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Portugal. With a firmness and discretion ro- Isabella was proclaimed queen at Segovia. Most markable for her years, Isabella opposed this of the nobles swore allegiance, but the party of summary disposition of her person, saying that Juana was still powerful, and it was not until “the infantas of Castile could not be given in after a war with Alfonso of Portugal, who had marriage without the consent of the nobles of been affianced to Juana, that the queen's authorthe realm ;" and Henry laid aside his selfish ity was fully recognized. From this time ber project, but only to take up another still baser. career was trully brilliant. Sbe applied herAn insurrection, headed by the marquis of Vil- self to reform the laws and internal administra: lena and his uncle, the archbishop of Toledo, tion of the realm, to encourage literature and had been stirred up partly by the belief of many the arts, and to modify the stern and crafty nobles that the princess Juana (often known as measures of her husband by the influence of her la Beltraneja), to whom the king had caused own gentle and elevated character. Though the the oath of fealty to be taken, was the offspring life and soul of the war against the Moors, in of an amour between the queen and the royal which she personally took part, even wearing favorite Beltran de la Cueva. The confederates armor, which is still preserved at Madrid, she proclaimed the transfer of the sceptre from was opposed to the cruelty which was then the Henry to his brother Alfonso, and collected an established policy toward that people; and if army to support their cause. Henry sought to she decreed the expulsion of the Jews from detach the chief conspirators by marrying Isa- Castile, and gave a reluctant consent to the bella to the brother of the marquis of Villena, introduction of the inquisition, it was from a the profligate Don Pedro Giron, grand master of conviction that the safety of the Catholic faith the order of Calatrava. The high-spirited prin- demanded this sacrifice of her private feelings. cess vowed to plunge a dagger into Don Pedro's The encouragement of Christopher Columbus is heart rather than submit to such dishonor, but the deed by which she is best known to posterthe grand master died suddenly on his journey ity, and the squadron with which he discovered to the nuptials. Two years later (1468) Alfonso America was equipped at her expense. She died, and the insurgents offered the crown to opposed the reduction of the Indians to slavery, Isabella; but she refused it, and an accommo- and when a cargo of these captives was sent by dation was soon effected with Henry, by the Columbus to Spain, she ordered them to be terms of which the queen was to be divorced, transported back to their own country. With and Isabella was recognized as heir to Castile the aid of Cardinal Ximenes she reformed the and Leon, with the right to choose her own hus- religious orders, establishing thereby as firma band, subject to the king's approval. Isabella's discipline in the church as she had already inclaim to the succession was soon afterward troduced into the state. Neither wealth nor solemnly ratified by the cortes. Henry, how- station ever shielded criminals from her disever, paid little regard to the terms of this pleasure, and the sword of justice fell with equal agreement, and made another effort to force her certainty upon the nobility, the clergy, and the to marry the king of Portugal. Policy and af- common offender. The inasculine intellect, the fection inclined her to the suit of Ferdinand, feminine charms, and the rare virtues of Isaprince of Aragon, and, incensed at her brother's bella have been a favorite theme for historians of threats of imprisonment, she now resolved to all subsequent times, and the affection in which take matters into her own hands, and returned all her subjects held her person is still cherthe Aragonese envoy a favorable answer. Fer- ished throughout Spain for her memory. The dinand signed the marriage contract at Cervera, sudden deaths of Don Carlos, Don Pedro Giron, Jan. 7, 1469, guarantying to his consort all the and her brother Alfonso, so opportunely for her essential rights of sovereignty in Castile and interests, left no stain of suspicion upon her. Leon. Henry at once despatched a force to For Ferdinand she always entertained the warmseize his sister's person, but