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ity more thoroughly than did this genial divine. “Æsthetics" in French (5 vols., Paris, 1840– The mystics he eulogized with Baader, and the '52).. This was the best edited of any of his theosophic Boehm he declared to be not merely posthumous works, by Prof. Hotho. The “Subfantastical, but also profound. The rationalists jective Logic” was translated into English by had no more violent foe than this prophet of H. Sloman and J. Wallon, and published in the universal reason; he defended against them London (1855). His “Philosophy of History," the truths of the incarnation, of sin, and of re- the most intelligible of his works, translated by demption, Conservative rationalism was indig. J. Sibree, forms a volume of Bohn's Philosophnaot; the popular philosophy was dumb with ical Library” (1857). The Hegelian literature amazement. There were many that said the would already make & collection of several long conflict between philosophy and faith was hundred volumes. In Holland, Van Ghert, now to be adjusted; the absolute idealism was to Prof. Sieber, and Dr. Krahl espoused his system; do it, and it was to be done in Berlin, “the city Heiberg in Copenhagen; Tengström and Siend of absolute reflection," the " university of the wall in Finland; a Hungarian wrote to him centre," the “chosen people of God in philos- that he was learning his “Logic" by heart.ophy." Enthusiastic students declared that Altogether apart from the main peculiarity of the refined ideas of the "Logic" were “the his system, the impulse which this extraordinew gods” of a new Pantheon, The triumph nary thinker communicated to the various deof his system seemed to be coming on. In 1829 partments of philosophy was almost unexamhe was rector of the university, and adminis- pled in the same space of time. He compelled tered its affairs with the punctuality and pains- men to think for him or against him. His taking of an accomplished disciplinarian; not a “Logic” led to the treatises of Werder, Weisse, single student was punished for “demagog. Erdmann, Trendelenburg, and Ulrici, as well ism," though one unlucky wight was taken up as to a total revision of Schelling's system. for wearing a French cockade, which in his His “Psychology" was followed by Massmann, simplicity he imagined to be made up of the Wirth, Erdmann, Rosenkranz, and the “ Anthrocolors of the mark of Brandenburg. "In 1831 pology” of Daub. His “Ethics" gave a more Hegel published the first volume of a new edi. philosophical model for this science, and protion of his " Logic," and revised for the press 'duced the treatises of Von Henning, Michelet, his lectures on the “Proof of the Being of Vatke, Daub, and Wirth, and influenced the God." In the autumn he commenced bis.course systems of Chalybäus, Fichte, and Rothe. In the in the university with more than usual fresh “Philosophy of History" he made the boldest ness and vigor. But the fatal cholera attacked attempt to construct the whole according to the him in its most malignant form on Sunday, evolution of the idea of freedom. His “ ÆstheNov. 13; his wife watched over him, ignorant tics" almost transformed the science, and led to to the last of the nature of the disease. On the the works of Weisse, Hotho, Rötscher, and next day at 5 o'clock he was dead. Nov. 14 Vischer. In the “History of Philosophy" he is the anniversary not only of the decease of first introduced the general method of treatLeibnitz, the greatest German philosopher of the ment, followed by Marbuch, Michelet, Bayr18th century, but also of him whom his pupils hoffer, Barchou de Penhoen, Willm, Zeller, and not unfitly called the Aristotle of the 19th cen- Schwegler; his criticism of Aristotle has contury. He was buried near Fichte and Solger, tributed more than any other to the underand over his remains was celebrated the worship standing of Aristotle's real metaphysical system. of genius by disciples almost idolatrous. His Even in the “Philosophy of Nature," though works were soon collected in 18 volumes, for the many of his views are not proved by observamost part carefully edited. Beside the treatises tion, and though his deductions are often arbiof which we have spoken, there are 3 volumes trary, he has yet added to the materials for a of essays and reviews; 3 on."