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or hard and full pulse, appears in cases of ac- ly on the S. side, where there are but two ports, tive congestion or inflammation of the liver; Pachitan and Chalachap. On the N. coast the in others, the pulse may be natural or irregular. best harbor is that of Surabaya, but there are From the time of the appearance of the yellow many open roadsteads with good anchorage, and hue, however, many of the preliminary symptoms the want of landlocked harbors is little felt in may diminish. The attack is often sudden; when the calm waters of the Java sea, where hurrifollowing violent emotion, almost instantaneous, canes are unknown, and storms occur only at The course and duration are various, the disease the change of the monsoons. On the S. side disappearing or proving fatal as early as the 4th there is no safe anchorage, the coast being bold day, or lasting for months or years. The darker and the ocean very deep, while a heavy and forms are most rapid and oftenest fatal. Fa- dangerous surf rolls continually on the shore.vorable crises occur in the form of bilious di- The geological formation of Java is highly vol. arrhæa, profuse perspiration, hæmorrhage, or canic. A range of mountains runs from one menorrhagia ; or improvement begins more end of the island to the other through the cenquietly, the color fading from the surface in the tre, with peaks varying in height from 4,000 to reverse of the order of its appearance. Severe 12,000 feet. Among these peaks are 46 rolcomplications and sequels are liable to appear; canoes, 20 of which are in a state of activity. among these are diarrhæa, cutaneous eruptions. The most remarkable of these is the Tenger inflammation or abscess of the liver, disease of mountain in the E. part of the island. It the spleen or pancreas, general dropsy, dysen- rises from a very large base in a gentle slope tery, coma, epilepsy, apoplexy, and inflamma- with gradually extending ridges. The summit, tion of the brain. A fatal termination is very seen from a distance, appears less conical than liable to be preceded by these complications, or that of the other volcanoes, and is about 8,000 it is ushered in by despondency and sinking, feet high. The crater is more than 1,000 feet by ascites or hydrothorax, by loss of assimila- below the highest point of the mountain. It is tive power, emaciation, and hectic; death with the largest crater on the globe, with perhaps coma or other cerebral symptoms, due to reten- the single exception of that of Kilauea in the tion of bile in the circulation, and its action as Sandwich islands. Its diameter is 3 miles, and a poison upon the nervous system, is frequent; it forms an immense gulf with a level bottom and this result is more likely to occur to those covered with sand. From its centre rise 3 whose nervous energies are broken by over cones several hundred feet in height, one of work or excesses. Authors distinguish, as forms which, called Brahma, is in almost constant of the disease, the idiopathic and symptomatic; activity. South of the great central range is continued and recurrent; febrile and non-fe- another range of mountains about 3,000 feet in brile; inflammatory, plethoric, and nervous; height, which skirts the S. coast. It is comsporadic, endemic, and epidemic; mild and posed of volcanic materials, chiefly basalt, and malignant.—The obvious indications as to treat is called by the Javanese Kandang, or “Far ment are to promote secretion of the bile, and drums," from the peculiar columpar form of its to favor its removal. In ordinary cases a strong rocks. The S. shore of the island is frequently infusion of the bitter-root taken freely, so as to bounded by steep piles of trap. Low ranges of keep up a laxative action, but not so as to purge limestone are seen in the eastern part, and in actively or to vomit, with a daily application the extreme west a few granite bowlders are of the dripping-sheet for about one minute, free occasionally found. Hot springs are numerous ventilation, a very spare, simple diet until the at the bases of the volcanoes, and some of them symptoms mend, and hot fomentations twice a are thoroughly impregnated with carbonic acid. day for half an hour over the liver in cases of In the lowlands there are mud volcanoes, which torpor or obstruction, or cold cloths in case of furnish muriate of soda. There are 7 great plains excessive production of bile, will usually effect in Java: those of Bandawasa and Pugar in the a sure and often a speedy return to health. E. section; those of Surakarta, Madiyun, Ks. Generally, in the active stages, much prudence diri, and Malang in the middle section; and is required to guard, on the one hand, against in the W. that of Bandong. These plains are increasing vascular excitement, and on the fertile and well watered by streams from the other, against augmenting the vital depression, mountains, which afford an abundant supply for