Isabella escaped to est affection, wbich was not always faithfully Valladolid, and sent word to Ferdinand to hasten returned. Her genuine piety colored every the marriage. The young prince, unable to pro- action of her life. In person she was equally cure an escort, as his father was then at war beautiful as in character. She had a clear comwith the insurgent Catalans and utterly bank- plexion, light blue eyes, and auburn hair. She rupt, travelled in the disguise of a servant with had 5 children: Isabella, married to Emanuel 6 companions to Osma, escaping the troops of of Portugal; Juan, a virtuous prince, who died Henry posted to cut off his progress, and thence in 1497, aged 20; Juana, who married Philip, journeyed in more fitting state to Valladolid, archduke of Austria, and was the mother of where the marriage ceremony took place, Oct. the
emperor Charles V.; Maria, who espoused 19, 1469. Henry now declared Isabella to have Emanuel after the death of her sister; and forfeited all the advantages guarantied by the Catharine, the wife of Henry VIII. of England. previous treaty, and proclaimed Juana bis law. (See FERDINAND V.) ful successor. The kingdom became divided by ISABELLA II. (Maria ISABEL LUISA), queen two hostile factions, Henry receiving the coun- of Spain, born in Madrid, Oct. 10, 1830. She tenance of France, but Isabella gradually win- is the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII. and ning the affections and allegiance of the Castil- his 4th wife, Maria Christina. The question ians by her virtues and sagacity. At length, on of her succession to the throne caused in Dec. 11, 1474, the king died, and 2 days later Spain a bloody civil war and disorders whose evil results have endured to the present day. duke of Montpensier, son of the French king Her father, having no son, repealed (March 29, Louis Philippe. The
queen established alliances 1830) the Salic law, introduced into Spain by with Austria and Prussia, and sent an army Philip V., and named the expected offspring of to aid the pope. In July, 1850, she gave birth his 4th marriage to succeed him, thus exclud- to a son, who died almost immediately. Naring his brother Don Carlos, who was then heir vaez was removed in Jan. 1851, and was sucpresumptive by virtue of that law. Ferdinand ceeded by Bravo-Murillo. On Nov. 20 of the dying, Sept. 29, 1833, Isabella, then only 3 years same year the queen gave birth to a daughter, old, was proclaimed queen. 'Don Carlos took Maria Isabella Francisca; on Nov. 28, 1857, to up arms, supported by a large body of adher- a son, Francisco de Assis Fernando: and in ents, known as Carlists. The contest gradually Dec. 1859, to another daughter. On Feb. 2, assumed the worst form of civil war, the clergy 1852, while going with her new-born daughter taking sides with Don Carlos, while the queen's to church, she was attacked and slightly woundparty was identified with that of the exaltados, ed by a priest named Merino, who was shortly liberals, or constitutionalists; the queen mother, after executed. This event was turned to acwho had taken the title of regent, having guar- count by the conservatives, who procured the antied a constitution to Spain. The young dissolution of the cortes, and the adoption of queen was supported by the majority of the repressive measures. Several liberal generals people, and in 1834 it was almost unanimously having been banished, on July 28, 1854, Gens. agreed by the legislative cortes that Don Carlos O'Donnell and Dulce headed a military and and his descendants should be for ever excluded civil insurrection in Madrid, and succeeded in from the Spanish throne; a decree which was reëstablishing a liberal government. The queen confirmed by the constituent cortes in 1836. mother fled again to France, and the queen Peace was concluded, Aug. 29, 1839, at Bergara, proclaimed an amnesty, recalled and restored and Don Carlos fled to France, Sept. 15. Mean: exiles, opened a new cortes, and legalized the while Gen. Espartero had acquired great pow. sale of church property. In 1856, an attempted er, placing himself in direct opposition to gov- coup d'état by O'Donnell, and the suppression ernment. The two parties of moderados, or of revolts in the south of Spain, gave the queen conservatives, and exaltados, or liberals, contin- more power, reëstablished the constitution of ued to divide the people, and between these 1845, and recalled Narvaez. This