Æsthetics ;" 3 on truly philosophical construction of the cosmos; the "History of Philosophy;" 2 on the Philoso- he early advocated Goethe's theories about phy of Religion;" one on the “ Philosoplıy of colors and the metamorphosis of the plants. History." Rosenkranz has written a full biogra- In jurisprudence, the conservative tendencies phy, from which we have derived many of our of his system were soon annulled by his more statements. Every subsequent philosophical wri- advanced followers, and the most radical Gerter of note in and out of Germany has criticized man revolutionists of 1848 expressed their exhis system. The fullest accounts are in the his- treme views in the dialect of the absolute idealtories of philosophy by Michelet, Erdmann, and ism; as e. g. Ruge in the Hallische Jahrbücher Willm; tbe ablest criticisms are those of Schel. (1838). But it was in theology, and in the reling, Trendelenburg, Ulrici, Weisse, Fischer, and lations of his system to Christianity, that the the younger Fichte. A. Véra published in Paris chief conflicts were engendered. Soon after his Introduction à la philosophie de Hegel (1855), death his school fulfilled the master's predicand is now (1860) translating the “ Logic" into tion, and illustrated his theory of antagonisms. French-a difficult task. Hegel said to Baron His lectures on the “Philosophy of Religion" Reiffenberg, who asked him for a succinct ac- were twice edited; first in a conservative count of his system : "Monsieur, it is impos- sense by Marheineke, and then in a revolusible, especially in French.” M. Oh. Bénard tionary sense by Bruno Bauer. Passages in has partly analyzed and partly translated the his “ History of Philosophy," from his lectures of 1805, were declared to be much more pan- occurred on the 16th (or, by astronomical recktheistic than his matured views; Strauss thoughtoning, on the 15th) of July, 622, although that he was opposing Hegel until these lectures Abulfeda makes it 68 days, and others 2 months, were published. The conflicting elements came later. The Mohammedan year being shorter out at first in discussions upon 3 points, the than our own, the difference between the Mopersonality of God, immortality, and the per- hammedan and Christian calendars is constantly son of Christ. Strauss's “ Life of Jesus" (1835) varying, and any date in the one can be transbrought the latter decisive point to an articu- ferred to the other only by a special adjust, late statement; and in his subsequent contro- ment. Of all cultivated nations, the Mohammeversial writings he ranged the school, after the dans alone have reckoned time exclusively by French political pattern, in 3 divisions, the right, the moon, without regarding the sun or seasons. the centre, and the left. This division was first Their year consists of 12 lunar months, or of made in reference to Christianity. The right between 354 and 355 days. The beginning of wing asserted that Hegelianism and orthodoxy their year, therefore, retrogrades at the rate of were harmorious; Göschel, Gabler, Erdmann, more than 11 days annually through the differMarheineke, and Bruno Bauer for a time stood ent seasons, and the circle of retrogradation is here. The middle was represented by Rosen- completed and a whole year gained once in kranz, Gans, and Vatke. On the left stood about 33 years. Therefore 33 Mohammedan Michelet, Strauss, Ruge, the radicals in church years nearly correspond to 32 Christian years, and state, and those who denied immortality, the and to transfer a Mohammedan date to our era divine personality, and the incarnation as specific it is necessary first to subtract 1 from it for in the person of Christ. The Tübingen school every 33 years, and then to add 622 to it. Thus, of F. O. Baur has worked in the interests of & to find the year corresponding to 1276 of the destructive criticism. Against all these modi- hegira: 1276 — 38 (i. e., 1276 + 33) + 622 = fications of the system, the great body of the A. D. 1860. German divines, especially the school of Schlei HEIBERG, PEDER ANDREAS, a Danish dramermacher, have protested from the beginning, atist and political writer, born in Vordingborg evidently believing that the tendencies of He in 1758, died in Paris, April 30, 1841. After fingel's speculations were pantheistic, whatever ishing his studies, he lived 3 years at Bergen, judgment might be formed about his personal and subsequently at Copenhagen. Banished opinions; and the progress of discussion has for liberal opinions in politics in 1799, he went confirmed