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1857 was chosen professor of ecclesiastical his- tail are short; the paws, end of nose, and tail tory in the theological school in Cambridge. In are nearly naked; the eyes are prominent, and the same year he took charge of the “Christian the opening of the ears may be closed by a valExaminer,” the organ of the Unitarian body. vular arrangement of the cartilages; the nose He is also the present president of the American is considerably longer than the jaws, and fringed Unitarian association. His largest work is the at the end ; the lips are entire, and there are no “Prose Writers of Germany" (8vo., Philadel- cheek pouches; the 5 toes are armed with long phia, 1848), in which extracts from 28 authors, nails, the middle the longest, suitable for digfrom Luther to Chamisso, are given, each series ging; the soles are covered with naked tuberpreceded by a careful original sketch of the cles, possessing an exquisite sense of touch; the author and estimate of his genius and influence. mammæ are 10, 6 pectoral and 4 ventral. By Beside these introductory sketches, a large por- means of the development of the panniculus cartion of the extracts were specially translated for nosus muscle, belonging entirely to the skin, the work by the compiler. Dr. Hedge has the animal is able to roll itself into a ball, and also published versions of many of the minor preserve this attitude as long as it pleases withpoems of eminent German writers, especially out much effort, presenting to its enemies & Schiller and Goethe. In 1853, in connection thorny mass which the most voracious and powwith the Rev. Dr. Huntington of Boston, heerful dare not attack. The hedgehog is a nocpublished a volume of hymns, many of the best turnal animal, concealing itself during the day of which are his own compositions and transla in burrows or natural holes, coming out at tions. In the same year also appeared his “Lit, night in search of worms, insects, snails, roots, urgy for the Use of the Church.” He has also and fruits; though possessing very limited inpublished sermons, orations, reviews, and maga- telligence, it has been so far domesticated as to zine essays, extending in time over more than be brought up in gardens, where it proves of 30 years. Of these may be specified as the most great service in destroying insects injurious to remarkable, the sketch of the transcendental vegetation; the flesh is said to be good eating. philosophy in the review of S. T. Coleridge The young are born in May, covered with (" Christian Examiner,” 1833); the Phi Beta prickles, with eyes and ears closed, and about 2 Kappa oration, on “Conservatism and Reform," inches long. When at rest, the hedgehog has delivered at Cambridge in 1840; the article on the power of lowering the prickles, and of reAugustine in “Putnam's Monthly" for March, taining them smooth on a level with the body. 1856; and the article on Leibnitz in the " At This species occurs throughout temperate Eulantic Monthly" for June, 1858.
rope, and was well known to the ancients. The HEDGEHOG, an insectivorous mammal, of popular name' urchin and the French hérisson the genus erinaceus (Linn.). The teeth aré 36 are evidently derived from the Latin erinaceus ; in number, but have been differently divided it is the exlvos of the Greeks. The prickles were by zoologists; F. Cuvier gives the following: formerly used to hatchel hemp: A second speincisors :, canines none, false molars , and cies, the long-eared hedgehog (E. auritus, Pall.), true molars fit ; according to Owen, they are is found in the eastern regions of the Russian developed as incisors :3, premolars :, and empire; the ears are nearly as long as the molars . The central incisors of the upper head; the body and limbs are more slender, and
jaw are separated from each other, those of the under hair finer, than in the preceding spethe lower nearly touching; behind the first up- cies. Like the other hedgehog, it hibernates in per incisor on each side are 2 small single-root- winter in holes a few inches below the surface ed teeth, resembling false molars, but evidently of the ground; it can eat cantharides and other incisors from their development in the inter- vesicating insects with impunity; it grows very maxillary bone ; after these, and separated from fat in the autumn, preparatory to going into them by a small interval, are 3 false molars, the winter quarters. Other species of the genus 1st the largest; then the 4 true molars, the 2d are described. There is no proper hedgehog in the largest, the 4th very small, and all tuber- America; the rodent porcupine, similarly armculated; in the lower jaw, after the single in- ed with quills, is called hedgehog in some parts cisor of each side, are 3 small single-pointed and of the United States. This animal displays one single-rooted teeth resembling false molars, and of the most remarkable provisions of nature for after