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the great rabbinical critic Rapoport, S. D. used in correspondence, in the East occasionally Luzzato, Letteris, Eichbaum, P. M. Heilprin, also as a medium of conversation with occidenS. Sachs, Kirchheim, Schorr, A. Krochmal; the tal Jews. Of the various modes of Hebrew historians, critics, or publicists on Jewish pronunciation the sefaradic (improperly Portusubjects in modern languages, Zuoz, Jost, guese), or that of the descendants of the exiles Riesser, Geiger, Fürst, Philippson, Salvador, from Spain and Portugal, is regarded by scholars Munk, Cohen, Dukes, Frankel, M. Sachs, Jel: as the most genuine. There are three kinds of linek, Herzfeld, Saalschütz, Steinschneider, Hebrew alphabets now in use: the square, also Grätz, Lów, Raphael (New York), Leeser (Phil- called the Assyrian (properly Babylonian), adelphia), Wise (Cincinnati); the conservative which is generally supposed to have been introtheologians Plessner, Johlsohn, Steinheim, and duced by Ezra, the most common in print; the Hirsch ; the advocates of religious reform (be- rabbinical or mediæval, used chiefly in comside Geiger and Herzfeld) Chorin, Creizenach, mentaries and notes; and the cursive, in writStein, Herxheimer, Holdheim, Hess, Stern, Ein- ing. The most ancient Hebrew, however, is horn (Baltimore), Lilienthal (Cincinnati); the believed by many critics more to have resempulpit' orators Mannheimer, Kley, Salomon, bled the Phænician, and to be best represented Frankfurter; the philosophers Maimon, Ben- by the Maccabean coins and the alphabet of the david, Frank; the mathematicians Witzen- Samaritan version of the Pentateuch. The writhausen, Sklow, A. Stern; the astronomers ing is from right to left. The alphabet conW. Beer, Stern, Slonimski; the ichthyologist sists of 22 letters or consonants, the vowels beBloch ; the physiologist Valentin; the anato- ing expressed by marks above or below the letinist Hirschfeld; the poets Kuh, M.Beer, Frankl, ters. Five letters have a separate final form. Léon Halévy; the miscellaneous writers Auer- There are no capital letters. The accents and bach, M. M. Noah, Grace Aguilar, Jules Janin; marks of punctuation are very numerous. the orientalists Weil, Dernburg, Oppert (beside The following examples will exhibit some of Munk). Politics, law, medicine, and the arts, in the most interesting features of the language : cluding the stage (Mlle. Rachel, &c.), have had Kol, (a) voice, hakkol, the voice; gan, garden, numerous representatives, and especially musio haggan, the garden; shem, name, hashshem, the (Meyerbeer, Halévy, Herz, &c.).—The number name. Dod, uncle, dodah, aunt ; dod zaken, an of Jews in all parts of the world is hardly less old uncle, dodah zekenah, an old aunt; dodim than 4,500,000, or more than 6,000,000.-The zekenim, old uncles, dodoth zekenoth, old aunts; HEBREW LANGUAGE (Heb. ibrith, or lashon sheney dodim, two uncles, shetey dodoth, two ibrith, Hebrew tongue, also leshon hakkodesh, aunts. Oznayim, raglayim, alpayim, two (a sacred tongue, in post-biblical Jewish works; couple of) ears, feet, thousands. Banim, sons, yehudith, Jewish, in the biblical history of the banoth, daughters; beney david, benoth darid, period following the captivity of the 10 tribes; sons, daughters of David. Ani (ee) gadol, I am in Isaiah, poetically, also sefath kenaan, lan- great, hu (oo) gadol, he is great, hem gedolim, guage of Canaan), together with scanty rem- they are great. Koli (ee), my voice, kolo, his nants of the Phænician and Punic, belongs to voice, kolam, their voice. Lemosheh, to Moses, the so called Canaanitic branch or chief division bemosheh, in Moses, kemosheh, like Moses, midof the Semitic family of languages, the other david, from David. Bo, in him, lo, to him; babranches being the Aramaic and Arabian. nu, in us, lanu, to us. Beyn, between; beyn In the antiquity of its extant literary rem- mosheh vedavid, between Moses and David ; nants the Hebrew by far surpasses all other beyni ubeyno, between me and him. Min, from; Semitic idioms, and in richness and develop- gadol middavid, greater than David. Golyath ment exceeds all others except the Arabic. raah eth david, Goliath saw (looked at) David; The Hebrew is deficient in grammatical