these fears. His restless and aspiring to Paris, obtained office under Napoleon as school soon ceased to be a solid phalanx, Her- chief of the bureau of foreign relations, and acbart's realism contended, not unequally, against companied Talleyrand to many foreign courts. this extreme idealism. The Prussian govern. He was accustomed to make extracts from forment called Stahl the jurist, and Schelling, to eign journals, to which comments were added Berlin to counteract the philosophy it had so in the imperial cabinet previous to publication carefully nurtured. Schelling in 1834 had al- in the Moniteur. He retired on a pens ready pronounced against his old colleague; and 1817, when he applied himself to journalism, when nearly 70, in 1841, he taught his positive writing for the Revue encyclopédique on Scandiphilosophy in opposition to what he called the navian subjects. His literary reputation rests "abstractions" and the merely “negative sys- chiefly on his comedies, many of which still tem” of his greatest rival, his only peer. A keep the stage.--Heiberg's wife, THOMASINA new school, represented by the younger Fichte, CHRISTIANA BUNTSEN, who remained in CopenWeisse, Chalybäus, Fischer, Wirth, and Ulrici, in hagen when he was banished, and remarried, the Zeitschrift für Philosophie, since 1837, and in was the author of a series of livel novels, rea prolific literature, have been waging incessant garded by the Danes as the best on Danish warfare against the absolute idealism, and the society ever written.-JOHAN LUDVIG, a dramapretensions of pantheism. The absolute ideal- tist and metaphysician, son of the preceding, ism has already taken its place in history as the born in Copenhagen, Dec. 14, 1791. He was crowning development of one great philosophic graduated at the university in 1809, having pretendency. It has not proved itself to contain viously written several excellent dramas. He the whole of philosophy. It has not solved the began the study of medicine, and devoted himultimate problems of human thought and hu- self to southern literature, the result of which man destiny. It has not shown how the in- latter study appeared in a Latin essay on the finite and the absolute can pass over into the Spanish drama, At the age of 22 he received finite and the relative. Neither its principle from the government a travelling pension, which nor its method has been proved to be sufficient enabled him to pass 3 years with his father in to explain the universe. Philosophy is not yet Paris, where he studied the French drama. In exhausted. Faith is not yet lost in sight. The 1822 he became professor of Danish at the unidestructive results of pantheism have led to a versity of Kiel, and after 3 years went to Berreaction, in the midst of which we now stand. lin to study the philosophy of Hegel. In 1829

HEGIRA (in Arabic, also hedshra, flight), he was made royal dramatic poet and translathe flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina, tor. In 1830 he was appointed professor of from which event the Mohammedan era is dat æsthetics, logic, and literature at the military ed. The hegira is usually accounted to have high school. In 1831 he married Johanna Louise

Patges, an actress. As a literary and critical berg, on the right bank of the Neckar, 26 m. writer Heiberg gained a very high reputation N. of Stuttgart, with which city it is connected in editing the Flydende Post (1827-30). He by railway ; pop. 10,000. It stands on the site has published various philosophical works and of a Roman station, and was once a free impedramas, and since 1844 has issued Urania, rial city. In its vicinity is the castle in which an annual, in which he attempts to give to Götz von Berlichingen was imprisoned in 1525, astronomy a poetic and speculative tendency. HEIM, FRANÇOIS JOSEPII, a French painter,