JAVĂ, a Dutch colony, the third island in irrigation. There is also a long alluvial tract size, and the first in political and commercial im- running along the N. side of the island, which portance, of the Malay archipelago, between lat. may be regarded as a continuous plain, and 5° 52' and 8° 40' S., and long. 105° 12' and 114° many of the mountain valleys are also spacious 4' E. It is bounded N. by the sea of Java, which and fertile. There are a few small and beautiseparates it from Borneo; E. by a strait 2 m. ful lakes among the mountains, and some ex. wide, which separates it from the island of Bali; tensive marshes, which in the rainy season be S. by the Indian ocean; and W. by the strait of come lakes, and are navigated. The largest of Sunda, which separates it from Sumatra. Its these is in the province of Banumas, and is close length from E. to W. is 666 m., and its breadth to the S. shore. The rivers on the N. side of varies from 36 to 126 m.; area, 50,000 sq. m. The the island are very numerous, but are all short coast line of the island is about 1,400 m. in extent, and none of them navigable for large vessels, and is remarkably destitute of harbors, especial being all more or less obstructed by bars of mud or sand at their mouths. They are, however, Still higher the fig trees are mingled with giganof great use for irrigation, and contribute large- tic rasimalas or liquidamber trees with white ly to the immense agricultural capacity of the trunks. Above the region of figs and rasimalas island. The largest river in Java is the Solo, is that of oaks and laurels, with abundant mewhich rises in one of the low ranges on the s. lastomas and orchideous plants. At the height side of the island, and after a winding course of 6,000 feet the tropical character of the vegeof 400 m. empties by two mouths into the tation disappears and is succeeded by rubiaceae, narrow strait which separates Java from the heaths, coniferous and other plants familiar to W. end of the island of Madura. This river is countries beyond the tropios. Cryptogamous navigable all the year by small boats, and by plants are extensively multiplied ; mushrooms large ones in all the months except August, are abundant, and mosses cover the ground and September, and October, the last 3 months of invest the trunks and branches of trees. The the dry season. The second river in size is ferns are smaller in size than those below, and called by the natives the Brantas, but usually constitute the mass of the vegetation.-The by Europeans the river of Surabaya. It rises animal life of Java is as varied and abundant like the Solo in the low southern range of moun- as its vegetation. Of mammiferous animals tains, receives many affluents, and empties also alone it is said to have 100 species, several of by two months into the Madura strait, after pass- them peculiar to the island. There are 4 species ing by the city of Surabaya and contributing of monkey, a species of sloth not found elseto form its harbor.-The seasons in Java are where, and numerous species of bats, one of divided into the wet season or summer, which which called kalung is reinarkable for its size begins with October and ends with March, and and numbers. Wild feline animals are very the dry season or winter, which includes the numerous. The tiger, sirnilar to that of Bengal, rest of the year. The monsoons or periodical infests all the forests, and there are one large winds from the N. W. and S. E. are those and two small kinds of leopard, and also two of the southern hemisphere. Their setting in species of wild dogs, and two of wild hogs. is irregular, and even during their prevalence There is a species of rhinoceros peculiar to Java, there is sometimes dry weather in the wet sea- which is easily tamed and rendered very gentle. son and wet weather in the dry. At the equi- The buffalo and the ox exist in a wild state in noxes the weather is generally tempestuous, the forests, and there are 6 different species of and thunderstorms at that period are frequent deer. Among the domestic animals are the ox, the and sometimes destructive. The temperature buffalo, the horse, the goat, and a few sheep. Of of the island is equable, the thermometer in birds 176 species have been enumerated, among the lowlands seldom rising above 90° or falling them the peacock, partridge, quail, 10 different below 70°. Snow never falls even on the high- species of pigeon, 11 species of heron, and 2 of est mountain peaks, but in midwinter ice a few cuckoo. The minor bird, so apt in learning to lines thick is sometimes seen at great elevations, mimic human speech, is common, and the Java and the thermometer falls to 27°. At the height sparrow is too plentiful for the safety of the of 4,000 feet in the mountain valleys there is a rice crop which affords its favorite food. Birds delightful climate, healthful to the European of prey are numerous, including 8 species of constitution, and favorable to the growth of eagles and 7 of owls. Fish are plentiful along northern fruits and vegetables. The general the coast, but those of the rivers are of inferior climate of the island is in point of salubrity quality as food. Excellent oysters are abundant equal to that of any tropical country; and in on the N. coast, and prawns, from which a conplaces where malaria has formerly prevailed, as diment called trasi is prepared and largely conin Batavia and Cheribon, the evil has been sumed by the natives.