these, with a short interval, 4 molars, the protecting a weak and harmless creature against 2d and 3d the largest; the crowns of the teeth the attacks of the strong and cruel. lock into each other, as in other animals prey. HEEREN, ARNOLD HERMANN LUDWIG, a ing chiefly on insects. When full grown, the German historian, born in Arbergen near Brecommon hedgehog (E. Europæus, Linn.) is about men, Oct. 25, 1760, died in Göttingen, March 9 inches long, of a heavy form, short limbs, and 7, 1842. He studied at Bremen, and subseslow plantigrade motion; the upper part of the quently at the university of Göttingen, applying body is covered with sharp prickles, about an himself with particular zeal to philology and inch long, arranged in clusters, divergent and history under the guidance of Heyne, whose crossing each other, of a brownish black color daughter he afterward married, and of Spittler. with a white point; the head is clothed with After a literary journey to Italy, France, and harsh brownish hairs, and the under parts of the Netherlands, he was appointed professor of the body with a dirty white fur; the ears and philosophy, and in 1801 of history, at Göttingen. He was for some time one of the editors of the Schnurrer in exegesis, Flatt in philosophy; and Bibliothek der alten Literatur und Kunst, and, was also well taught in botany, anatomy, and after the death of J. G. Eichhorn in 1827, editor other sciences of observation. As yet the young of the Göttinger gelehrte Anzeigen. The subject Hegel was chiefly noted for iron diligence, reof his lectures at the university was chiefly the serve, and maturity; he was familiarly addresshistory of Greek and Roman antiquities and of ed as “old fellow." With some of the students literature, and a principal merit of his numerous he read Plato and Kant; but his subsequent historical writings consists in an original elucida- philosophical fame took them by surprise. The tion of the commercial affairs and relations, as progressive aspects of the French revolution well as of the origin and political development enlisted his sympathies. In 1790 Schelling, then of the ancient states. Beside the edition of 15 years old, came also to Tübingen; he and Menander's De Encomiis (1785), and the Ecloge Hegel studied, talked, and roomed together, Physicæ et Ethice of Stobæus (4 vols., 1792- little aware of that strange destiny by which 1801), the following are his most important the younger became the leader of the elder, and works: "Ideas on the Policy and Commerce of the elder supplanted the younger, and the the most Distinguished Nations of Antiquity" younger yet again succeeded the elder in the de(2 vols., 1793–6 ;. 4th ed., 6 vols., 1824–6; velopment of German idealisin. After quitting the part relating to ancient Greece was trans- the university, Hegel (like Kant and Fichte) lated into English by George Bancroft); “His was for a long time a tutor in private families; tory of the Study of Classical Literature since from 1793 to 1796 at Bern in Switzerland, and the Renaissance" (2 vols., 1797–1802); “His- from 1797 to 1800 in a more eligible position at tory of the States of Antiquity" (1799; 5th Frankfort-on-the-Main. His studies meanwhile ed., 1826 ; translated into English by George took a wide range. He read Thucydides, MonBancroft, Northampton, 1828); “History of the tesquieu, Gibbon, and Hume, and thoroughly Political System of Europe and its Colonies" pondered the Greek and German metaphysics. (1809; 5th ed., 1830; translated by George He began a “Life of Christ;" wrote and reBancroft, Northampton, 1829); De Fontibus et wrote a “Criticism of Religious Ideas;" and Auctoritate Vitarum Parallelarum Plutarchi corresponded with Schelling about his essay on (1820); all of which were published in Göttin- the Ego (Vom Ich), which was stirring the pulse gen, where also a collection of his “Historical of ardent thinkers. He passed through, in his Works" appeared in 15 volumes (1821–6). own experience, the conflict between the older To his minor writings belong sketches of Jo- supernaturalism and the prevalent rationalism, hannes von Müller, Spittler, and Heyne, a treat neither of which harmonized with his speculaise on the influence of the Normans upon the tive tendencies. Yet, to the end of his life, he French language and literature, and a disserta professed accordance with the Lutheran orthotion on the crusades. His “Ideas" were trans- doxy, and one of his later public addresses was lated into English, and pablished at Oxford by a eulogy upon the principles of the Augsburg D. A. Talboys, under the title of "Historical Re Confession, pronounced as rector of the Berlin searches." A uniform edition of his translat- university upon the tricentennial celebration in ed works, under the title of “Heeren's Histor- 1830 of the adoption of that instrument. Beical Works," has been published by Bohn (7 vols, fore 1800 he had drawn up the outline of a sys. 8vo., London).
