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at the stake in Paris, Lyons, Angers, Blois, ter Margaret to the duke of Savoy. During the and Bordeaux. By his edicts of Châteaubriant festivities which were held in Paris to celebrate (1551) and Ecouen (1553) the punishment of the peace and the double marriage, Henry II. death was decreed for attendance at secret re- was mortally wounded in a tilt with Montgomligious meetings. In 1557 ecclesiastics, under ery, the captain of his guards, and his sceptre the title of inquisitors, were introduced into passed to his eldest son, Francis II., the husband the parliaments to sit as judges in all cases of Mary, queen of Scots. against heretics. Finally, in 1559, two mem- HENRY III., the last king of the Valois fambers of the parliament of Paris, Du Faur de Pi- ily, born in Fontainebleau, Sept. 19, 1551, assasbrac and Anne Du Bourg, having been bold sinated Aug. 2, 1589. He was the 3d son of Henenough to advocate in his presence the liberty ry II., and the favorite of his mother, Catharine of conscience, were incarcerated, and Du Bourg de' Medici, and in his youth bore the title of was afterward publicly hanged and burned. duke of Anjou. Being placed at the head of the These bloody measures were the forerunners of Catholic army in the reign of Charles IX., he religious wars. Henry's foreign policy was par- won, in 1569, the victories of Jarnac and Montially successful. The English, who were then contour over the Protestants. He participated in alliance with the emperor Charles V., were in the councils that brought about the St. Bar- · desirous of securing the union of Scotland by tholomew massacre in 1572. His military repthe marriage of young Edward VI. with Mary utation, aided by his mother's intrigues, proStuart; French troops were sent to Scotland, cured his election to the throne of Poland in and Mary was brought to France and affianced 1573; but his refined and effeminate habits were to the dauphin Francis. Meanwhile the city distasteful to the Poles, while he himself disof Boulogne was besieged, and England gave it liked their independent spirit and coarse manup in 1549, for one third of the sum which had ners. On hearing of the death of his brother been stipulated for its surrender. In Italy, Charles IX. in 1574, he secretly escaped and Henry protected Ottavio Farnese, duke of Par- returned to France, passing through Vienna ma, against the imperial troops, and in 1552 be- and Venice. His arrival was marked by the came the ally of Maurice of Saxony and the renewal of civil war. The Protestant party, other Protestant princes who were struggling being strengthened by their alliance with to throw off the yoke of Charles V., and soon that party of Catholics known as the Poliafter seized the episcopal cities of Metz, Toul, tiques, had taken up arms; their German and Verdun. Charles, having concluded the auxiliaries were however defeated at Dortreaty of Passau with his German opponents, mans, Oct. 11, 1575, by the duke of Guise; tried to reconquer those cities, and in 1553 made and the king, fearful of the growing popularity a fruitless attack upon Metz, which was de- of that prince, hastened to conclude the peace fended by François de Guise, and avenged his of Beaulieu, in May, 1576, the terms of which defeat by pillaging Picardy, but was once more were so favorable to the Protestants as to be defeated at Renty in 1554. The French at the considered a betrayal of the Catholic cause. same time were successful in Italy, where Bris. This gave rise to the holy league, which, under sac conquered Savoy and Piedmont. Charles. pretence of protecting religion, aimed chiefly at having abdicated in favor of his son Philip II., furthering the ambitious designs of the house a 5 years' truce was signed at Vauxcelles in Feb. of Guise. Henry attempted to avert the dan1556. Henry II., however, soon renewed the ger by declaring himself chief of the league war, but fortune did not now attend his arms; during the session of the states-general, which the duke of Guise was foiled in his attempt met at Blois in Dec. 1576; but the association against the kingdom of Naples by the superior clung faithfully to Guise as their leader, and ability of the duke of Alva, and the constable made use of their majority in the states to curMontmorency was totally defeated near St. tail the prerogatives of the king and force him Quentin, in 1557, by Duke Philibert Emmanuel into another war against the Protestants. After of Savoy. Had Philip II. improved the oppor- reluctantly carrring it on for a few months, he tunity, Paris would have been taken ; but his put an end to it by the treaty of Bergerac, delay gave time to his rival to make prepara- Sept. 17, 1577, and tried by conciliatory meastions for defence; and Guise, being recalled ures to win over the most influential of the from Italy, revenged the disgrace of Montmo- Catholics. This policy was of little avail; the rency's defeat by the conquest of Calais in 1558, "lovers' war," as it is called, broke out, which the only place that the English still possessed