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ISSUE. I. In law, used in deeds and wills “ without lawful issue." In many of the states to signify descendants. When employed in a much of the difficulty is obviated by express deed, the term has a definite meaning. It is al- statutory enactments. Thus in New York it is ways construed to be a word of purchase," des- declared that when a remainder shall be limited ignating persons in being, and vesting in each to take effect on the death of any person withof them an original interest. It cannot be a out heirs, or heirs of his body, or without issue, word of limitation, for that would confer on is- the words heirs or issue shall be construed to sue, whether in being or not, derivative interests mean heirs or issue living at the death of the devolved upon them through descent from the person named as ancestor. The New York original taker; and such estates of inheritance statutes abolish all distinctions between real can be created in deeds only by the word heirs. and personal property in respect to contingent We have used the word purchase in its technical interests. The American cases generally follor sense. In law, all estates are acquired either the English common law rule in regard to limitaby purchase or by descent; and it therefore tions over upon the bequest of chattels; and, by follows that all estates not acquired by descent, confining the expression“ without issue" to issue or by inheritance, are acquired by purchase. living at the death of the first taker, support esThe construction of the word issue in wills has ecutory devises. II. In pleading, the point or involved much uncertainty and difficulty; for it matter in contest between the parties to a suit. is a term of the most extensive import. It may When in the course of their alternate pleadings embrace all descendants to the remotest degree; the parties have reached a specific matter which or may be limited to immediate descendants, or one of them affirms but the other denies, they confined to some particular class of descendants are said to be at issue, or, in the ancient lanliving at a given time. Of the rules of construc- guage of the law, ad exitum, or at the end of tion established by the discussion of this perhaps their pleadings.' An issue may be either of law most vexed question in the whole range of legal or of fact. When a defendant demurs to the learning, it must suffice to state only the most plaintiff's allegation, that is, denies its sufficiency general. In a will, issue may be regarded as a as matter of law to support the plaintiff's acword either of limitation or of purchase. If tion, he is said to tender an issue in law, and real estate be devised either directly to, or by the other party is compelled to accept it. But way of executed trust for, a "person and his if the defendant traverse the plaintiff's fact and issue," the word is here taken to be one of propose to refer the matter disputed to some limitation; and, as synonymous with heirs of mode of trial, he tenders an issue of fact. The the body, with which, indeed, it is interchange plaintiff may demur to the traverse or may join ably used in the statute de donis, it confers on issue; indeed, he must do so when the issue is the devisee an estate tail. Yet if it clearly ap- well tendered. An issue of fact is properly pear from any expressions in the will that the framed upon a direct negation or denial of an testator did not intend to give such an estate, averment. Two affirmatives therefore do not or that by issue he meant children, or any par- make a good issue. For example, defendant ticular class of descendants, then the word will pleads that A died seized in fee, and plaintiff be construed as a word of purchase; and it will replies that he died seized in tail. This is not then comprise all who can claim as descendants good pleading, because the former allegation is from him to whose issue the bequest is made.- not directly traversed, but is only argumenta. The different phrases which express default of tively denied. Yet it is said two affirmatives issue have been the subjects of frequent and may suffice when they are so contrary to each very nice construction. The failure of issue other that one of necessity denies the other. inay be what is called a definite failure, when For similar reasons the issue must not rest on the will fixes a definite time for such failure, as two negatives. As it is the object of the pleadif the devisee die “without issue living at the ings to reach the precise and essential subject time of his death;" or it may be indefinite, for decision, it is of course necessary that they when no period is fixed, but the contingency should develop some matter either of law or continues so long as the devisee has any de- fact which, when decided, shall dispose of the scendants. A limitation over after a definite whole controversy. They must therefore be failure of issue is good; but not upon an inde- directed not merely to the production of an finite failure, for the contingency is too remote. issue, but to the production of one which is In the case therefore of a devise to A in fee, material. For issue joined upon an immaterial with remainder to another upon A's death with point, that is, a point not decisive of the right out issue, the limitation over is void, and A's of the case, is fatally defective, and judgment estate in fee is reduced to an estate tail. This upon any verdict found will be arrested by tho is the general rule of the common law, though court. Further, as in respect to any single subin the United States the courts seek to evade its ject of snit the decision of one material point authority, and often avail themselves of slight may decide the action, it has become a rule that circumstances to support the executory devise. the pleadings shall tend not only to materiality, They have done so when the limitation was to but also to singleness in the issue; in other the brother of A if the latter died without chil words, no plea may allege several distinct matdren; or to “survivors" when either of several ters, when any one of these would singly sup: devisees should die “without issue alive," or port the action. Finally, this single material