induced the vacillated the queen regent. The ministry of most reactionary measures, which in turn Martinez de la Rosa was succeeded by that of brought about a year later the fall of the Mendizabal, who, compelled by liberal insur- Narvaez cabinet and the formation of a new rections in Madrid and Saragossa, modified the ministry of a little more liberal character (Oct. constitution, enlarged the electoral law, and in- 1857). O'Donnell has been prime minister since troduced other reforms. But the juntas, still July 1, 1858, and is now (Feb. 1860) commander dissatisfied, demanded the constitution of 1812, of an army sent to invade Morocco. The queen which was finally extorted by the insurrection is beloved by her subjects, but her conduct since of Madrid, June 18, 1837. To these troubles, her alliance with a prince whose hand was productive of great misery and confusion in all forced upon her by the intrigues of Louis PhiSpain, succeeded the great insurrections of lippe, and who is said to be affected with an Barcelona and of Madrid in 1839, and the flight infirmity which unfits him for the conjugal of the queen mother into France, Oct. 10, 1840. state, has proved injurious to her reputation. Espartero now became head of the government, ISABELLA OF ENGLAND. See ÊDWARD II. and on May 8, 1841, was declared regent, and and III. Arguelles became tutor of the queen. An un- ISABELLA OF VALOIS. See ELIZABETH OF successful rising in favor of Maria Christina Valois. was made at Pampeluna by Gen. O'Donnell, ISABEY, JEAN BAPTISTE, & French miniature and an attempt by Gens. Ooncha and Diego painter, born in Nancy, April 11, 1767, died Leon to get possession of the young queen's April 18, 1855. He studied historical painting person and buy the adherence of the army was under David, but commenced his career by frustrated. Espartero was finally compelled by making portraits in crayons. About 1800 he an insurrection of the friends of Christina and determined to apply the principles of high art the radicals to abdicate. For a short time the to miniature painting, and in 1802 executed an guardianship of the queen was in the hands of extensive work, representing the first consul reGen. Castaños; but the cortes, by advancing viewing his troops in the court of the Tuileries, the majority of the queen 11 months, placed This established the artist's reputation, and her on the throne, Nov. 10, 1843. The return thenceforth, as long as he could paint, he reof Christina was followed by the military dic- mained at the very head of this branch of his tatorship of Narvaez, the promulgation of anti- art. Napoleon 1., with whom he had been inliberal laws, and a state of siege. On Oct. 10, timate in his youth, appointed him his miniature 1846, Isabel was married to her cousin, Don painter in ordinary, and the members of the Francisco de Assis, duke of Cadiz, and son of Bonaparte family and the marshals and great the infante Francisco de Paula, brother of Fer- dignitaries of the empire sat to him, beside many dinand VII., while at the same time her sister sovereigns and statesmen of Europe, of whom Maria Ferdinanda Luisa was married to the he painted a greater number than any contemporary artist. His Table des maréchaux, on a in 1821 the editors of the Médaille constitution large slab of porcelain, representing Napoleon nelle, and in 1822 Gen. Berton and Lieut. Col. surrounded by his most famous generals, is a Caron, condemned to death for endeavoring to good specimen of his large portrait pieces. His restore the empire. In 1824 he defended Arpicture of one of the conferences at Vienna, mand Carrel. In 1826 he obtained a decres whither he had followed Maria Louisa on the annulling the sentence passed on Bissette, Faabdication of Napoleon in 1814, is valuable from bien, and Volny for circulating in Martinique the number of historic portraits it embraces. a pamphlet on the condition of the free blacks He subsequently visited the Russian court at the in the French West Indies. After the revolainvitation of the emperor Alexander. He con- tion of 1830 he was at first appointed director tinued in favor with successive dynasties in of the Bulletin des lois, an unprofitable post, France, and died full of honors. His likenesses which he soon resigned, when his friend Dupons are remarkable for their exactness, and are exe de l'Eure, minister of justice, employed him in s cuted with force as well as delicacy.