he however succeeded in bringing to an early on French soil. The Spanish troops under Eg- conclusion by the treaty of Fleix, Nov. 26, 1580. mont, however, having won a new victory, A momentary lull occurred; but the king beHenry II., weary of war and yielding to the came more and more unpopular by his unboundentreaties of his mistress, concluded, April 3, ed licentiousness and prodigality. On the death 1559, the disastrous peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. of his younger brother, the duke of Alençon, by He kept indeed Calais, Metz, Toul, and Verdun, which the succession to the crown reverted to but consented to restore all his conqnests in the Protestant Henry of Navarre, the spirit of Italy and the Netherlands, including no fewer the league rekindled; the association extended than 198 strong places. Henry's daughter Eliz- all over the provinces, and became more forabeth was to be married to Philip, and his sis- midable than ever; the majority of the nation
was indeed adverse to accepting as heir appar- performed on Aug. 17, 7 days before the masent a prince who was not a Catholic. Henry sacre of St. Bartholomew. A number of emiIII., although not sharing this popular preju- nent Huguenots had congregated in Paris to dice, was obliged to go to war with his future participate in the matrimonial festivities, and successor, and assembled 4 armies. By thus in- were slaughtered during the bloody night of creasing its burdens he hoped to make the nation Aug. 24. Henry himself, a prisoner in the weary of the contest, while he exerted his in- Louvre, saved his life by abjuring his faith. genuity to make such combinations as would For nearly 4 years he was detained at court, thwart the projects of the league. His favorite strictly watched, dissembling his real sentiJoyeuse, however, was defeated by the king of ments under the cover of levity. At last, Feb. Navarre at Coutras in 1587, and his own un- 2, 1576, he succeeded in making his escape, took popularity increased, the league making him refuge first in Alençon, then crossed the Loire answerable for the reverses which befell the at the head of a number of his adherents, reCatholic party. On all sides he was denounced voked his abjuration, took command of the as a traitor, and his deposition was publicly ad- Protestant troops, and successfully carried on vocated. The duke of Guise was recalled to hostilities against the Catholics, which brought Paris by his adherents, and, notwithstanding about the peace of Beaulieu, May 4, 1576. The repeated orders from the king, triumphantly states-general at Blois having issued coercive entered the capital. Henry having summoned decrees against the Huguenots, Henry took up troops for his own defence, the Parisians raised arms again, but peace was concluded at Bera formidable rebellion; barricades were con- gerac, Sept. 17, 1577. On the breaking out of the structed, May 13, 1588; and the king barely "lovers' war" in 1580, of which he gave the escaped from his ambitious rival. He immedi signal, and was indeed the soul, he inspired his ately convoked the states-general at Blois, in the adherents with confidence and ardor, and achope of finding support among them; but the complished deeds of heroic valor at the siege of majority was still against him; his life and Cahors, which city he stormed after a tremencrown were at stake; he resorted to violent dous fight of 4 days' duration. He thus gained means, and on Dec. 23, 1588, caused the duke of a high position, not only among his own party, Guise to be murdered in his own apartment by his but in the eyes of his opponents. The death of body guards, the “forty-five." This was a new his mother in 1572 had left him king of Navarre, incentive to the league. Henry, branded as an and on the death of the duke of Alençon, or assassin, anathematized by the pope, deposed rather of Anjou, youngest brother of Henry III., by decrees of the Sorbonne and the parliament, June 10, 1584, he became heir apparent to the had no other resource but to unite with Henry French crown. He was then 31 years of age. of Navarre, and both marched in concert against Deserted by Henry III., who yielded to the parParis, the principal seat of the league. During amount influence of the duke of Guise, prothe siege of that city, a Dominican monk, scribed by the Catholic party and the league as Jacques Clément, whose fanaticism had been en- a heretic, excommunicated by Pope Sixtus V., couraged by Guise's own sister, the duchess of his cause seemed desperate; but although bis Montpensier, presented himself at St. Cloud to troops scarcely numbered one tenth as many as the king as the bearer of an important letter, the Catholic army, he soon took the field with and stabbed him mortally with a knife. With his wonted courage. The victory of Coutras, Henry III. the Valois family became extinct, and Oct. 20, 1587, greatly bettered his fortunes, althe Bourbons ascended the throne of France. though it was followed by the defeat of several