issue inust be so particular in its character as on that side of the continent. In the latter year to point out distinctly the nature of the inatter it was abandoned for a point called San José, in controversy. Upon the declaration the par- 12 in. N., which it was supposed suffered under ties may join general or special issue; issues fewer disadvantages. Both Istapa and San joined on later pleadings in the suit are called José, however, are entirely open to the sea, simply issues without other description. The without protection of any kind, and vessels are general issue denies all the material allegations unable to approach nearer than 11 m. from the in the declaration, or rather it enables the de- shore, where they are obliged to anchor on a fendant to demand proof of all of them. A bottom of shifting sands, prepared to stand out special issue, properly speaking, is the denial of to sea at a moment's warning. one of several substantive facts, which are es- ISTHMIAN GAMES, one of the 4 great nasential to the right of action. A traverse of tional festivals of Greece, celebrated on the isthone essential point is plainly as complete a de- mus of Corinth in April or May of every alternial of the plaintiff's right of recovery, as the nate year, in the 2d and 4th years of each traverse of his whole declaration by a general Olympiad. The story of their origin is as folissue could be. In practice the defendant has lows: Athamas, king of Orchomenus, had by been allowed, upon the general issue, in many his second wife Ino a son named Melicertes, actions, not only to deny the material facts of whom together with his mother he pursued in the plaintiff's declaration, but also to put in a fit of madness. In order to escape from him particular matters of defence, which in strict- they jumped into the sea. Ino was changed ness ought to have appeared in the form of a into a sea goddess, and the body of Melicertes special plea. In England the abuses which grew was washed ashore and buried by his uncle up through this perversion of the general issue Sisyphus, who was directed by the nereids to were repressed by statute, and the plea restrict- pay him heroic honors under the name of Palæed to its original and proper intent. In the mon, Sisyphus accordingly established the United States, however, very generally, the Isthmian games in honor of Neptune and Palægeneral issue may be pleaded in all cases, and mon. The games, however, were suffered to admits any matter of defence in evidence. In fall into disuse, and were for a time entirely insome states notice of the special matter of dis- terrupted, till Theseus organized them apew in charge or avoidance intended to be offered at honor of Neptune. In the 6th century B. O. the trial, must be filed at the same time with they became Pan-Hellenic festivals. Until the the plea, or within a certain period afterward. overthrow of Corinth by the Roman general An issue is informal when framed upon the in- Mummius (146 B. C.), the games were conartificial or improper traverse of a material alle ducted by the Corinthians, though the Athegation.-Feigned issues are sometimes framed pians held the places of honor, the tipoedpla in chancery for the purpose of submitting dis- or front seats. The privilege was then given puted questions of fact to the ordinary modes to the people of Sicyon. After the rebuildof trial at law. Thus, if it be contested whether ing of Corinth by Cæsar, they were again manA is the heir of B, the fact will be sent to be aged by that city, but the people of Sicyon tried in a law court upon a fictitious suit. For had the exclusive right to sit as judges. They example, one party may declare that he wagered continued regularly till Christianity began to with another that B was the heir of A; he then spread, when they fell into decay, but were avers that he is so, and demands the wager, still celebrated under Constantine and Julian. The defendant admits the wager, but avers in The Isthmian games, like the Olympic, consistreply that B is not the heir of A. Upon these ed of all kinds of athletic sports, wrestling, boxallegations issue is joined, and the fact is decided ing, gymnastics of every sort, racing on foot and in the usual modes. Feigned issues may also be in chariots, and also contests in music and poemployed by suitors in courts of law for deter- etry. The Romans added to them gladiatorial mining a single point directly and expeditiously. shows and fights of wild beasts, which were

ISSUS, a town of Cilicia, in Asia Minor, at continued to the time of the final decay of the the head of the gulf of Issus, celebrated for the festival. The prize was a simple garland of pine battle fought near it in 333 B, C., in which leaves. Solon, in his legislation, ordered the Alexander the Great defeated Darius. Its exact sum of 100 drachma to be paid to any one who site is uncertain, and the ruins of a Roman aque- took a prize at the Isthmian games, and 500 to duct, temple, and walls, which have been dis- any one taking an Olympic prize. covered in its vicinity, are probably the remains ISTRIA (ano. Istria or Histria, from Ister, of ancient Nicopolis. The battle also between the Danube, an arm of which was early believed Septimius Severus and Niger (A. D. 194) was to flow into the Adriatic), a peninsula and marfought near Issus.

