. On the outbreak
of the persecution under Trajan, he was brought John Mitchell of Connecticut, of persons coming before that emperor at Antioch, and, after ex- up with the light, one man catching it in his amination, was condemned to be taken to Rome hat, but finding nothing there. In Milner's and there thrown to wild beasts. This sentence “Gallery of Nature," p. 544, is recorded a statewas carried into execution, Dec. 20, 107, or ment of Mr. Blesson, who carefully investigat116. His remains are said to have been col- ed the phenomena in the forest of Gorbitz, in lected by the faithful and reconveyed to Anti- Brandenburg. On a marshy spot be observed och, where they were interred. During the bluish purple flames at night, where bubbles of journey of Ignatius to Rome, he addressed va- air issued during the day. These flaines retired rious epistles to the churches of Asia and to in- as he approached, in consequence, he supposed, dividuals, and one to the Christians of the city of the air being agitated by his movement. On whither he was going to be martyred. Fifteen standing perfectly still they soon appeared withof these letters have come down to us, but in in reach; and then, carefully guarding against so corrupt a state that many critics have pro- disturbing the air by his breath, he succeeded nounced the greater number of them spurious. in singeing a piece of paper, which became The best edition of the epistles ascribed to Ig- covered with a viscous moisture. At last, using natius is that of Cotelerius (Amsterdam, 1724). a narrow slip of paper, he had the pleasure of There are two English translations of them, one seeing it take fire. By disturbing the air over the by Archbishop Wake, the other by Cureton. spot he caused the flames to disappear entirely,
IGNATIUS, SAINT, patriarch of Constanti- but in a few minutes after quiet was restored nople, born in 798, died Oct. 23, 878. He was they appeared again over the air bubbles, appathe youngest son of the emperor Michael I., and rently without having communication with any his original name was Nicetas; but on the de- known source of flame. On suddenly introducposition of his father by Leo the Armenian, he ing a torch after extinguishing the flames, a kind was made a eunuch by Leo and entered a mon- of explosion was heard, and a red light was astery, assuming the name of Ignatius. He was seen over 8 or 9 square feet of the marsh, which raised to the patriarchate in 846. He was an diminished to a small blue flame from 27 to 3 enemy of the iconoclasts, and would not suffer feet in height. He concluded that the cause of Gregorius Asbestus, bishop of Syracuse, to be the ignis fatuus was the evolution of inflammable present at his consecration, because of his heter- gas from the marsh, and that the flames existed odoxy. Having in 857 refused to admit Bardas, by day as well as at night, though not then visibrother of the empress Theodora, as a commu- ble. The lights seen occasionally over churchnicant, on account of the reported immorality yards are of similar appearance to those describof his life, the offender caused him to be de- ed. These meteors are supposed to be the result posed, and Photius to be elected patriarch in of the spontaneous combustion of inflammable his place. After his deposition he was treated gases generated by the decomposition of vegewith the greatest cruelty, and banished to My- table or animal bodies. Phosphuretted hydrogen, tilene; but when Basil the Macedonian ascend- it is well known, bursts into flame as it is allowed ed the throne in 867, he was recalled from exile. to escape into the air from the vessels in which
IGNIS FATUUS, a flickering light seen at it is prepared. It is produced by the decay of night over the surface of marshy grounds or animal matters, and, if thinly diffused here and graveyards. Soinetimes it moves quietly along, there over the surface of a marsh, may present resembling the light of a lantern carried in the the changing, flickering light of the ignis fatuus, hand; and again it appears not alone, but two as difficult to locate as the illumination of the or three together dancing merrily up and down. fireflies, for which it has been mistaken by sev. In the night mists it seems like the light from eral eminent naturalists. What is known as some neighboring house; and many a traveller marsh gas is a highly inflammable carburetted has been enticed by its false promise, and led hydrogen, which bubbles up through the water into dangerous bogs, from which he found no that covers boggy places, and may be inflamed escape till the appearance of the morning light. on the surface. (See Gas.) This may be ignited It is not strange that a character of mystery by phospburetted hydrogen, and add to the should have attached to this luminous appear- extent and permanency of the flames. The ance, and that the ignorant should have ascribed small quantity of these combustible matters its occurrence to some evil spirit. They called present in the air will account for the feebleness it “Will o' the wisp," and "Jack with a lan- of the flames, which have rarely been known to tern," and this imaginary person is often alluded set fire to other substances; and the varying to by the old English poets; thus Parnell, in his quantity and purity of that exhaled would ex"Fairy Tale":
plain the constantly shifting brightness of the Then Will, who bears the wispy fire,
light. In the account of this phenomenon in the To trail the swains among the mire.
“Gallery of Nature" referred to, it is stated that It is commonly believed that the light retires in the middle of the last century the snow on before one who pursues it; and this notion is the summit of the Apennines appeared envelconfirmed by the statements of some observers, oped in flame; and in the winter of 1693 hay and disproved by those of others. In vol. xvi. ricks in Wales were set on fire by burning gasof the “ American Journal of Science," p. 246, eous exhalations. instances are noticed, in a paper by the Rev. IGUANA, a lizard constituting the type of