—Though in reality Java clearly traced to the neglect of water courses, is wholly possessed by the Dutch, two native and has been ameliorated by proper attention to kingdoms, coinprising together not more than drainage. The metals found in Java are incon- 1 of the island, have been suffered to retain siderable in quantity and value, and no veins a nominal existence, under the control of the are worked. The botany of the island is very Dutch officials. These are the dominions of the rich. It is covered at all seasons with luxuriant senaan or emperor of Surakarta, and the sultan verdure, which spreads over the whole land, of Jokjokarta. The rest of the island is divided with the exception of a few mountain peaks of into 20 provinces, called residencies, each of lava and some small patches of sandy shore. them being governed by a Dutch official called The chief variety in the vegetation is caused by a resident. Six of these belong to the country the difference of the elevation. On the low of the Sundese, and 14 to that of the Javacoast are found superb palıns, bananas, aroids, nese. The principal cities are Batavia, the capamaranthacer, poisonous euphorbiacere, and pa- ital of the island, Bantam, Cheribon, Samapilionaceous legumes. At the height of 1,000 rang, Surabaya, Surakarta, and Jokjokarta.feet ferns preponderate, and magnificent forests The native population of Java comprises two of slender bamboos grow spontaneously. At a distinct nations, the Sundese and the Javagreater height are forests of fig trees, with tall nese. The Sundese occupy the W. end of the trunks, spreading branches, and thick foliage, island, and are greatly inferior in number to the and the ferns here increase in number and size, Javanese, and less advanced in civilization. and often grow to the height of several feet. They speak a distinct language. Both nations are of the Malayan race. They are generally coppersmith, the goldsmith, and the potter. about two inches shorter than the men of the Bricks and tiles are largely made. The carpenMongolian and Caucasian races, with round ters are skilful in house and boat building. They faces, wide mouths, high cheek bones, short make vessels of all sizes from 50 tons down to and small noses, and small, black, deep-seated fishing canoes, and under European superineyes. The complexion is brown with a shade tendence build large ships. The ordinary dwellof yellow, and is never black. The hair of the ings of the people are built of a rough frame head is thick, black, lank, and harsh, and is of timber, thatched with grass or palm leaves, either scanty or altogether wanting on other and with walls and partitions of split bamboo. parts of the body. A few short, straggling The Javanese excel all other nations of the hairs compose the beard. The people are not Malay archipelago in the working of metals. active, and make but poor runners or wrestlers. They are especially skilful in the manufacture They are described as a peaceable, docile, sober, of the national weapon, the kris or dagger, simple, and industrious people. Mr. Crawfurd, which is worn by every man and boy above 14 author of “A Descriptive Dictionary of the years as part of his ordinary costume, and by Indian Islands," who lived several years in many ladies of high rank. They make also Java, says: “From my own experience of them, excellent gongs of brass, and these with other I have no difficulty in pronouncing them the musical instruments of the same metal have most straightforward and truthful Asiatic peo- long been exported to the neighboring countries. ple that Ì have met with. The practice of The only native textile material woven by the running a muck, so frequent with the other cul- Javanese is cotton, of which they make only a tivated nations of the archipelago, is of very stout durable calico, and this is purely a domesrare occurrence with them." Java is one of tic manufacture, carried on exclusively by the the most densely peopled countries of the world, women. From raw silk imported from Ching the population by the census of 1856 amount the silkworm not being reared in Java, a coarse ing to 11,116,680, of whom 7,850,250 were cloth is woven also by the women. Paper of Javanese, 2,950,145 Sundese, 195,260 Chinese, the nature of the ancient papyrus is a manufac76,125 Malays, 15,250 Arabs, and 11,500 Bugi. ture peculiar to the Javanese. In science the nese from Celebes. The Europeans, who are people have made little progress, possessing only mostly Dutch, the ruling class in the island, a rude notion of astronomy and a slight knowlnumbered 18,150, including soldiers and half- edge of arithmetic. Their architecture at the breeds. The number of inhabitants to the present day hardly deserves the name, though square mile on the whole island is 222, but in the