tem of philosophy in 3 parts: the 1st on logic HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH, a Ger- and metaphysics combined; the 2d on the phiman philosopher, born in Stuttgart, Aug. 27, losophy of nature; the 3d on the philosophy of 1770, died in Berlin, Nov. 14, 1831. In the mind or spirit, Here was already foreshadowed religious wars of the 16th century his ancestors, that identification of logic and metaphysics, driven from Carinthia, found refuge in Swa, which is one of the marked peculiarities of the bia. He was the eldest son of Georg Ludwig Hegelian system. But as yet he had not clearly Hegel, a man of probity and public considera- mastered the idea or the method of his scheme; tion, and his wife Maria Magdalena Fromme, a he needed sharper thought and conflict to know woman of good culture, who taught the stu- whereto all this study was to grow. Hegel's dious and quiet youth the elements of gram- father died in 1799, leaving him a patrimony of mar. From his 8th to his 18th year he was 3,000 florins, and he at once determined to dethoroughly trained in philology, mathematics, vote himself to philosophy at Jena. This uni. and history, in the gymnasium of his native versity had been made illustrious in literature town. His scholarship was already productive. by the new romantic school of the Schlegels, He began a system, which he never abandoned, Novalis, and Tieck; Fichte had just been driven of making and arranging copious extracts thence to Berlin on the accusation of atheism ; from all the books and even journals that he Schelling was now there, arousing the enthusiread; and he was always a great reader of asm of the novices in the mystery and marvel newspapers. These treasures, constantly accu- of the new philosophical intuition; and bere, mulating, gave him materials in all branches of too, Fries, Krause, and Ast were commencing knowledge to be incorporated into his universal their fruitful philosophical career. To the phisystem. In 1788 he became a student of theol. losophical world Hegel presented as his introogy at Tübingen, having a stipend on a ducal duction an essay on the “Difference between foundation. He heard Storr on dogmatics, Fichte and Schelling," advocating, more defi
nitely than the latter had done, the position that was never completed. At Nuremberg he was this difference was not adequately designated rector of the gymnasium from 1808 to 1816, and by saying that the former taught a subjective gave philosophical lectures to the lads, issued and the latter an objective idealism, but rather as the 18th volume of his collected writings that Schelling's system included both. This under the title Propädeutik-a simple, clear dissertation was published in the spring of 1801; outline of the main points of his general system, in the autumn its author became Privatdocent or in as popular a style as the abstruse subject tutor in the university. Rosenkranz thinks it admits. His administrative ability was bere significant of the autumnal character of his sys- seen to be of a high order; he was even punctiltem, that all the great changes in his life occurred ious as to all fit rules and observances. In Sept. in this season of the year. His dissertation on his 1811, he was joined in wedlock to Marie von appointment was De Orbitis Planetarum, a zeal- Tucher, of an ancient Nuremberg family, 22 ous advocacy of the German Kepler against the years his junior-a lady of refinement, decided English Newton, and containing also an unlucky in her Christian convictions, indefatigable in her polemic against Bode's law about the proportion- daily charities, to whom he was attached with al distances of the planets; even going so far as singular love and tenderness. To his constant to suggest that, according to the true law, the friend Niethammer he wrote, that “when a space between Mars and Jupiter should not be man has found a position and a wife that he filled up, ignorant that Piazzi had already dis- loves, he is quite complete for life.” Often covered the asteroid Ceres. From 1801 to 1806 would he praise her in verse, and his best letters (in which last year he became professor) he are those he wrote her on his journeys. Two lectured on logic, the philosophy of nature, psy- sons, Karl and Immanuel, were the fruit of this chology, ethics, &c. His first course was given union. His domestic affairs were carefully arto 4 auditors. Awkward in his delivery, incum- ranged; he himself kept a minute account of bered by his thoughts, he failed to interest any all expenses. This family life was one of unbut the most thoughtful. “He thinks in sub- broken peace; and it may have mitigated, as in stantives," said one of his auditors; and not the case of Comte, the abstractions of his sysseldom was the structure of his sentences in- tem. Some of the severest parts of his “Logic," complete. Carrying to his lecture a mass of as the writer happens to know, were written loose papers, he would fumble among them, while he was watching as a nurse at the bedside arranging them dialectically, under his rigid of this devout and loving woman. A curious categories, as he went along. But as