HEIDELBERG (Lat. Edelberga; anc. Myr- born in Belfort, Haut-Rhin, Dec. 16, 1787. tiletum), a city of the grand duchy of Baden, in In 1824 he received the decoration of the the circle of the Lower Rhine, on the left bank legion of honor, in front of his own picture, of the Neckar, 117 m. by rail from Mannheim, the “Massacre of the Jews." He subsequently and 541 m. from Frankfort-on-the-Main ; pop. decorated the ceiling of the gallery of Oharles 15,000. It is chiefly celebrated for its university, X. in the Louvre with a representation of Vefounded by the elector Rupert I., in the 14th suvius receiving from Jupiter the fire which century, and reformed by the grand duke Charles was to destroy Pompeii and Herculaneum. His Rupert in 1802 under the title of Ruperto-Caro- allegory of the renaissance of the arts, on the lina. It has numbered among its professors the ceiling of the French gallery in the same buildtheologians Schwarz, Umbreit, and Paulus, the ing, is one of his most admired works. He also jurists Thibant, Mittermaier, Vangerow, Zacha painted “Louis Philippe receiving the Deputies riæ, and Rau; in medicine and chemistry, Chem at the Palais Royal," now in the museum at lius, Tiedemann, and Gmelin; in history and Versailles, and a series of 16 portraits of emiantiquity, Schlosser, Creuzer, Mohna, Baer, and nent personages contributed to the Paris exhiGervinus. Chevalier Bunsen has also resided of bition of 1855. late in Heidelberg. The university library, con- HEINE, HEINRICH, a German poet and critic, taining nearly 200,000 volumes and about 2,000 & nephew of the celebrated Hamburg Jewish MSS., is extremely rich in antique works and ear- banker and philanthropist Salomon Heine, born ly editions. The university is very complete in in Düsseldorf, Dec. 12, 1799, or as Steinmann its details, embracing a museum of natural his- asserts in 1797, died in Paris, Feb. 17, 1856. tory, a physiological cabinet, a chemical labor. His first poem was written on Napoleon's visit atory, a lying-in asylum, two botanical gardens, to Düsseldorf (Nov. 2, 1810). He was soon a college of agriculture and forestry, an observ. after sent to the lyceum of Düsseldorf, where atory, and a philological, theological, pedagogi- he made great progress in the regular studies, cal, homiletical, and biblical serninary. There mastering also English, French, and Italian. In are also an excellent gymnasium or preparatory 1815 he was sent to Frankfort-on-the-Main to academy for all sects, and two female schools of qualify himself for mercantile life. He manihigh reputation. The situation of Heidelberg, fested the greatest repugnance to this pursuit, in a picturesque and fertile country, not far from and his uncle Salomon Heine, having been conthe junction of the Neckar with the Rhine, sulted, consented that “the blockhead" should having on one side the Königstuhl and on the be sent to the university of Bonn to study law, opposite the Heiligenberg, the hills covered with whither he went in 1819. He studied there vineyards, and its curious bridge, all combine every thing except law. In Sept. 1820, he left to render it attractive to the tourist. To trav- Bonn for Göttingen, which he learned to dislike ellers its greatest attraction is the castle. It and satirized bitterly in after years. He next presents in its different portions every phase of removed to Berlin, where his character and architecture from the 14th to the 17th century. feelings rapidly assumed that peculiar satirical In its vaults is the celebrated Heidelberger Fass indifference and reckless audacity now identified or tun, once the largest in the world. The with his name. While in Berlin he earnestly principal manufacture of Heidelberg is beer; studied philosophy under Hegel, and became its trade is confined chiefly to linseed, oil, and intimate with Chamisso, Fouqué, Bopp, and tobacco.--Heidelberg was attached in 1362 to Grabbe. Here in 1822 appeared his Gedichte, the Palatinate. Rupert I. enlarged it and subsequently published as “ Youthful Sorrows" made it an electoral residence. In 1384 the in his “Book of Songs." Though favorably emperor Wenceslas signed here the celebrated received by eminent critics, they attracted at union of Heidelberg, by which the different the time but little attention. A single sorrow, leagues of German cities were united in one. the early disappointment of Heine in his love Heidelberg was plundered and partly ruined for his cousin Evelina van Geldern, “the angel's by Tilly in 1622, by Turenne in 1674, and by head on a Rhine-wine-gold ground," runs Marshal de Lorges in 1693. These misfortunes through all these poems, displaying a singular led to its decline in political importance, which number of variations on one theme. He also was finally completed by the residence of the published at this period his plays Almansor and electors being removed to Mannheim in 1719. Radclif, with the Lyrisches Intermezzo. In It was united to the grand duchy of Baden the summer of 1822 he made a journey to Poin 1802.