non-official capacity, and through his influence ISÆUS, one of the 10 Attic orators, born at he became a member of the court of cassation, Chalcis, lived between 420 and 348 B. C. He Aug. 27, 1830. In October he was elected to went at an early age to Athens, was instructed the chamber of deputies, where he sustained the in oratory by Lysias and Isocrates, composed ju- ministry of Lafitte and Dupont de l'Eure. The dicial orations for others, and founded a school ministry of Casimir Périer sent him back into of rhetoric in which Demosthenes is said to the opposition, where he remained for 16 years. have studied. In antiquity 64 orations were in 1834 he discovered a diplomatic document ascribed to him, of which 11 are extant, all of on which was based the rejection of the bill for them relating to disputed inheritances. The the ratification of the treaty with the United best separate edition is that by Schömann (8vo., States. In the same year he founded a society Greifswalde, 1831). There is an English trans- for the abolition of slavery in the French cololation by Sir William Jones (London, 1794). nies. In 1838 the mulattoes of the colonies had
ISAIAH, the first of the great Hebrew pro- a medal struck in his honor. Immediately after phets, son of Amoz, flourished under kings Uz- the revolution of 1848 Isambert was elected to ziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, from about the constituent assembly, where he advocated 760 to 710 B. 0. Ahaz was consoled by his the closing of the elubs, though still maintaining prophecies when King Rezin of Damascus and his liberal principles.' After 1849 he devoted Pekah of Israel warred against Judah. When himself to legal literature, and also published a Sennacherib, king of Assyria, appeared before number of antiquarian works. Jerusalem in the reign of Hezekiah, Isaiah fore- ISAURIA, in ancient geography, a district told the destruction of his army. The leading in Asia Minor, bounded by Phrygia, Lycaonia, themes of his prophecies are the captivity in Cilicia, and Pisidia, containing few towns, and Babylon and the return from it, and the univer- known to the ancients chiefly by the marauding sal reign of justice. His eloquent style and sub- excursions of the Isauri, who dwelt in its moun limity of thought give him the highest rank tain fastnesses. The Romans sent an army among the prophets. Many critics suppose the against them in 78 B. O. under P. Servilius, who latter portion of the book of Isaiah (chap. xl. reduced them to submission and gained the surto lxvi.) to be by some author of the time of the name of Isauricus. As they continued their captivity, whose name is unknown. Among depredations, the Romans undertook to check the most important commentators are Lowth them by confining them within a circle of for(London, 1775), Dr. A. Alexander (2 vols., New tresses. In the 3d century A. D. the Isaurians York, 1846-'7), Barnes (2 vols., New York), and Cilicians united themselves into one nation, Gesenius (3 vols., Leipsic, 1820), Hitzig (2 vols., and one of their chiefs, Trebellianus, dared to Heidelberg, 1833), and Drechsler (3 vols., com- assume the title of Roman emperor, but was pleted by Delitsch and Hahn, 1857).
conquered and put to death. They were for ISAMBERT, FRANÇOIS ANDRÉ, a French pol- midable to the Byzantine emperors, and two of itician and jurist, born in Aunay, Eure-et-Loire, their race, Zeno
(474-91) and Leo III. (717-41), Nov. 30, 1792, died in Paris, April 13, 1857. rose to the Byzantine throne. The capital of He was graduated at the college of Chartres, Isauria was Isaura, at the foot of Mt. Taurus. and during his legal studies assisted Gail, lec- ISCHIA (anc. Ænaria and Inarime), an ist turer on Greek literature at the college of and in the Mediterranean, at the N. entrance France, by preparing for him the maps of his of the bay of Naples, belonging to the kingdom great atlas to Herodotus and Strabo. 'In 1818 of the Two Sicilies; area, 26 sq. m.; pop. 24,00)
. he was admitted an advocate before the councils Its coasts are steep and rocky, and its centre is of the king and in the court of cassation. Dur- occupied by the volcano of Epomeo, 2,500 feet ing his professional career he aided in compil- above the sea, whose last eruption was in 1801. ing the Recueil général des lois Françaises from There are also 12 smaller volcanoes. The in420 to 1789, published the Collection des lois de tervening valleys are of extraordinary fertility
, la restauration de 1814 à 1827, and was asso. and produce corn, wine, and fruits in abunciate editor of the Bibliothéque historique and dance. Its warm baths, the most celebrated of of the Courrier Français
. He was a liberal in which are those of Casamicciola and Lacco, are politics, and in 1818 he defended Dr. Aubry, much frequented, and, with its salubrious eli
mate and laxuriant vegetation, make it a favor facture of iron was in operation there as early ite resort in every season of the year. It has 4 as the middle ages. That of brass dates from small towns, Ischia, Foria, Casamicciola, and the 18th century. The other manufactures beLacco. In 1807 it was captured by the English long to a more recent period. The country and Sicilian troops.