country abounds with remarkable remains some of the provinces the average is about 600. of temples built many centuries ago by the an-The Javanese are almost entirely occupied in cestors of the present inhabitants. Of the other agriculture. There is a small class of fishermen fine arts, music is the one in which they have on the N. coast, and a few artisans in the towns, made the greatest progress. They are passionbut the great bulk of the people live directly ately fond of it, and have generally fine musical or indirectly by the cultivation of the land, in ears. Their melodies are wild, plaintive, and which they have made greater progress than interesting, and more pleasing to the European any other Asiatic nation except the Chinese and ear than any other Asiatic music. They have Japanese. The chief crop is rice, of which wind and stringed instruments, but their best with the aid of irrigation, industriously and al- and most common instruments are drums and most universally applied, two crops are raised gongs. In religion the Javanese are Mobaniin a year. Lands that cannot be irrigated are medans, which faith was established by Arab used for growing pulses, oil-giving plants, cot- conquerors in the 15th century, and has almost ton, sugar cane, and tobacco; and on the moun- entirely displaced Brahminism and Buddhism, tain slopes, at an elevation of 2,000 or 3,000 the ancient religions of the country. The comfeet, coffee is cultivated. “In the most fertile merce of Java is carried on chiefly through the parts of Java," says Crawfurd, " and these from ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Surabaya. The the neighborhood of the high mountains are principal exports, with their respective values in usually also the most picturesque, the scenery 1856, are stated officially as follows: Coffee, $13,is at once agreeable and magnificent, and cer. 510,000; sugar, $8,500,000; rice, $2,250,000; intainly for grandeur and beauty excels all that digo, $1,720,000; spices, $525,000; tin, $2,110, I have seen even in Italy, that country which 000; pepper, $210,000; India rubber, $195,000; in summer bears the nearest resemblance to birds' nests, $250,000; total, $29,260,000. Beside Java. In such situations we have mountains these articles, cinnamon, tea, camphor, ratans 10,000 feet high, cultivated to half their height, and other products are exported in considerable the valleys below having all the appearance of quantities. The tea crop in 1859 amounted to a well watered garden, in which the fruit trees 1,841,182 lbs.--The most important feature of are so abundant as to conceal the closely packed Javanese society is the village, which forms a villages." The mechanic arts among the Java complete body politic, with considerable power nese are not so far advanced as their agriculture. of self-government. Its officers are elected by About 30 crafts are practised among them, of the people, and are charged with the collection which the principal are those of the blacksmith of the taxes and the maintenance of public order. or cutler, the carpenter, the sheath maker, the The general government of the island is intrust ed to a governor-general, appointed by the king Java” (2 vols. 4to., London, 1817) is a standard of Holland. He is commander-in-chief of the work. The natural history of Java has been army and navy, and possesses nearly absolute treated by O. L. Blume, Flora Javce necnon Inpower. Justice is administered to the European sularum Adjacentium (8 vols. fol., Brussels, inhabitants by a supreme court at Batavia, and 1826–'36), and by Dr. T. Horsfield in his " Zooby 3 provincial courts at Batavia, Samarang, logical Researches in Java and the Neighboring and Surabaya. There are beside these other Islands" (London, 1824). The German naturalcourts for the Asiatic population. · There are ist and explorer Junghuhn is the author of sevtwo newspapers, both subjected to a strict cen- eral works on the natural history and geography sorship.—The history of Java previous to the of Java, the most important of which was pub11th century of our era is involved in fable and lished in Amsterdam in 1850 (3d Germ. ed., obscurity. It is only certain that long before Leipsic, 1852). that period the Javanese had acquired a consid- JAVA, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF. It erable degree of civilization. About the 11th is not certain whether the name of Java be century, or, according to some conjectures, as connected with the Sanscrit Javana and Yavana, early as the 6th, Java was visited by the Hin- both of which, beside being related to lovia as doos, either as emigrants or conquerors, who names of Greece, also signify (especially the founded kingdoms and converted the natives to latter) Bactria, Arabia, and other foreign counBrahminism. The Hindoos and their religion tries, and, moreover, swift, horse, &c.; or remained dominant in the island from the end whether its etymon be of a different origin. As of the 13th to that of the 15th century, when regards the affinities of the Javanese language, Mohammedanism, which