tech- golyath heref eth david, Goliath insulted nicalities, especially in moods and tenses of (mocked at) David ; david' hikkah eth golyath, the verb, and consequently also somewhat in David struck (at) Goliath. Shamor, to guard; precision ; but in euphony, simplicity, brevity, eshmor, I shall guard, tishmor, thou wilt guard, variety of signification, and power of poeti- nishmor, we shall guard; shamarti, I (have) cal expression, it is hardly excelled by any guarded, shamarnu, we guarded, shemartem, ye tongue. In its full purity the Hebrew appears guarded; ani shomer, (I am guarding) I guard, in the earlier books of the Bible, in the med- hushomer, he guards, hem shomerim, they guard; iæval poetical works of R. Jehudah Hallevi, shamar, (he) guarded, nishmar, was guarded, Aben Ezra, &c., and in the modern poems of hishtammer, guarded himself; lishmor, to guard, Wessely, S. Cohen, and others. The prose bishmor, in guarding, mishmor, from guarding; writings posterior to the Babylonish captivity mosheh shamar, Moses guarded ; miryam shaare generally tinged with Aramaisms, especially mera, Miriam guarded. Among the eminent the Mishna, which also contains numerous Greek modern Christian writers (the Jewish being words, while the mixed idiom of the Gemara and mentioned in the literary parts of this article) its commentaries may be termed Chaldaic rather on Hebrew history, literature, or language are than Hebrew. In the middle ages pure Hebrew Reuchlin, the two Buxtorfs, Lowth, Basnage, Miwas used only in poetical prose; in modern chaelis, Eichhorn, Herder, Rosenmüller, Jahn, times it is used exceptionally in simple prose. Gesenius, De Wette, Ewald, Quatremère, MilIn the East and in Poland the Hebrew is often man, Robinson, Noyes, Stuart, Bush, and Renan. HEBRIDES, or WESTERN ISLANDS (the Ebu- grown for export, and in unproductive seasons of Ptolemy, and the 30 Hebudes of Pliny), 2. the harvest is not sufficient for the consumption group of islands, about 200 in number, off the of the inhabitants. Famine has more than W. coast of Scotland, between lat. 55° 26' and once visited these islands. In 1846 the destitu58° 32' N., and long. 5° and 8° W. They are tion was so great that an appeal was made usually classed as the outer and inner Hebrides. to the charity of the British people. The tenThe outer include the islands of Lewis and ure of land is very unfavorable to enterprise. Harris, N. Uist, Benbecula, S. Uist, and Barra, Much of the soil is held by tacksmen, an interlying in a continuous chain extending 130 m. mediate class between the proprietors and the from the Butt of Lewis on the N. to Barra cultivators. Many of the tenants hold their Head on the S. The inner Hebrides are more farms at will, or on very short leases, and subirregularly disposed at intervals of 10 to 30 m. let on the same terms to cottiers and crofters. apart, and comprise 7 islands in the frith of Excepting in localities where the population Clyde, which form the county of Bute, 16, be- has been thinned to make large holdings, the side some islets, belonging to Argyleshire, and farms are generally small, renting at from £5 7 to Inverness-shire. Of the whole number to £50 each. In Islay and some of the larger only 180 can properly be called islands, the islands the system is better, and leases of 19 rest being mere rocks in the ocean. Only years are granted as in other parts of Britain. 79 are permanently settled; 20 or 30 more Want of roads is a great drawback to their are occupied during the season of pasture with prosperity. In most of the islands the dwellings flocks. The total area of the islands is 2,739 are wholly clustered along the coast, leaving sq. m., or 1,688,960 acres, of which 170,000 the interior country unsettled. The raising of are arable, 700,000 hill pasture, and 64,000 in black cattle is the staple industry. These lakes. Their population in 1851 was 116,367. cattle, called kyloes, are exported in a lean The largest islands are Lewis, Skye, N. Uist, condition to the richer pastures of the main8. Uist, Benbecula, Mull, Islay, Arran, and land, where they rapidly increase in weight. Jura. The geological formation of the outer The stock of them in the islands is estimated Hebrides and of one or two others is gneiss; at 120,000. Native