around Iserlohn is diversified with picturesque ISCHL, or Ischil, a fashionable German wa- ruins, rocks, glens, and valleys. _In the vicinity tering place, capital of the district of the Salz- of the town is the celebrated Felsenmeer (sea kammergut, Upper Austria, situated on the of rocks), and a remarkable sounding cave conriver Traun, in the centre of 3 valleys, sur taining fossil bones. rounded by picturesque mountains, 50 m. from ISHMAEL, son of Abraham and Hagar, born Linz and 44 m. from Steyer; resident pop. about in Mamre. After the birth of a son to Sarah, 2,000; annual visitors, 1,000. In the vicinity she persuaded Abraham to banish Hagar and of the village are extensive salt works, estab- Ishmael, and from that time Ishmael dwelt as a lished in 1822. It contains several churches, hunter in the wilderness of Paran. His 12 sons schools, and elegant bathing establishments. A became the heads of 12 tribes dwelling in the suspension bridge crosses the Traun, at the junc- Arabian desert between Egypt and Assyria untion of the Isch). It is a favorite resort of the der the name of Ishmaelites or Hagarenes.-In Austrian nobility and of the present emperor the 10th century A. D. the name of Ishmaelites of Austria. The Austrian premier Schwartz- was assumed by a Mohammedan free-thinking enberg and the Russian ministers Nesselrode and sect in Syria and Persia, which was associated Meyendorf met there in 1850, and the emperor with the fanatical assassins or Batenites. of Austria and the king of Prussia in 1851. ISIDORUS. I. OF CHARAX, a geographer who
ISÈRE. I. A river of Europe, which rises in probably lived in the early part of the 1st cenSavoy, flows W., N. W., and S. W. into France, tury. He was the author of a great geographwhen it turns nearly S. and proceeds in this ical work in which the Greek and Roman world direction to below Grenoble, where it bends to and the Parthian empire were described. There the N. W., and again within a short distance are several quotations in Pliny from this treato the S. W. Having passed St. Marcellin, it tise, the extant fragments of which have been enters the department of Drôme, and falls into repeatedly published in modern times among the Rhone near Valence. Its entire length the remains of the Geographici Minores. The is about 180 m., and it is navigable for more best edition is that of Miller (Paris, 1839). II. than 80 m. The Isère is narrow but deep; OF PELUSIUM, in Egypt, a Christian saint and and its waters are always of a blackish tint, abbot in the 1st half of the 5th century. He owing to the débris which it receives from the was a great admirer of Chrysostom, whose slate quarries of the Tarrentaise. Its chief cause he espoused against the patriarchs Theaffluents in Savoy are the Arly and Arc; in ophilus and Cyril of Alexandria. Over 2,000 France, the Ozeins, Drac, and Bourne. II. A of his letters have been preserved. The best S. E. department of France, formed from the edition of them is that published at Paris in old province of Dauphiné, named from the river 1638. III. OF SEVILLE, à saint of the Latin Isère, bounded W. and N. by the Rhone, which church, born in Carthagena, Spain, died April 4, separates it from the departments of Ardèche, 636. He succeeded to the see of Seville about Loire, Rhone, and Ain, E. by Savoy, S. E. 600, and was esteemed the most eloquent orator, and S. by the department of Hautes-Alpes, and the profoundest scholar, and the ablest prelate S. W. by that of Drôme; area, 3,201 sq. m.; of his age. In 616 he presided at the 20 counpop. in 1856, 576,637. The surface in the S. cil of Seville, and in 633 at the great council of districts is very mountainous, but in the centre Toledo. He wrote on science, art, history, and and N. it frequently expands into extensive theology; the most curious and important of his plains. There are at least 20 mountain peaks, works is Originum sive Etymologiarum libri the lowest over 6,000 feet high, and the most XX., an encyclopædia of all the arts and sciences elevated, Le Grand Pelvoux, 18,158 feet high. then known. The best complete edition of his The