graviate of Austrian Illyria, on the N. E. coast ISTAPA, or ISTAPAM, a port on the Pacific of the Adriatic; area, 1,810 sq. m.; pop. 233,coast of Guatemala, in Central America, in lat. 000. It is in general mountainous, particularly 13° 53' N., long. 90° 43' W., at the mouth of toward the N., where the surface is occupied by the river Michatoyat. Alvarado here built the offsets of the Julian Alps. The coasts are irregvessels in which he sailed against Pizarro and ular and indented by numerous good harbors. Almagro in Peru, in 1533. From that time un- The soil is not remarkably fertile, but excellent til 1853 it remained the only port of Guatemala olives, and grain, wine, lemons, silk, &c., are

VOL. IX.-41

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produced. Sheep and cattle are extensively 1836, which resulted in the proclamation of the reared in the mountainous districts, and the constitution of 1812, compelled him to take ref. coast fisheries and salt works employ a consid- uge a second time in England, whence he went erable number of the inhabitants. The chief to France. Having returned to Spain in 1838, towns are Capo d'Istria, Pirano, Isola, Ro- he was elected to the cortes, and was its pres. vigno, Pola, Dignano, and Pisino. The people ident in 1839. He negotiated the marriages of of the towns are mostly Italians, and those of the young queen and her sister. In 1850 he the rural districts of Slavic origin. In remote was sent as minister to England, and in 1857 to antiquity the Istrians were an Illyrian tribe, and Russia. On Jan, 5, 1858, he became president were engaged in piratical enterprises, but prior of the Spanish senate, and 10 days after presto the second Punic war were reduced to sub- ident of the council, but was soon superseded. mission by Roman consuls. They were again ITACOLUMITE (from Itacolumi, a mountain reduced by the consul Claudius Marcellus (183 of Brazil), a granular silicious rock, of laminated B. C.) and the consul O. Claudius Pulcher (177 structure, found with talcose slates and more or B. O.), and did not again revolt. Under Augus- less intermixed with talc or with mica. It is tus Istria was incorporated as a portion of upper distinguished by its peculiar flexibility, sheets of Italy. The most flourishing period of its ancient it bending back and forth as if jointed within history was while the Roman government was It is of particular interest from its occurrence fixed at Ravenna. It formed a separate mar at the localities in the gold regions where disgraviate in the 10th century, and was subject monds are found. It is met with in Brazil, the successively to the dukes of Carinthia and Dal- Ural mountains, and in Georgia and North and matia. The Italian part of Istria was held by South Carolina. In the last named state Mr. the Venetians from the 13th century till 1797, Lieber, the geologist, has observed the passage of the eastern part being incorporated with Ca- the itacolomite into a true sandstone or even a rinthia and subject to Austria. Both portions conglomerate, proving its sedimentary origin. were ceded to Napoleon I., and reconquered by ITALY, a large peninsula of southern Europe, Austria in 1813.