HENRY IV., the 1st French king of the auxiliary troops sent to him by the German house of Bourbon, born at the castle of Pau, Dec. princes. The journée des barricades, when Henry 14, 1553, assassinated in Paris, May 14, 1610. III. was compelled to flee from Paris and to The son of Antoine of Bourbon and Jeanne leave his metropolis in the hands of the rebeld'Albret, queen of Navarre, he was brought up lious duke of Guise, brought about a reconciliaby his mother in the Protestant religion, carefully tion between the kings of France and Navarre, educated, and inured to hardship. As early as who united their forces to oppose the league, 1569 she took him to the Protestant army before and in concert laid siege to the capital. The La Rochelle, and placed him under the control assassination of Henry III. greatly increased the of Admiral Coligni. He was present at the difficulties of Henry of Navarre. He was at once battles of Jarnac and Moncontour, both disas- deserted by the Catholic nobles who supported trous to his party. He distinguished himself in the cause of his predecessor, but who, notwiththe military operations in southern France, standing their devotion to royalty, would not which were terminated by the peace or edict of accept a Protestant king; the league at the St. Germain in 1570. The seeming reconcilia- same time raised against him his uncle, the tion of the Protestant and Catholic parties was cardinal of Bourbon, whom they proclaimed to be sealed by the marriage of young Henry king under the title of Charles X.; and the with Margaret, the sister of King Charles IX.; nation itself evinced no partiality for Henry. it was agreed to in April, 1572, and notwith- He was obliged to raise the siege of Paris, was ing the sudden and unexpected death of Jeanne pursued through Normandy by the duke of of Navarre, which occurred in June under very Mayenne, and seemed to be in imminent danger, suspicious circumstances, the ceremony was when he thwarted the hopes of his enemies by his heroic stand near the castle of Arques; not- ceived a better organization, while strong forwithstanding their large superiority in point of tresses were built along the N. and E. frontiers; numbers, they were obliged, Oct. 6, 1589, to the navy, which had been neglected, was imbeat a retreat, leaving from 1,000 to 1,200 men proved, and attention was paid to the French on the battle field. Henry, quickly returning colonies in America. In short, improvements to Paris, seized its suburbs, but could not take were made in every branch of the public serpossession of the city itself for want of artillery. vice. The ambitious aspirations of provincial Another and still more decisive victory over governors were effectually checked; political Mayenne, that of Ivry, which he won March 14, conspiracies were severely punished; municipal 1590, once more opened before him the road franchises and immunities, that had been reviv. to the capital, which he blockaded for several ed or extended during the civil wars, were curmonths, and had reduced to the last extremities, tailed; and obedience to the king became the when it was relieved by the approach of a Span- order of the day. After the death of his celeish army under Alexander Farnese, duke of brated mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées, having proParma. For two years longer the war was cured the dissolution of his former marriage carried on with varied success, Henry being with Margaret of Valois, Dec. 1599, Henry more than once worsted by his opponents, bat, married Maria de' Medici, the piece of the grand amid the most trying circumstances, showing duke of Tuscany, which secured his influence such perseverance, ingenuity, and valor as to among the Italian princes. A short war with uphold the drooping spirits of his followers. A the duke of Savoy put him (1601) in possession favorable change in his fortunes became appar- of several valuable districts on the E. frontier. ent during the year 1593. Discord prevailed A formidable conspiracy having been plotted among his enemies; the ambitious designs of by the duke of Bouillon and the count of AuPhilip II. of Spain, who openly manifested his vergne, in conjunction with Marshal Biron, desire of placing his daughter on the throne of who also maintained secret relations with Spain France, inspired the French Catholics, and even and Savoy, Henry had his old companion in the leaguers, with distrust and anger. A better arms arrested, tried before the parliament, and feeling grew up among the people, who, being beheaded, July 31, 1602 A few years later, weary of so protracted a war, instinctively the count of Auvergne, having engaged in new leaned toward the prince from whom alone intrigues, was incarcerated in the Bastile; and peace could be expected. Every thing showed the duke of Bouillon, the constant promoter of him that the time had come for a decisive step; rebellions among the Protestants, was dispos. and he therefore abjured Protestantism at sessed of his principality of Sedan, and would St. Denis in July, 1593, and was crowned at even have lost his life but for Queen Elizabeth's Chartres, Feb. 17, 1594. Thus the strongest