land, which gave occasion to more than one HEIGHTS, MEASUREMENT OF. See BAROMET- eccentric sketch or picture scattered through RICAL MEASUREMENTS.

his works. In 1823 he returned to Göttingen, HEILBRONN, a fortified town of Würtem- and received the degree of doctor of law in

1825. In the same year he went to Heiligen- The bold infidelity, the reckless licentiousness, stadt, where on June 28 he is said to have been and the unqualified faith in the world and the baptized into the Lutheran church. Heine flesh, which characterized Heine's life as well had taken his legal degree in compliance with as his writings, were counterbalanced by such the will of his uncle, who had made it a con- sincere belief in his own doctrines, such sympadition of giving him his education, and who, thy for suffering, and such acute perception of finding him determined to pursue literature, the beautiful in every form, that it is difficult generously aided him. He now went to Ham- for those unfamiliar with the social developburg, where in 1826 he published the Harzreise, ments of modern continental European life and the first part of his Reisebilder. Very few books literature to appreciate his true nature or posiever excited in Germany such an extraordinary tion. He received from the French government sensation. In 1827 he went to Munich to edit an annual pension of 4,000 francs from 1836 to with Dr. Lindner the Politische Annalen. In 1848, but did not criticize it the less severely in 1829 he returned to Berlin. Here occurred the his writings. In his later years Heine return. famous quarrel with the poet Platen, who, hav- ed from unbounded scepticism, if not to an ing satirized Heine in an insolent manner, re- evangelical faith, at least to theism, the Bible ceived in return the most bitter sarcasm and being constantly read by him, and appearing withering abuse. Literature affords no parallel to him, as he said, like a suddenly discovered to this cynical retort. From Berlin Heine went treasure. As he still retained his love of in 1831 to Paris, having become so obnoxious as paradox and of mystification, the real degree a liberal writer to the Prussian government that of his conversion became the subject of no he was obliged to choose between exile and im- little controversy and comment.-His works, prisonment. From this time until 1848 his influ- in addition to those mentioned, are: Franzó ence in Germany was very great, and he acquired sische Zustände (Hamburg, 1833); Der Salon in France the reputation of being the wittiest (1834); Shakspeare's Mädchen und Frauen French writer since Voltaire. In 1831 he wrote (Leipsic, 1889); Neue Gedichte (Hamburg, a series of articles on the state of France for the 1844); Ballade über die Schlacht von Hastings “ Augsburg Gazette," which were collected and and Atta Troll (1847); Romanzero (1851); Docpublished both in French and German. In 1833 tor Faust, ein Tanzpoem (1851); Vermischte appeared his “ History of Modern Literature in Schriften (1854); Les aveur d'un poète de la Germany," also known as “The Romantic nouvelle Allemagne, in the Revue des deux mondes School," and L'Allemagne, a characteristic and (1854). A complete edition of his works, eindaring work, in which he attacked with relent- bracing a considerable number of sketches and less severity the romantic writers, the philoso- poems never before given to the world, was phers, and in fact very nearly everybody. “This published by John Weik (Philadelphia, 1856). book produced a perfect storm of fury in Ger- There is also a French version of his works many." Democrats, pietists, Teutomaniacs, and executed by Heine himself, under the revision state officials united in denouncing it; while in of Gérard de Nerval and others. The following France no other work has done so much to stop works on Heine have appeared since his death: the current of romanticism. In 1840 Heine Heinrich Heine, Erinnerungen von Alf. Meissner published a violent work on his former friend (Hamburg, 1856); H. Heine's Wirken und StreBörne, then only recently dead. Börne, wbile ben, by Strodtmann (1857); H. Heine, Denkakin to Heine as a spirited writer, had aroused