extending from N. w. to S. E. in an elongated ISTURIZ, FRANCISCO XAVIER DE, a Spanish shape, which, being bifurcated at the southern statesman, born in 1790 in Cadiz, where his extremity, has a certain similarity to the form father, a Biscayan merchant, had established an of a high-heeled boot. The origin of the name extensive house. After the fall of Joseph Bo Italy is differently explained by ancient writers naparte and the restoration of Ferdinand VII. According to Timæus and Varro it is derived those in Cadiz who were discontented with from italos, ox, meaning a country in which the role of the latter were accustomed to meet cattle abound; while Thucydides and Dionysius in the house of the brothers Isturiz, which was of Halicarnassus assume the existence of a mythknown as the Casa Otomana. This was the ical king named Italus, to whom the country head-quarters of the movement led by Riego owes its name. Italy is situated between lat, 36° (Jan. 1, 1820)," which made an anarchy of three and 47', or if the islands are included, between years succeed a despotism of six." Xavier de 35° and 41° N., and between long. 60 and 19° Isturiz went to Madrid, where he aided in estab- E. Its length is about 600 m.; its breadth varis lishing liberal clubs; and having thereby placed from 95 to 300 m. To the N. it is fastened, ss himself in opposition to Arguelles and Martinez it were, to the body of the European continent de la Rosa, who represented the moderate con- by the large knot of the great Alpine system, stitutionalists, he excited public opinion against from which the Apennine range stretches along them, especially after his election to the cortes the entire length of the peninsula, forming (9 in 1822. In 1823, as president of this body, he to speak) its spine. On the E. the shores of Italy voted for the suspension of the royal power. are washed by the Adriatic and Ionian seas, ou Condemned to death after the restoration, he fled the W. by the Mediterranean. Exclusive of the to London, where he was a partner in the mer- large islands of Sardinia and Sicily, which poliicantile house of Zulueta Pardoned by the am- ically belong to Italy, the country has an ares nesty of the queen regent Maria Christina in of 98,838 sq. m.; including them, 117,914 sq. L. 1834, he returned to Spain, where he at once The population of the peninsula and the lesser engaged in democratic agitation and provoked islands in 1859 was 23,144,767. Adding to this the rising of the national guard, whose object was the population of the island of Sardinia (549, the overthrow of the minister Toreno, but which 950) and of Sicily (2,231,000), we obtain a total was suppressed by Quesada. Shortly after, his of 25,925,717 inhabitants, distributed among friend Mendizabal became prime minister, and 8 states, viz.: the kingdom of the Two Sicilies made Isturiz his most intimate adviser. In Nov. or Naples (41,521 sq. m.), Sardinia with Monaco 1835, he was appointed president of the cham- and Lombardy (37,150), the Papal States (11, ber of procuradores, a sort of state council. 048), Venetia with Mantua and Peschiera (be The chamber proved too liberal, which caused a longing to Austria, 9,241), Tuscany (8,712), Par quarrel and a duel between Isturiz and Mendiza- ma (2,184), Modena (2,073), and the diminutive bal. After the fall of the latter in 1836, Isturiz republic of San Marino (21). The following was appointed minister of foreign affairs and statement shows the nationalities of which president of the council, but soon grew un- Italy is composed : Italians, 95.366 per cent; popular with all parties. The tuinults of Aug. French, 2.438 ; Friulians, 1.371 ; Albanians,

0.345; Jews, 0.160; Slavi, 0.116; Greeks, 0.091; proaches the character of the eastern steppes. Germans, 0.074; Spaniards, 0.033; Armeni- In S. Italy the volcanic regions only are remarkans, 0.004 ; gypsies, 0.002; total, 100.—The N. able for their fertility.-Italy has but two rivers boundary of Italy is formed by the Alps, which of importance,.viz., the Po and the Adige. The under the different names of their several ranges former, with a length of 330 m., waters, with its sweep around the fertile plain of upper Italy in a tributaries (the Agogna, Ticino, Adda, Oglio, semicircle from W. to E. Their descent toward and Mincio on the left or N. bank, the Tanaro, the S. is steep and rugged, giving them the ap- Trebbia, Oreglio, Arda, Taro, Parma, Ena, and pearance of an immense natural barrier against Secchia on the 8. bank), a plain extending over Gerinany and France. The great northern plain, 300 m, in length and 170 in breadth, being the which extends at the base of the Alps nearly greatest contiguous extent of highly fertile land across the entire breadth of the peninsula, slopes in Europe. The Adige, descending from the gradually down toward the eastern shore, where Alps, flows in a semicircle to the E., falling into its elevation is so small that in many places it the Adriatic at no great distance from the Po. needs to be protected from the tides by break. It is pavigable only to a short distance above waters and levees. The Apennines commence Veropa. Nearly all the other rivers rising from in the Maritime Alps with Mt. Appio, lat. 44o the Apennines are mere mountain torrents, hav. 12' N.; they take at first a direction to the N. ing a short