his “dry parallel is suggested by the enumeration which light” became warm, his eye and voice would Rosenkranz gives of the married and unmarried grow keen, and he would often break out into philosophers of modern times. Descartes, Spian aphorism, a sarcasm, or a pregnant antithe- noza, Malebranche, Leibnitz, Wolf, Locke, Hume, sis, long to be repeated. His best MSS. were and Kant were unmarried; Fichte, Schelling, copied from the students' notes. At Jena, too, Hegel, Herbart, and Krause were married. in conjunction with Schelling, he edited the But the biography of a philosopher centres in Kritisches Journal der Philosophie; and these his writings; his life is the growth of his system. two philosophers were still so nearly agreed, Hegel's “Phenomenology," which he used to that the authorship of one of the most impor call his “ voyage of discovery," was issued at tant articles was afterward claimed by both; it Bamberg in 1807. It sketches the psychologiis on the “ Relation of the Philosophy of Nature cal progress to his system. Its object is to deto Philosophy in General," and is included in scribe the stages and process through which the Hegel's works, though claimed by Schelling as mind must proceed from the simplest form of his own. Hegel's lectures at this period on the consciousness up to absolute knowledge, and to philosophy of history contain some of the strong- exbibit this, not merely as a matter of fact, but est statements, afterward modified, implying a also as a (logically) necessary ascent. One of his pantheistic confusion of God and the world. disciples says that in this most finished of his writBut even then God was to him, not a mere sub- ings he is the Dante of philosophy, since he shows stance (as in Spinoza), but a subject, and, as how consciousness passes from the inferno of such, spiritual, the absolute spirit. The state- sense, through the purgatory of the understandment sometimes made that Hegel identified God ing, into the paradise of philosophic freedom. and nothing, and that this is the sense of his In principle and method it is a protest against system, is an entire misconception as well as an Schelling's imagination of a special intellectual absurdity. His career in Jena was brought to intuition. The absolute is not “shot out all at a close by the French invasion of 1806. In the once, like a ball from a pistol;" it is, and it is turmoil of that campaign, his chief solicitude attained by, a process. The stadia of this prowas about the fate of some of the last sheets cess are, simple consciousness, self-consciousof his “Phenomenology," which he was sending ness, reason, spirit (here used as equivalent to to a publisher in Bamberg. The MS. was saved, objective morality), religion (including art), and but the philosopher's house was sacked by French absolute knowledge. The process itself is a troops, and he was reduced to his last pendy. necessary one; the method is immanent in In 1807-'8 he was editor of a political sheet in thought. Its moving principle is that of conBamberg, and there, too, he projected a work tradiction or negation. Each lower stage is on the political constitution of Germany, which contradicted or negatived in thought; this ne.
gation does not give zero (0) as its result, but we begin with the conception of being—the most rather an opposite or antagonistic principle; and universal and indeterminate of all. As entirely these antagonistic principles struggle through indeterminate, it is the same as nothing. Being (the negation of the negation) to a higher uni- and nothing are thus the same, but they are ty; and so on, until we arrive at that absolute also different; they are identical, but antagonisknowledge which is the result as it was the tic; and, as such, they result in a process of source of these evolutions, in which all these becoming (das Werden), for the very idea of antagonisms are both abolished and preserved. becoming includes being and not-being. This Arrived at this state of knowledge, the spirit is ingenious and acute as an analysis of the conknows itself to be identical with universal rea- ceptions; but is it a real or possible process in son; the finite self-consciousness and the abso- being as such? The whole science of logic is lute self-consciousness are one; the infinite is distributed into 3 parts-being, essence, and no longer foreign to and outside of the finite. conception; the first two are the ontological With a knowledge of this high consummation, logic, the 3d is the subjective logic. The catethe race enters upon a new epoch; the old has gories that fall under being are 3-quantity, passed away; the conflicts of all the schools are quality, and measure. The categories under adjusted. Man knows the absolute reason; the essence are also 3-essence in itself, phenomena absolute reason knows itself in man. To this as expressing essence, and actual existence as all history, all thought have been tending; the the union of the other two. Here also, of history of thought is this very process, the course, come the discussions about the antinocompletion of thought is found in the science mies of the understanding. The