sheep are very diminutive, the rest may be divided into the trap, the not weighing more than 20 lbs., but the Cheviot slate, and the trap, sandstone, and limestone breed has been introduced in some localities. islands. The soil of those of gneiss forma- The horses are small and hardy, and are extion is poor, with a large proportion of peat ported, but are not so handsome as the ponies moss; the others are more fertile, especially of Shetland. Kelp is still manufactured to the the islands of the frith of Clyde. Arran, Ju- extent of 5,000 tons per annum, from the sea ra, Mull, and Skye have mountains 2,000 to weed thrown by storms on the beach, but it is 3,000 feet in height; others have no hills high- less profitable than if the raw material were er than 1,500 feet, while Tyree and the south. used as manure. (See KELP.) Yarn spinning, ern isles of the outer group have no ground which was formerly an industrial occupation higher than 300 feet. The islands bear the in Islay, has been quite destroyed by the Glasappearance of having at one period formed a gow factories. There are two cotton mills in portion of the mainland of Scotland. The chan- operation in Rothesay, but they may be rather nel which separates them from the mainland is considered as belonging to Glasgow than the called the Minch. Their coasts, especially front Hebrides. Islay contains whiskey distilleries ing the Atlantic, are bold and rocky, indented producing about 250,000 gallons annually. The with numerous bays. There are many lakes, of islanders receive a considerable amount of moan average depth of 3 or 4 fathoms. The climate ney from the expenditures of tourists. Steamis mild and moist, with occasional storms of ers ply regularly during the summer among the great violence. In the uplands 30 to 36 inches of islande, and thousands of strangers visit Staffa, rain fall annually; on the coast about 25 inches. Iona, and Arran. Staffa contains the celebrated The temperature is rarely lower than 5° below Fingal's cave. (See STAFFA.) The Hebrides the freezing point. Storms from the S. W. are form 30 parishes, containing 42 parochial and prevalent from August to March, accompanied 149 non-parochial schools, attended by one by heavy rains. Winter may be said to last from tenth of the population, yet an equal number October till the beginning of April. Marble, over 6 years of age are totally without education. limestone, and slate are quarried, the latter in There are 56 churches, of which 44 are of the considerable quantity. Iron ore is abundant in Church of Scotland, the majority of the others most of the islands, some copper is found, and being Roman Catholic. Within the past few lead is worked in Islay to a small extent. Coal years the population of these islands has deexists, but is not available; the fuel used is peat. creased in consequence of emigration, which in There is little wood on any of the islands, and on many instances has been encouraged by the many none, although some centuries since they proprietors, whose rental is increased by the were mostly clothed with forests. Extensive change from small to large farms. Gaelic is plantations have, however, been made with still generally spoken by the people, but English success in Skye, Islay, and Mull. Agriculture is gradually superseding it. Both Gaelic and is in a very backward condition. Oats, barley, English are taught in the schools. The principal and potatoes are the staple crops. Nothing is villages are Stornoway in the island of Lewis, Portree in Skye, Torosay in Mull, Rothsay in Persia. Hecatæus vainly endeavored to disBute, and Lamblash in Arran. Few antiquities suade them therefrom; the contemplated reare found in the Hebrides excepting in Iona, volt was carried out, and ultimately led to that which contains the reputed burial places of 48 war which demonstrated the superiority of Scottish, 16 Norwegian, 1 French, and 4 Irish Europe over Asia. After the suppression of kings, among ecclesiastical ruins of various pe- the revolt, Hecatæus, still high in the esteem riods since 563, when tradition says St. Co- of his countrymen, though hostile to their prolumba introduced Christianity. There were 5 ceedings, was sent as ambassador to the satrap other monastic stations in the Hebrides, at Or- of the great king to solicit mercy for the vanonsay, Colonsay, Crusay, Lewis, and Harris; quished. He succeeded in his mission, and but few vestiges remain.