had for a century or Roorda considers it as a branch of the Malay. two been zealously propagated by Arabs, Per. Crawfurd derives it from the vernacular of the sians, Malays, and Hindoo Mohammedans, who aborigines, to whom he attributes the primitive came as merchants or settlers, gained a complete culture of the Malayan islands. Domeny de ascendency over Brahminism, Bantam, the last Rienzi supposes it to have arisen from the lanof the Hindoo states, was conquered in 1480. guage of the Bugis of Celebes, by an admixture In about a century after this event, Java was of Malay and Sanscrit. W. von Humboldt condivided into many independent states. About nects it, both as to words and grammar, with 1578 an ambitious chief raised himself to su- the Tagala, the most developed Malayan tongue preme power over nearly the whole island, and of the Philippine islands, as well as with other founded a dynasty which still exists in the small Malay idioms and with Sanscrit. Others see in kingdoms which are permitted by the Dutch to it a type of the unmixed tribes of Oceania. It remain in nominal independence. The Portu- certainly shows all these affinities, and contains guese visited Java in 1579, and entered into also some Arabic elements. The Javanese is commercial negotiations with the natives. The the most cultivated of all Polynesian languages, Dutch first came to Java in 1596 as traders. In owing to the very early intercourse of the island 1610 they obtained permission to build a fort with the continent of India, whose Aryan as near the site of the present city of Batavia. They well as Dravidan influence is attested by the soon became involved in war with the native presence of Malabaric words along with those rulers, and in 1677 obtained a considerable ter- from the Sanscrit, not only in Javanese, but ritory. From that period to 1830 they carried also in the idioms of Sumatra, Madagascar, &c. on 4 great wars with the natives, the first of Both religious and political revolutions have which lasted for 34 years; the second, which be- served to modify the condition of the languages. gan in 1718, lasted for 5 years; the third, which — There are four dialects, according to Raffles, on began in 1740, for 15 years; and the fourth, the three islands which form the linguistic group which began in 1825, for 5 years. The third in question, viz. : 1. The tongue of the mounwas begun Sept. 26, 1740, by a dreadful massa- taineers of Sunda, in the W. part of Java, E. of cre of the Chinese settlers at Batavia, of whom Tagal, probably vernacular through this whole 10,000 were killed in two days. In 1811 the region before the introduction of MohammedanBritish, being at war with Holland, then a por. ism, now spoken by about 1 of the population tion of the French empire, sent a fleet and army of the island; it contains many Malay and some against Java, which was conquered without Sanscrit words, stands in the same relation to much opposition and held till 1816, when it the principal language as the Welsh does to the was restored to Holland. Of late years the English, and is best spoken at Bantam, slugisland has rapidly advanced in population and gishly at Bogor and Chianjore, and verging to prosperity, and it is now one of the most flour- the Javanese at Cheribon. 2. The Javanese ishing of European colonies. By a decree of proper, E. of the last named city, extending the Dutch government, slavery was totally through the rest of the island, especially along abolished on Sept. 20, 1859, in all their colonies its N. shore; its words are long at Tagal, in India. It had never prevailed among the shorter at Samarang, full, short, and strong at native Javanese, and the number of slaves in the courts of Surakarta in the centre, and Jokthe island amounted only to a few thousands, jokarta in the south; it approaches the Madumostly natives of other islands of the archipel- rese at Surabaya, and the Balian at Banyuago and of Africa, and held by European mas. Vangi. 3. The dialect of Madura and Samaters.-Sir T. Stamford Raffles's “ History of nap, which has many Sunda words, with more of Malay, and with peculiar endings. 4. That to dwell, from griya, house. The insertion of of Bali, little different from the general Java- in is the sign of the passive voice. Substantives nese. This island preserves the ancient letters are also made by prefixing pem (pen, pe), denotas well as Brahminism, both expelled from Java ing an agent; thus: pem-pekto, carrier, from in the 15th century A. D. A sort of jargon, pekto, to carry; pen-dahar, eater, &c.; by preanalogous to the lingua franca, is spoken at fixing ka, a sign of the past participle: ka-belto, Batavia, being a medley of Dutch, Portuguese, Lat. allatum; by suffixing n (en, an) : bakt-en, Javanese, and Malay. Along with the preced- the carrying, dahar-an, Lat. cibus ; and by both ing there are also peculiar styles or idioms of prefix and suffix: ka-dahar-an, eatable. Artispeech, varying in accordance with social posi- cles, gender, and the dual number are wanting, tion and age, as the madhjo (intermediate), be- In the plural, cases are denoted by particles, and tween equals; the bása or bohoso-ngoko (lan- also by reduplication, as in the Japanese. The guage popular), to inferiors; the bása-kramo genitive relation is shown by the precedence of (language superior), urbane, court idiom, about the noun or by inserting ing. The other rela.