categories of of the absolute. Such was the daring prophecy the 3d part of logic, that is, of conceptions or with which a secluded student, in the ancient notions, are 3-the subjective conception, the and quiet city of Nuremberg, heralded a revolu- object, and last and highest of all, the idea. tion in the world of mind. Nor did he stop with This logic, now, forms the first great division of the proclamation. In his “ Logic," published Hegel's whole scheme of philosophy. This was in 2 volumes, 3 parts, between March, 1812, and fully presented, in outline, in his Encyklopädie July, 1816, he developed his system in its most der philosophischen Wissenschaften, published rigorous and abstract form. This is one of the in 1817, a 3d edition in 1830, and issued in his boldest and subtlest works of human speculation. collected works with additional notes from his It is designed to answer the question to which lectures. Here the categories of the “Logic" the “ Phenomenology" led, viz. : What is that are applied to all the particular sciences. Of absolute knowledge which has been shown to his whole system, the most general idea is that be necessary? It is the completion of the sys- of God or the Absolute Spirit. This spirit is tem of categories, which Kant had elaborated, not mere substance, as in Spinoza, but also subafter Aristotle. It is not logic alone, nor meta- ject, and as such contains the principle and law physics alone; it is both together. It is not of its own evolution. This law is a perpetual the science of thought alone, nor that of being trichotomy-thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Acalone; it is the science of both thought and being, cordingly the “Encyclopædia " has 3 main viewed as identical and pervaded by the same parts, viz. : “Logic," the “Philosophy of Nalogical law. The whole system is reason itself, ture," and the " Philosophy of Spirit." 'Each or the absolute idea-absolute idealism. Thé of these has, again, a threefold division; and terms logic, idea, and reason are used in an these 3 yet other 3; and this rhythm of triads unusual, in a universal sense. Reason and idea makes the harmony of the system. Logic, as are not merely subjective; logic gives the law we have already indicated, presents this absoof being as well as of thought. That Hegel re- lute spirit or idea, as it is in itself, in its shadowy, duced all knowledge to that of mere relations ghostly form. In the “ Philosophy of Nature" and all being to mere logic is an entire miscon- we have the same idea in its objective manception of his theory. The system of logic, as ifestation, in the forms of space and time. the first part of pbilosophy, contemplates reason Here the idea or spirit becomes, as it were, & (the idea) as it is in itself, and not in its mani- stranger to itself, yet this, too, by an inward festations. Hegel used to call it “the kingdom necessity. How it comes to do this is one of of the shades ;' his “voyage of discovery” led the knots of the system ; but that it does so is him first into this kingdom. He also speaks of evident from the fact that nature is. Nature is it as equivalent to “God in his eternal being, here reconstructed-or, Hegel would say, we before the finite world was created." In Pla- see how it is constructed-according to the high tonic phrase, it is the ideas of the Divine mind, a priori method, in its 3 departments of mebefore they assume finite forms and modes. chanics, physics, and organized beings. These These ideas (this idea) are developed by an im- refined demonstrations have not had much effect manent law, the dialectic process of which we upon the naturalists. But the absolute spirit, have spoken above; and herein consists the having run through the round of nature, emerges peculiarity of the work. The process is that of into its 3d sphere (in an equally recondite way), the idea itself, and all that we do in the matter that of mind or spirit itself; spirit here finds is to stand by and see how it is done; though and knows itself, of course, in 3 stadia. First, there must be " speculation in the eyes" that it is subjective spirit, including anthropology see this process carried through and out. Thus, phenomenology, and psychology. Then it passes
over into objective spirit, or the sphere of ethics, chief relaxations, snuff-taking and card-playing. which has 3 subdivisions : 1, law or right; 2, But in society he was distant; it is on record morality, private and personal; 3, public ethics, that an intelligent young lady said she never including the family, society, and the state. In heard him speak a marked word." His prefine, spirit becomes absolute spirit, and as such vious lectures on the different branches of phishows itself in 3 modes, art, religion, and philos- losophy were carefully revised, and he wrote ophy; and in the last the circle is completed, two new courses, on the “ Philosophy of Relithe end returns to the beginning, the absolute gion" in 1821, and on the “ Philosophy of Hisspirit knows itself, and the Hegelian system is all tory" in 1827, in both of these branches introin all. This “Encyclopædia” was first issued ducing