—These islands were averted from the Ionians the vengeance of the at first under their own chieftains; then subject conqueror. He was the author of a geographto the kings of Norway, until 1264, when they ical work entitled [lepuodos Ins, or llepinynois, were annexed to the kingdom of Scotland, but and of a historical one entitled revealoylai, or their chieftains paid only a nominal obedience. 'loroplar. The former contained a description In 1346 the minor chiefs fell under the sway of of various countries in Europe, Asia, and Afone McDonald, who took the title of lord of rica; the latter was a prose account of the the isles and affected independence. In 1715 mythical history of the Greeks. Some frag. and 1745 the islands mainly declared in favor ments of these works are extant, and were pubof the Stuarts, and after the defeat at Culloden lished by R. H. Klausen at Berlin in 1831. sheltered the pretender until his escape to HECATE, a divinity of ancient Greece, who France. The act of parliament of 1748 abolish- was commonly called a daughter of Perses or ing heritable jurisdictions gave the finishing Persæus and Asteria. She had dominion in heablow to the independence of the chieftains of ven, on earth, and in the sea, and could bestow the Western Isles.

on mortals wealth, victory, and wisdom. This HEBRON (Arab. El Khaleel ; anc. Kirjath extensive jurisdiction caused her to be confoundArba), a city of Palestine, in the pashalic ofed with Ceres, Rhea, Diana, and Proserpine. She Damascus, 18 m. S. from Jerusalem; pop. va. was worshipped in Samothrace and Ægina, and riously estimated at from 5,000 to 10,000. It at Athens, where small statues of Hecate were stands partly on the declivities of two hills, placed in front of houses and at cross roads. and partly in the deep and narrow valley of Her favorite sacrifices were dogs, honey, and Mamre. The streets are narrow, tortuous, and black ewe lambs. In works of art she is somedirty, and the houses, which are built of square times represented as a single being, sometimes rough stones, are high and gloomy, with flat as a 3-headed monster. or hemispherical roofs. At the S. extremity HECATOMB (Gr. ékatov, 100, and Bous, os), of the town is a mosque, formerly a Greek literally a sacrifice of 100 oxen; but even so church, which, according to the Mohammedans, early as Homer's age the term had lost its litcovers the cave of Machpelah, and the sepul- eral signification, and was employed to denote chre of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and any great public sacrifice. Thus we read in the Jacob. The other principal edifices are the Iliad of hecatombs of 12 oxen, of hecatombs of citadel, 8 mosques, 2 synagogues, and several oxen and rams, and of hecatombs composed schools and bazaars. Hebron is one of the old solely of rams. est of existing cities, having been founded by HECKER, FRIEDRICH KARL Franz, a GerArba, the father of Anak and the Anakim. It man politician, born in Eichtersheim, Baden, was a favorite abode of the patriarch Abra- Sept. 28, 1811. He practised law in Mannham, and the residence of King David during heim from 1838 until elected to the second the early part of his reign. The Arabic name chamber of Baden in 1842. He was distinmeans is The Friend" (i. e., of God), by which guished for extreme radicalism, and in 1845 epithet the Arabs designate Abraham. In 1834, travelled with Itzstein for the purpose of dis- • as a consequence of the rebellion and defeat of seminating his views. At Berlin they received its inhabitants, it was stormed and plundered an order to leave Prussia in 24 hours. In the by Ibrahim Pasha. In 1837 Hebron suffered diet of 1846–7 Hecker even opposed the liberal much from earthquakes, but the town has since ministry of Bekk, and voted against taxation ; been more fortunate, and Lord Lindsay, in his but not being sustained, he resigned his seat in “ Letters on Egypt, Édom, and the Holy Land" March, 1847. He shortly after availed himself (5th ed., London, 1858), describes its condition of a fusion between the democrats and liberals as improving.