of it Sanscrit, used by poets as the speech of tions of case are indicated by means of verbs gods, heroes, and ghosts. As to locality, there The adjective is unchanged after the substarare also two vernacular idioms, viz.: the bása- tive. Pronominal forms are fewer than in Madalam of the interior, and the bása-luar, spoken lay: kita, we in Malay, means I in Javanese. along the shores,—The Kavi (learned, wise, The numerals are : 1, sidshi; 2, loro; 3, telu; poet) is the ancient sacred language of Java, 4, papat; 5, limo; 6, nem ; 7, pitu ; 8, colu; and consists of about 6 parts of Sanscrit, less 9, songngo; 10, sepuluh ; 11, savelas ; 12, colas, altered than in the Pali, to 4 of Javano-Malay. &c. Ordinals are formed by prefixing ping or It owes its origin to Brahminic immigration, kaping. The figures of numbers are modified about the beginning of our era. It is to the letters. The person, number, tense, mood, and Javanese what Sanscrit is to the Hindostanee, voice of verbs are indicated by certain particles and Pali to the Indo-Chinese languages. De- Many verbs and nouns are expressed by the clining in the 14th century, it took refuge in same word, others are distinguished as stated Bali, and was imperfectly known by the Pa- above. The suffixes of the imperative are & nambahan at Sumanap at the time when Raf- ono, en, enno. The following are examples of fles was in Java. Passages in the Kavi are & verb' in various forms : ningngalli, to see; sometimes quoted on peculiar occasions, as for passive, dhipun tingngalli, katingallan, &c.; instance in fables and dramas; the term itself kula tingngalli, I have seen; badě kula ting. is employed as a title of works, &c., such ngalli, I shall see; tinningngallam, to see one as Sekar-kavi, flowers of poetry, whence Seka- another; sampeyan tingngalli, see; kula tingrini, a Kavi meter; Rama-kavi, the Javanese ngallana, that I may see, &c. The construction Ramayana; Kavindhra, principal singer or poet is as follows: (named ma-kathā, narrator, in Tagala). A few
Rama kahula kang ronten ing surga, casta andika dedi
Roma tahu specimens of words may show the relation of Father our who art in heaven, came thy Det the Javanese to the common Malay, where the elapienno. difference, if not especially noted, is sometimes hallowed. more in the accent than otherwise : langit, As regards the shape and employment of letters heaven; tanah, earth (Mal. also benua, region); the graphic system is derived from the Derangayer (Jav, also banyu), water; laut (Jav, la gari, but not as regards their order, which is as hut), sea; dhina (Mal. hāri), day; bengi (Mal. follows: 'ha, na, tcha, ra, ka, da, ta, sa, ta, la, mālam), nigbt; vulan (Mal. būlan), moon; pa, da, dja, ya, nya, ma, ga, ba, ta, ng'e. These terang (Mal. trang), light; mati, to die; lulat 20 Akshara (letters) are consonants with an (Mal. käsih), to love; dara, virgin ; dhēva (Mal. adherent a in the general language, or o at the tuhan), god, lord; mangan (Mal. mäkan, san- courts of princes, which, when not suppressed, tap), to eat; båpa, pak (Mal. på, politely ayah)gives to the syllabarium the epithet of lagana. father; ma, bok (Mal. mà, amă, politely ibu, As many Pasangan (consonants) are vowellest, bonda), mother, &c. Compounds and deriva- 3 of them are annexed, the others subscribed tives abound, but the latter are more frequently to other letters. This peculiar succession of formed by suffixes than by prefixes, in which letters must have originated prior to that of the Tagala is very rich. There are many con- the organic scheme of the Devanagari, and it is tractions into tr, ngl, ngr, with the dropping explained by its signifying: “There were two of short vowels, together with the alteration of messengers, disputing, equally courageous, till the initial sound (similarly to the Celtic), and both died." The Akshara-Buddha, being allother variations which obscure the etymicorigin, cient, differ in form from the later Akshara-gell. thus : Sans, nātha, master, lord, becomes tata, Some Kavi letters are almost like those of the order, to reign; Jav, neda, to eat, teda, food; Sanscrit, while the more recent resemble the nulis, to write, tulis, scripture; nitik, to prove, square Pali. The vowels are called Sandange titik, proof. The prefix n denotes verbs, t sub- (connection), viz.: a, i, u, e, (almost French stantives; other changes are: nyatur, to tell, cha- muet), o, either used as initials or (except a) attur, tale; nyerrat, to write, serrat, writing, &c. tached to the consonants instead of the inherent The doubling of the first syllable makes verbs, a. The diacritic signs are analogous to those of as tutulung, to help, from tulung, aid; gagriya, the Devanagari. There are also characters for