course and no considerable depth; E., then S. E., and at length S. W., crossing the hence they afford very limited facilities to comstrait of Messina into Sicily, where they are lost merce. The most noted of them are the Brenta, in the Mediterranean sea at Cape Passaro, lat. Piave, and Tagliamento in upper Italy, the Arno 36° 50' N. Their average height is only 4,200 in Tuscany, the Tiber in the Papal States (150 m. feet, though some peaks attain an elevation of long, and navigable only from its mouth to the 9,000 feet and over. (See APENNINES.) On city of Rome, a distance of 15 m.), and the Gaeither side of this central chain extend hilly rigliano, Voltorno, and Silaro (Sele) in Naples. regions and plains, forming a number of small The mouths of most small rivers of S. Italy are river systems. Beside the great plain of Lom- surrounded with swamps, the noxious gases of bardy, which forins the river systems of the Po which generate malaria and render the sur and Adige, that on the lower course of the Arno, rounding districts almost uninhabitable. Only the Campagna di Roma (including the Pontiné Lombardy and Venetia possess artificial water marshes), and the Campagna Felice (near Na- courses of any importance. They were planned ples), at the S. extremity of which Mt. Vesuvius and constructed in the middle ages, more for the towers up in a gigantic mass, deserve to be purpose of irrigation than of navigation, and mentioned on the W. side of Italy. On the E. belong to the oldest extant works of hydrostaside the Apulian plain is the most extensive. It tics. Thus, the naviglio grande (great canal) is 80 m. long and 30 m. broad. In ancient times was begun in 1178, the canal of Muzzo in 1220, one of the principal seats of Grecian civilization, that of Vettabbia in 1837, and that of Treviit is now little better than a fertile solitude. glio in 1350. A great number of mineral springs The basin of the Sele is a plain extending about are found in all sections of the country. The 28 m. from Salerno to the S. of Pæstuin; in its most extensive lakes, several of which are celbroadest part it is only 12 m, wide. The plain ebrated for the picturesqueness of their surof Basilicata, nearly 100 m. long and from 2 to rounding scenery, belong to upper Italy. Lago 24 m, broad, extends along the shore of the Maggiore, 50 m. long and varying in breadth Ionian sea, and was formerly the seat of flour- from 5 to 8 m., is the shallowest of all, having ishing Greek colonies (Sybaris and Heraclea), a depth not exceeding 25 feet; its surface is but is now scantily settled, owing to the fre- 750 feet above the level of the sea; it is fed quency of floods and its insalubrious climate. by the river Ticino and 26 brooks. The lake Italy has 4 distinct volcanic districts, viz.: the of Lugano, 24 m. long and from 23 to 6 m. Euganean hills, between Padua and Este, rising broad, situated 870 feet above the level of the in the Monte Venda to an elevation of 1,806 feet; Mediterranean, receives its waters from 43 the Roman volcanic district, extending from rivalets, and discharges them partly by the the hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, river Tresa into Lago Maggiore, partly into the and attaining a height of 5,794 feet (Monte small lake of Piano. The lake of Como, 35 m. Amiata); the Terra di Lavoro, including Mt. long, 3 m. broad, and of great depth, is fed by Vesuvius (3,949 feet); and the volcanic dis- the river Adda and 195 smaller streams. Lake trict of Apulia (highest elevation 4,357 feet). - Iseo, 20 m. long and 6 m. broad, is chiefly supMt. Etna in Sicily is likewise distinct from the plied by the Oglio. Lake Garda, which belongs Apennine range. (See Etxa.)-The soil of Italy, partly to the Tyrol, is the most extensive; it though of various quality, for the most part covers a surface of 315 sq. m., and is of suffiamply repays the labor of the husbandman, and cient depth to carry vessels of the greatest is, in some sections where irrigation has been draught. Beside these, there are the lake of resorted to, of an exuberant fertility. It is a Castiglione in Tuscany, the lakes of Perugia, heavy loam, almost marshy in the plain of Lom- Bolseno, and Bracciano in the Papal States, and bardy, dry and poor in the hills, but fertile in the lake of Celano in Naples.—The climate of the valleys. In the sterile Maremma (plains of Italy is generally considered the most genial and S. W. Tuscany) and the Roman Campagna it ap- wholesome in all Europe, but proportionately to

the number o. inhabitants the mortality is great- sulphur in Naples, statuary marble (the best er in Italy than in any other European country. known) near Verona and Carrara. Alabaster, The semi-tropical climate is not without its agates, jasper, and garnets are also found in the serious inconveniences. In summer for long Apennine range. Agriculture is the principal months the burning heat, unrelieved by refresh- occupation of the inhabitants. Italy produces ing showers, withers all vegetation, parches the all kinds of grain, including rice and maize, ground, and imparts to the landscape a gloomy pulse, millet, &c. Rye, oats, and barley are brownish tint, which is any thing but agreeable only raised in limited quantities, the principal to behold. In many places a subterranean heat breadstuffs being wheat for the wealthy