to enter the assembly again. Having allied himHEBRUS, in ancient geography, a river of self with the republican and socialist Struve, Thrace. See MARITZA.

and taken an active part in a meeting at OffenHECATÆUS, a Greek historian and geog- burg (Sept. 12, 1847), where the radical pro. rapher, born in Miletus about 550 B. O., died gramme was drawn up, he was about to be tried about 476. He visited various provinces of for treason, but was allowed to retain his place the Persian empire, Egypt, Libya, Greece, Italy, in the chamber, where he continued to be the and other countries. On his return home ho leader of the extreme left. He was a member found his fellow citizens of Miletus, and the of the provisional Frankfort parliament, but as Ionians generally, meditating a revolt against his party was here left in the minority, he took

part with Struve in the insurrection of April incipal establishment of the Moravians in Amerithe south of Baden, and fled after their defeat ca, and there remained till his death. He wrote at Kandern into Switzerland, where he estab- several memoirs upon the Delaware and Mohelished a radical journal, the Volksfreund. In gan Indians. Sept. 1848, he emigrated to America, but was HECLA, Mount. See ICELAND. recalled by the provisional government of Ba- HECTARE, a French measure of superficial den in 1849. In July he arrived in Strasbourg, extent, containing 100 ares and 10,000 square but, finding that the revolutionary party had mètres, and equivalent to 2.47 acres. been completely defeated, returned to the Unit- HECTOGRAMME, in French weights, 100 ed States, where he now resides as a farmer in grammes. The prefix hecto multiplies by 100 Belleville, Ill. In 1856 he took an active part in (Gr. ékatov) throughout the French system. American politics by delivering public speeches HECTOR, & Trojan hero, and the noblest in various parts of the Union in favor of the re- character of the Iliad. He was the eldest son publican party.

of Priam and Hecuba, the husband of AndromHECKER, ISAAO THOMAS, an American cler- ache, and the father of Astyanax. He disapgyman, born in New York, Dec. 18, 1819. He proved of the conduct of Paris, and advised the received his education in his native city, and surrender of Helen to Menelaus; but when his entered into business there with his brothers in remonstrances and warnings were disregarded, the well known milling and baking establish- he devoted all bis energies to the service of his ment of Hecker and brothers. He passed the native city. After slaying some of the bravest summer of 1843 with the association for agri. warriors of the Hellenic host, and among them culture and education at Brook Farm, in West Patroclus, the friend of Achilles, he was at Roxbury, Mass., and subsequently spent some length vanquished and killed by the latter, who time with the community known as the “Con- thrice dragged the corpse of the fallen champion sociate Family," established on a somewhat round the walls of Troy; but afterward relentsimilar plan at a spot called Fruitlands in Wor- ing, he restored it for a ransom to Priam, who cester co., Mass., about 40 m. from Boston. He consigned it to an honorable grave. returned thence to New York, and in 1845 was HECUBA, a daughter of Dymas in Phrygia, received into the Roman Catholic church. Soon or of Cisseus, king of Thrace, 2d wife of Priam, after taking this step he determined on entering king of Troy, and the mother of Hector, Paris, the congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, Cassandra, Creüsa, and 15 other children. Acand, after making his novitiate at St. Trond in cording to Euripides, she was enslaved by the Belgium, was admitted to the order in 1847. Greeks