principal rivers are the Isère, Drac, Ro- works is that of F. Arevali (Rome, 1797-1803). manche, Bourbre, Gaiers, and Rhone. The soil ISINGLASS. See GELATINE. of the lowlands is in general very fertile. Agri- ISIS, the principal goddess of the Egyptians, culture is in an advanced state. The quantity the wife of Osiris, and the mother of Horus. She of wine made annually averages over 5,000,000 was adored as the great benefactress of Egypt, gallons; that made in the valley of the Rhone and instructed her people in the art of cultihas been long celebrated. The raising of silk vating wheat and barley, whence those cereals is an important branch of industry. There are were always carried in her festal processions. mines of iron, copper, lead, and coal; and gold, In Greece, where her worship had been introsilver, platinum, zinc, antimony, &c., are found. duced at a very early period, she was occasionThe staple manufactures are hardware, linens, ally addressed as Pelagia, the queen of the sea. cotton yarn, &c. Capital, Grenoble.
From Greece her worship passed into Italy, ISERLOHN, a town of the Prussian province and was established about the age of Sylla at of Westphalia, 6 m. W. of Arnsberg ; pop. about Rome, where it became popular. In 48 B. C. 13,000." It is remarkable for its manufactures the triumvirs, in order to ingratiate themselves of iron, steel, bronze, needles, &c. The manu. with the people, commanded a temple of Isis and Serapis to be founded, and publicly sanc- estate in 1856, $1,365,049, showing an increase tioned their worship. The principal Roman of 12 per cent. since 1850. Capital, Smithfield. temple of Isis stood in the Campus Martius, and ISLE OF WIGHT. See Wight. hence the goddess was often called Isis Campen- ISLINGTON. See London. sis. The Romans identified with her a native ISNARD, MAXIMIN, a French political 071goddess of the Gauls, Sicilians, and Germans. tor, born in Grasse, Provence, Feb. 16, 1751, The priests of Isis wore linen garments, and her died there in 1830. In the legislative assembly votaries in the public processions wore masks in 1791 he gained notoriety for his eloquence representing the heads of dogs. In works of art and boldness, contributed to the insurrection she usually appears with the figure and face of of Aug. 10, and was reëlected to the convention Juno, arrayed in a long tunic, wearing a wreath He then modified his political views, joined the of lotus flowers, and in her right hand a sistrum. Girondists, was instrumental in the establish
ISLAM, an Arabic word signifying full sub- ment of the committee of public safety, of which mission to God. It is used by Mohammedans to he became a member, strenuously opposed the designate their religion, and also the whole body Montagnards, and, although he consented to vaof believers, or those who accept the formula of cate his seat on June 2, 1793, could not avoid faith: “There is no God but Allah, and Moham- ultimate proscription. His Herculean strength med is his prophet.” This formula or profes- enabled him to escape the officers who came to sion of faith is understood to include 5 essen- arrest him, and he took refuge with a friend. tial articles of religion : 1, the acknowledgment He reappeared in the assembly after the fall of of the divine unity and of the mission of Mo- Robespierre. In 1796 he became a member of hammed; 2, observance of prayer; 3, almsgiv- the council of 500, to which he belonged for one ing; 4, keeping the fast of Ramadan ; 5, the year. Thenceforth he devoted himself to literpilgrimage to Mecca. The Sheeahs, or adherents ary and philosophical pursuits, and gradually beof Ali
, who are dominant in Persia, add to the came religious. Among his publications were a declaration of faith : “Ali is the vicar of God.” pamphlet entitled Proscription d'Isnard (Paris
, But the Soonnees or orthodox ‘Mohammedans, 1795), a declamatory but vivid picture of Rowho form the majority of the church of Islam, bespierre's tyranny, and a lyrical poem of some reject the position thus assigned to Ali. (Seó merit, Dithyrambe sur l'immortalité de l'âme, ALI BEN ABU TALEB.)