würdigkeiten aus meinem Leben mit ihm, by in the latter a dislike, founded partly on jealousy Steinmann (1857); Ueber H. Heine, by Schmidtof Börne's political popularity, and partly on Weissenfels (1857). English versions of Heine's personal antipathy caused by literary attacks. works are: the “ Pictures of Travel,” translated The work, whatever its provocation, was but by Charles G. Leland (Philadelphia, 1856); the little to Heine's credit, and involved' him in a "Book of Songs," by J. E. Wallis (London, duel with the husband of a virtuous and high- 1856); the “Poems of Heine, complete, transminded lady who was stigmatized in the book lated in the Original Metres,” by Edgar Alfred as having entertained illicit relations with Börne. Bowring (London, 1859). About 1841 Heine was married to “Mathilde," HEINECCIUS, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, a German of whom he often speaks tenderly in his writ- jurist, born in Eisenberg, Saxony, Sept. 21, ings. In 1843 he paid his last visit to Ger- 1681,' died in Halle, Aug. 31, 1741. İle'was many to see his mother (who died in Hamburg, educated at Leipsic and Halle, where he became Sept. 3, 1859, aged 88), for whom he maintained professor of philosophy in 1710, and of law in to the last the warmest affection. His public 1721. He afterward removed to Frankfort-onbitterness and literary cruelties were in strange the-Oder, and there filled the chair of law till contrast with his personal good qualities. He 1733, when he returned to Halle, and resuming was generous, even self-sacrificing, especially to his former office, held it till his death, The poor literary men, and during the cholera risked works of Heineccius are very numerous and of his life by remaining to nurse a sick cousin. In great value to the legal student. A collective 1847 he was attacked by a painful spinal com- edition of them was published at Geneva under plaint, which tormented him almost without the title of Opera ad Universam Jurisprudencessation until his death. By his own request tiam, Philosophiam, et Literas Humaniores all religious rites were omitted at his funeral. Pertinentia (9 vols. 4to., 1769).

HEINECKEN, CHRISTIAN HEINRICH, a pre- consisting principally of problems in chess and cocious child of Lübeck, who could speak at scenes turning on the game, and this by Hildethe age of 10 months, recite the principal events gard von Hohenthal, the conclusion of Ardin. of the Old Testament 2 months afterward, and ghello. In addition to the above, he wrote Sinn. who had committed to memory the history of gedichte (Halberstadt, 1771), and translations of antiquity when little over 2 years old, beside the "Orlando” of Ariosto, and of the “Jerusaspeaking fluently Latin and French. The child lem Delivered." died in 1725, before it had attained the age of 5. HEINSIUS, ANTONIUS, grand pensionary of

HEINEFETTER, SABINE, a German singer, Holland, born in 1641, died at the Hague, Aug. born in Mentz in 1805, has performed with 13, 1720. He was an intimate friend and con great success in the principal cities of Europe. fidential agent of Prince William III. of Orange Her sister CLARA, married to Mr, Stöckel, was and during 40 years was the moving spirit of also a woman of fine vocal abilities, but became Dutch politics. When William after the peace a lanatic, and died in the Vienna asylum, Feb. of Nimeguen sent him to Paris to maintain 23, 1857. The youngest sister, KATHINKA, made his claim to the territory of Orange, and the her debut in Paris in 1840, was engaged at liberties of the Calvinists there, he spoke so the Brussels opera in 1842, but became uppop- freely to Louvois that the minister threatened ular there in consequence of a duel which had him with the Bastile. After William became originated between two young Parisian law- king of England (1689), Heinsius managed for yers while sopping at her house, and which the king, and greatly to bis satisfaction, the had ended fatally for one of them. She retired affairs of Holland, and was instrumental in renfrom the stage in 1857, and settled at Freiburg, dering the states-general favorable to friendly acBaden, where she died Dec. 20, 1858.