after the capture of Troy, and carried On the completion of his ecclesiastical studies to Chersonesus, where she saw on the same he was sent by his superiors to England, and day her daughter Polyxena sacrificed and the in 1849 was ordained priest in London by Car- body of her youngest son Polydorus cast on the dival Wiseman. He passed 2 years in England shore after he had been murdered by Polymesengaged in missions. In 1851 he returned tor, king of the Thracian Chersonesus. Sbe to New York in company with several mem- determined on revenge, and, sending for Polybers of his order, and for the next 7 years was mestor and his two sons, under pretence of constantly employed in missionary labors in wanting to inform them of hidden treasure, various parts of the United States. In 1857, she slew the children on their arrival, and tore having visited Rome, Mr. Hecker with some of out the eyes of their father. According to other his colleagues was released by the pope from his accounts she became the slave of Ulysses, and connection with the Redemptorists, and in 1858 in despair killed herself by leaping into the sea. he founded with his companions a new mission- HEDDING, ELIJAH, D.D., a bishop of the ary society under the name of the congregation Methodist Episcopal church, born in Dutchess of St. Paul the Apostle. The first house of this co., N. Y., Jan. 7, 1780, died in Poughkeepsie, community is now (Nov. 1859) building in New April 9, 1852. At the age of 19 he entered the York city. Mr. Hecker is the author of ministry, and was appointed to Essex circuit as “Questions of the Soul” (12mo., New York, the successor of the eccentric Lorenzo Dow, 1855), and "Aspirations of Nature" (1857). He extended his travels to Canada, and preachWhile in Rome he published in the Civilta Cat- ed the gospel in various parts. He became a tolica two papers on “Catholicity in the United member of the New York annual conference in States," which were translated into several lan- 1801, and was appointed to the Plattsburg circuit. guages and reprinted in America and in Europe. For many years he was presiding elder of a dis

HECKEWELDER, JOHN, a Moravian mis- trict, and was elected delegate to the first dele. sionary, born in Bedford, England, March 12, gated general conference of the church, which 1743, died in Bethlehem, Penn., Jan. 21, 1823. was held in New York in 1812, and at every At the age of 12 years he came with his father subsequent meeting of the same he represented to Pennsylvania. He accompanied Mr. Post the conference to which he belonged until his in 1762 in his expedition to the Indian tribes election to the episcopate, which took place in on the Ohio, and, in 1771 he took up his resi- 1824. He was mainly instrumental in the esdence among them as a missionary. After tablishment of the “ Zion's Herald” at Boston, some 40 years' missionary service, ho went to the first journal published by the Methodist Bethlehem, 19 m, N. of Philadelphia, the prin- church in the United States, and no minister

in the church has labored more zealously and mens of buckthorn hedges are to be seen around efficiently in promoting the cause of general Boston, Mass. In the middle and western states and theological education than Bishop Hedding. the Osage orange (Maclura aurantiaca, Nutt.) In 1848 he was chosen by the general confer- has been found to possess excellent qualities for ence to represent the Methodist Episcopal church hedges, being vigorous, robust, and long-lived. in the British conference. He wrote a manual Its foliage is of a glossy light green color, its on the discipline of the church, which is re- branches are set with numerous, straight, sharp garded generally as of high authority.