dedicated to Pope Pius VII. ISLAY, or Isla, an island of Scotland, in the ISOCRATES, an Athenian rhetorician, born Atlantic ocean, 15 m. from the coast of Argyle- in Athens in 436 B. C., died in 338 B.O. His shire, to which it belongs. It is the southern- father, Theodorus, was a rich musical instrumost of the Hebrides ; length about 28 m., ment maker of Athens, and gave his son the breadth about 18 m.; area, 154,000 acres ; pop. best education attainable in the city. Tisias, in 1851, 12,334. The surface of the E. part is Gorgias, Theramenes, and Socrates were his hilly, and mostly wooded, but the remainder is teachers. His natural timidity and a weak generally level. Some of its summits are 1,500 voice prevented him from ever taking the part feet high. It contains several small lakes and of a public orator, and he devoted himself to rivers, which abound with salmon and trout. lecturing on rhetoric. He first taught in the Loch Finlaggan, near its centre, is about 3 m. island of Chios; but it is said that his success in circumference. In this lake is an islet where there was not very great, and that he was the Macdonalds, “the lords of the isles," once chiefly engaged in regulating
the political conresided, and where the ruins of their castle still stitution of the island. He then returned to are. The climate is moist, but tolerably healthy. Athens, where he soon had 100 pupils
, ats The soil of the lowlands is very fertile and well charge of 1,000 drachmæ each. He also de cultivated. The staple manufacture is whiskey, rived a considerable revenue from writing ora. which is of superior quality, and of which over tions. Plutarch says that Nicocles, king of 200,000 gallons are made yearly. In 1843 the Cyprus, gave him 20 talents for his oration island was purchased as an investment by the Tipos Nikoklea. He was never willing to take late Mr. Morison of London for • $2,225,000. part in public affairs, and, when appointed Chief town, Bowmore; pop. about 1,200. trierarch in 355, excused himself on account
ISLE OF FRANCE. See MAURITIUS. of illness. This refusal, considering his ample ISLE OF MAN. See MAN.
means, occasioned much ill will against him; ISLE OF PINES. See PINES.
and in 352, from policy, he accepted the posiISLE OF WIGHT, a S. E. co. of Va., bounded tion, and although it was the most expensive N. E. by the estuary of James river, and S. W. office which a private citizen could undertake by the Blackwater; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in yet he fulfilled it with great liberality and 1850, 9,353, of whom 3,395 were slaves. The splendor. Isocrates taught principally political surface is generally level and divided between oratory. The most eminent statesmen, orators, swamps, pine forests, and farming lands. The philosophers, and historians of the time were soil is thin and sandy. The productions in 1850 educated in his school, and he always selected were 315,699 bushels of Indian corn, 89,713 of practical subjects, proposing to them chiefly the sweet potatoes, 3,799 of wheat, and 7,904 lbs. political events of his own time as a study. His of wool. There were 19 churches and 149 pu- orations, though written to be delivered in his pils attending public schools. Value of real school, were copied and recited in all the conn