an original and scientific elaboration of while Hegel was in Heidelberg, where he be- the materials. His “ Outlines of the Philoscame a professor in 1816, declining invitations ophy of Right" was issued in 1821, combining to Erlangen and Berlin-the latter, it is said, in in one exposition natural rights, ethics, and the part because the Prussian minister proposed philosophy of society and the state. Man's morthat he should be examined as to his capacity al being expresses itself completely in the state; for lecturing after his 8 years' seclusion in Nu- to this, natural rights, private morals, and even remberg. From this point his fame rapidly the church, are rightfully subordinate. The rose. His disciples began to be ardent and pro- preface to this work aroused more controversy phetic. His system was proclaimed as complet- than the work itself, since it summed up its ing the structure of German idealism. Kant teachings in the noted aphorism: “The rational had critically prepared the way; Fichte had is actual, and the actual is rational.” This was taught a subjective idealism; Schelling had not interpreted in an ultra conservative sense ; exrisen above an objective idealism ; but in the plained in any different sense, it was a inere absolute idealism, the partial was dethroned and truism. In fact, he was understood as supportthe universal made supreme. Cousin, passing ing the existing Prussian system as the perfecthrough Heidelberg, proclaimed to the world tion of reason and freedom. This for a time that in Hegel (whose "Logic" he said he could helped his metaphysics; though his extreme disnot grasp) he had found a man of genius ; and ciples soon “ changed all that." He used to in his later brilliant course at Paris, in 1828, he fight his battles in his prefaces. In a preface availed himself of the generalizations and meth- he declared against the position of Schleierods of the great idealist for the interpretation macher, that the feeling of absolute depend. of history and the history of philosophy. A ence is the essence of religion. These two second invitation to Berlin in 1818, urged by the men were then at the height of their fame, both minister Von Altenstein, Hegel's warm personal at Berlin; neither liked the other, and their friend, was welcomed by him. He was now in disciples have perpetuated the struggle to the the ripeness of his manhood, and animated by present time. The theologian opposed the adthe consciousness that all past thought had mission of the philosopher into the academy of found its culmination in him. As the devoted science; and the philosopher would not allow Michelet has it, he was “the crown of the the theologian to take part in his scientific jourwhole past and the seed of the most fruitful nal. The real difficulty was that Schleiermacher future." His new position was most favorable tried to find in human nature a foothold for refor the propagation of his opinions. Berlin uni- ligion independent of philosophy, and Hegel's versity had always been enthusiastic for specu- speculations did not allow this to be done. His lation; it received Fichte when Jena expelled system received concentration and impulse from him, and Hegel came into Fichte's chair, ex- the establishment, with the favor of governpressing his confidence that "the sands of Berlin ment, of the Berlin Jahrbücher für wissenwere more susceptible to philosophy than the schaftliche Kritik (1827). All things were here romantic environs of Heidelberg." He would discussed in the light of absolute knowledge. there “teach philosophy to talk German, as The school became haughty and uncompromisLuther had taught the Bible to do, and Voss ing; they had solved the problem of the uniHomer." His lectures soon became the rage. verse, and nothing remained but to bring all Officers of state and the literati and savants of thoughts into subjection. Germany was alive Berlin sat on the students' benches. The govern- with speculation; it had never known such a ment provided liberally for his salary, and also philosophical ferment. Even orthodox men gave for journeys to Paris, Holland, &c. He took in their adhesion, and Hegel was not loath to the bearing of the founder of a new and great encourage them. Göschel, the jurist, wrote school. Hegelianism was the road to office. “Aphorisms on Science and Nescience," apply. The master became sometimes overbearing ; ing Hegelianism to the defence of the mysteries even Varnhagen von Ense says that he was of Christianity; and Hegel reviewed the work, "tyrannical." Professor Gans was one of his with an almost eager welcome, in the Jahrbimost zealous disciples, but Hegel called him to cher, to show that his system was the same a sharp account for having dared to “recom- thing in the sphere of speculation that the mend," on the university bulletin, his work on Ohristian religion was in the sphere of faith. ethics. “What had he done, that Gans should In the preface to a new edition of his “Ency. recommend him !" He mixed more freely in clopædia," he quoted from Tholuck on the origeneral society, and indulged himself in his two ental trinities to show that he held to the Trin