spines, and it bears shearing and clipping well. HEDENBORG, Jan, a Swedish traveller, It is readily raised from the seed, and the pieces born in 1787, was educated at the university of of the roots which are trimmed away on setting Upsal, and officiated as physician to the Swedish the young hedge plants will make abundance of minister in Constantinople. He explored vari- new ones if properly cared for in the nursery. ous countries in the East, and wrote Turkiska For beauty of leaf and flower the prim or privet Nationens Seder, Bruk, och Klädedrägter (“Hab- (ligustrum vulgare, Linn.) can be recommended its, Usages, and Customs of the Turkish People," for hedges, the foliage being nearly evergreen, Stockholm, 1839–42, with 48 plates), and Resa and the stems capable of being made thick and į Egypten och det inre Afrika (“. Journey in compact. Some employ the arbor vitæ (thuya Egypt and the Interior of Africa," Stockholm, occidentalis, Linn.); and where protection from 1843). +

cold winds is needed, this fine tree, planted in HÉDGE, a fence of stout bushes for protect- hedge rows and suffered to grow tall, makes a ing fields and gardens, Hedges are sometimes lasting and pleasant fence, its naturally compact constructed of brushwood and lopped branch- and flattened stems being admirably calculated es of trees, so firmly planted in the ground for the purpose. For vigor, abundance of as to render it difficult to penetrate through suckers and of branches, for spiny stems and them. In distinction from this sort, a fence of leaves, brilliant and useful fruit, the common living shrubs planted when they are young, and barberry should not be overlooked, especially trained and prured so that they may yearly near the sea coast, where it seems to thrive best. increase in thickness and strength, is termed a The seeds germinate most readily, and the seedquick hedge. Hedges for actual use are of ling plants are fit for making into bedges in the more importance in a country where wood or 2d or 3d year. In order to insure success in stone is not easily obtained than in the United forming hedges, a few precautions only seem States. In England, for instance, the system of essential. These are, a well prepared border of hedges has prevailed to such an extent that good soil, in which the young plants are to be much of the garden-like appearance of the cul- set, freedom from weeds, and judicious trimtivated portions of that country is owing to its ming. It will be best to allow the plants to hedge rows. It has been considered there that grow upward as they will, and to direct the well managed hedges are the most effective shearing to the sides, so as to form numerous fences, the cheapest and the most pleasing to thick branches and twigs. Beside the shrubs the eye. In America the hedge is einployed for already enumerated, various kinds of trees have ornament, and used principally for garden been employed for hedges, such as the beech, boundaries. The most attractive hedges are the 8-thorned gleditschia, the hemlock fir, the formed by using the buckthorn (rhamnus ca- red cedar, the sour gum, &c. tharticus), which has close, slender stems, and HEDGE, FREDERIO HENRY, D.D., an Amerideep green foliage. Such a hedge in a few can clergyman and author, born in Cambridge, years presents a most verdant appearance dur- Mass., Dec. 12, 1805. His father was for a long ing the summer, and is free from the attacks of time professor of logic and metaphysics in Harinsects. This is owing to the medicinal quality vard college. In 1818 the son accompanied of its leaves, bark, and stems, proving offensive Mr. George Bancroft to Germany, and there to insects of every kind. The common haw- studied at Ilfeld and Schulpforte. In 1823 he thorn of Europe, and the more beautiful Amer- returned to America, and in 1825 was graduican thorns (cratægus), have been found unsuit- ated at Harvard college. After 3 years of study able on account of their liability to the attacks of in the theological school, he entered the ministhe apple-borer saperda bivittata, Say), which try in 1828, was soon settled in the Congregadestroyed entire rows of fine hedges in vari- tional church at West Cambridge, and in Sept. ous parts of the country. The leaves of the 1830, was married to a daughter of the Rev. buckthorn are green and shining, and in form John Pierce of Brookline. In 1835 he accepted somewhat like those of the common plum; the a call to be pastor of the Unitarian church in berries are of a shining black and abundant. Its Bangor, Me., where he remained for 15 years. In roots consist of perfect masses of black, mat-like 1847–8 he made the tour of Europe, revisiting fibres, which spread freely beneath the surface Germany, and spending & winter in Italy. In of the earth, and attract ample means of suste. 1850 he received a call from the Westminster nance from almost any kind of soil, whether dry church in Providence, R. I., and remained its or moist. The seeds should be sown in the au- pastor until 1856, when he took charge of the tumn, and will readily vegetate during the suc- First Congregational church in Brookline, Mass., ceeding spring. In 2 years the young plants are with which he still remains. In 1852 he received large enough for planting out. Many fine speci- from Harvard college the degree of D.D., and in

VOL. IX.-4

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