tion with England. The celebrated grand alliance HEINICKE, SAMUEL, a German teacher of on the subject of the Spanish succession, between the deaf and dumb, born at Nautzschutz, near the emperor, the kings of England, Prussia, Weissenfels, Prussia, April 10, 1729, died in and Denmark, Holland, the duke of Savoy, and Leipsic, April 30, 1790. (See DEAF AND DUMB, the elector of Hanover, against Louis XIV. and vol. vi. p. 501.) He published 10 works, the Philip V., was in great measure due to the exgreater part of them having reference to the ertions of the grand pensionary. The defeats of instruction of deaf mutes, though 2 or 3 were Blenheim (1704), Ramillies, and Turin (1706), on theological topics.

with their results, compelled Louis XIV. to open HEINROTH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH negotiations. He made overtures to Holland; ! AUGUST, & German physician and writer on but Heinsius answered that the Hollanders were psychology, born in Leipsic, Jan, 17, 1773, died inseparably bound to their allies, and exacted there, Oct. 26, 1843. He studied both theology as a preliminary condition the recognition of the and medicine, and after practising the latter right of the house of Austria to the Spanish sucprofession was appointed in 1812 to the chair cession. To this France refused to accede; the of psychical therapeutics in the university of war was continued disastrously for her, and in Leipsic, and in practice devoted himself to cur- 1709 her application was renewed, and met with ing the insane. His general theory was that the same response. Louis XIV. now consented mental aberration, passion, and vice originate to treat on this basis, and negotiations were comprincipally in a badly conducted life, and can menced; but the allies demanding still greater only be perfectly cured by a complete moral re- sacrifices, ho renewed the war, and after the deform. He was the author of many valuable feat of Malplaquet (1709) conferences were again works on psychology, insanity, &c.

opened at the castle of Gertruydenburg and conHEINSE, JOHANN JAKOB WILHELM, a German tinued unsuccessfully for 4 months, Heinsius obauthor, born in Langewiesen, Schwarzburg- stinately adhering to his terms. France, every. Sondershausen, in 1746, died in Mentz, June 22, where beaten, was in great danger when, in 1803. His first publication was a very free 1711, Queen Anne of England dismissed her whig translation of Petronius Arbiter, followed by ministry, displaced Marlborough, and secretly Laidion, an apotheosis of the voluptuous and offered peace to Louis XIV. The congress of beautiful in art, in the form of Lais the Greek Utrecht, Jan. 12, 1712, resulted in England's courtesan. Heinse detended himself against the ceasing hostilities, but Prince Eugene, the Hancharge of indecency, while Goethe, impressed overians, and the Dutch persevered in the war, by the extraordinary merit of Laidion, apart and took Quesnoy, July 3. The defeat of the from its immorality, praised it highly. In 1776 allies at Denain (July 24) changed the whole he left Gleim to accompany Jacobi to Düssel- state of the war. In a few days several imdorf, whom he there assisted in editing &, periportant places were recaptured, and armistices odical entitled Iris. . After living for some time were separately concluded with England (Aug. in Italy in pursuit of art and pleasure, in 1782 19) and Portugal (Nov. 7). Yet notwithstandhe went with the artist Kobel to Naples, and ing these reverses, Heinsius resisted with all returned with Angelica Kauffmann to Rome. his characteristic 'firmness, doing all in his Travelling to Germany, principally on foot, he power to prevent a general peace. In spite of became librarian to the elector of Mentz, and his efforts, one was agreed upon and signed at published the famous romance of Ardinghello. Utrecht (April 11, 1713), but the signature of This was succeeded by Anastasia, a romance Heinsius was the last affixed. It is said that

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