classes, periodically sends forth noxious gases. The and maize for the poor. Lupines and chestlagoons and marshes which border the coast nuts serve as a cheap substitute for grain, the generate poisonous miasmata. Beside all this, potato having as yet been but partially introlegions of the most disgusting insects fill the air duced. Vegetables of all sorts are grown in and visit the dwellings. Nevertheless, there are great abundance, especially lettuce, asparagus, districts in Italy which, in regard to salubrious- endive, artichokes, turnips, carrots, onions, garness, compare favorably with any on the earth. Jic, melons, cucumbers, and tomatoes. The most In respect to its climate it may be divided into 4 luscious fruits grow with very little care, such regions. Of these, the first comprises upper Italy, as oranges, lemons, citrons, shaddocks, figs, N. of the Apennines, between lat. 46° 30'and 43o almonds, carob beans, and dates. The sugar 80'N. There the temperature in winter is some cane is cultivated in the southern portion of the times as low as 10° F.; the snow remains on the peninsula and in Sicily, but its product is not ground from 10 to 14 days; the lagoons on the equal to that of the cane of the West Indies. Adriatic are frequently covered with ice; and The cotton plant thrives well in Sicily, the anthough the mulberry tree and rice are raised to nual product of which is from 1,750,000 to perfection, the more tender fruits of a southern 2,000,000 lbs., all of which is spun and mantclimate ripen only in sheltered localities. Night factured in the kingdom. Hemp and flax are frosts begin as early as November, and continue grown everywhere in sufficient quantities for until March or April. Even in the summer domestic consumption. The olive tree grows months piercing cold N. winds are not uncom- almost everywhere in Italy, and the oil obtainmon. The 2d region, extending from lat. 43° 30'ed from its fruit is one of the principal articles to 41° 30' N., is the region of the olive tree and of export. The tobacco culture is of no great orange. Frost and snow appear regularly only in importance. Saffron, safflower, and capers are the higher mountain districts, but occasionally exported. One of the principal products is silk, snow may be seen even in the valleys and plains. the export of which exceeds in value that of all The 3d region extends over 21 degrees of lati- other articles. Wine is produced in great quantude, comprising nearly the whole continental tities, but almost exclusively for home consumpportion of Naples. There the thermometer tion. The grape is not as carefully cultivated seldom falls below 26° F.; snow is very rarely as in other European countries, and it is probeseen except on the highest mountains, and never bly in consequence of this that the wine has a remains; aloes and other semi-tropical plants somewhat acid earthy taste, which renders it thrive even in unprotected localities. In the 4th unpalatable to foreigners. In the southern porregion, comprising the southernmost part of tion of the peninsula some qualities are produced the peninsula and the island of Sicily, the ther- equalling in body and flavor the most fiery mometer scarcely ever falls below the freezing Spanish and Greek wines.—The animal king point of water ; snow and ice are unknown ex- dom is not represented by many species in cept on the summit of Mt. Etna; tropical fruits, Italy. The domestic animals common to all dates, sugar cane, and the cotton plant thrive Europe, including horses, cattle, sheep, swine, in the open air ; aloes are so common that they goats, asses, and mules, are likewise raised in are planted for hedge rows; a serene sky of the Italy. Animal food being not as extensively deepest blue spans the earth, and bracing sea used as in more northern countries, but little breezes temper the heat. But at the same time care is taken of the improvement of breeds. this portion of Italy suffers often from the com- Swine are principally raised in Parma and the mon drawbacks of tropical regions, droughts N. E. provinces of the Papal States, where the and hot winds (siroccos), equally obnoxious to manufacture of sausages is carried on upon a human and vegetable life. Earthquakes and large scale. The dairy products of Parma, es volcanic eruptions, causing sometimes an ap- pecially cheese, are largely exported to foreign palling loss of life, occur frequently in lower countries. The coast fishery employs a great Italy and Sicily. The principal productions of amount of tonnage and capital. Tunny and Italy belong to the vegetable kingdom. Its anchovies are caught in immense nunbers, and mineral wealth is very small. The precious the latter exported to all parts of the world. metals, as well as copper, iron, lead, &c., are Oysters are obtained from beds in the Adrifound in the mountain districts, but mining is atic, but are poor in quality. The sea for so neglected that it farnishes a very insignificant nishes also a great variety of smaller shell fish, part of the national resources. Alum is obtained which are used as food by the lower classes, or in considerable quantities in the Papal States as delicacies by the wealthy.-The inhabitants and in Naples, vitriol and antimony in Parma, of Italy are a mixture of many different races

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