entreaties. His power being thus firmly estabobstacle in his way was removed; the majority lished, he resumed the political designs of Fran. of the nation at once sided with bim. Paris cis I. and Henry II., allied himself with German surrendered, March 22, and within a few months Protestant princes, and made preparations for most of the Catholic governors of the provinces a fresh war against the house of Austria. It is and cities also submitted. Mayenne still held even said that he aimed at nothing short of an Burgundy with the assistance of Spanish troops; entire reorganization of Europe, which, accordbut the great constable of Castile having been ing to his plans, would have formed a kind of defeated at Fontaine-Française, June 5, 1595, “Ohristian commonwealth or confederation," negotiations were entered into, and the duke, consisting of 15 large states 5 hereditary swearing allegiance to Henry, kept the gov- monarchies, 6 elective kingdoms, and 4 republics ernorship of the province. Picardy was mean- -under the direction of a supreme council, while in the hands of Spain, against which called the “senate of the Christian commonwar had been formally declared; the king led wealth.” However this may have been, he his army against Amiens, and, notwithstand was on the eve of leaving. Paris to take the ing the presence of the Spanish army under command of the French army in the north, the archduke Albert, forced that city to capit- when, while taking a ride through Paris, May ulate (1597), and the next year brought to sub- 14, 1610, he was stabbed to the heart by the mission the duke of Mercæor, who had here fanatic François Ravaillac. His death was retofore acted as an independent sovereign in garded as a national calamity. Henry's chilBrittany, France was now wholly under his dren, by his second wife, were Louis XIII., control; he gave her peace at home by the who succeeded him; Gaston, duke of Orleans; celebrated edict of Nantes, April 15, 1598, and Elizabeth, who married Philip IV. of Spain; abroad by the treaty of Vervins with Spain, Christine, who became duchess of Savoy; and May 2. Henry now perseveringly parsned the Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I. of Engpolicy of restoring order and prosperity to his land. César, his natural son by Gabrielle kingdom, strengthening the royal authority, and d'Estrées, was the founder of the house of Venplacing France in a respectable position abroad. dôme, and grandfather of the celebrated duke In this laborious task he was especially assisted who distinguished himself under Louis XIV. by the dake of Sully. Agriculture, mining, The high capacities of Henry IV., as well as his commerce, and manufactures were encouraged; shortcomings and " amiable faults,” have always roads were opened and repaired; the army re- been well known; it is but recently, however,
that his ready wit and charming style have be- HENRY II., emperor of Germany, greatcome fully appreciated from the publication of grandson of the preceding, surnamed the Lame. his Lettres missices. This correspondence, which and in a subsequent age the Saint, born in 972, will consist of 9 vols. 4to., the 7th of which died in 1024. He was the 5th and last German appeared in 1858, is published by M. Berger de sovereign of the line of Saxony. He became Xivrey in the Documents inédits sur l'histoire duke of Bavaria in 995, succeeded his cousin de France.
Otho III. upon the imperial throne in 1002, and III. GERMANY.
was crowned at Rome in 1014. His reign was HENRY I., king of Germany, surnamed the an uninterrupted series of contests with his Fowler or Falconer (der Finkler or Vogler), great vassals, and against Slavic tribes and the the 1st of the line of Saxon sovereigns of Ger- Hungarians, whom he labored with much sucmany, born in 876, died in 936. He was the cess to convert to Christianity. His zeal in the son of Otho the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, propagation of the faith, his submission to the upon whose death he succeeded to the duke- church, and his liberality to the clergy, obdoms of Saxony and Thuringia. His father had tained for him from Pope Eugenius III. a place been elected in 912 to the sovereignty of Ger- in the calendar of saints. His surname of the many, but had caused Conrad, duke of the Lame was gained by spraining a foot in leaping Franks, to be elevated in his stead. This sov- from a window to escape an attack by the peoereign undertook to deprive Duke Henry of part ple of Pavia, whose affection he thought to win of his inherited estates, but the latter fought by dismissing his principal body guard after his his enemy at Eresburg (modern Stadberg), and reduction of the city (1004). He was rescued compelled him to acknowledge all the ducal by his troops, encamped outside the walls. rights of Saxony and Thuringia. Conrad dis- HENRY III., emperor of Germany, surnamed covered the great qualities of his opponent, and, the Black, the Bearded, the Old, and the Pious, having been mortally wounded in an expedition born in 1017, died in 1056. He was the son and against the Hungarians, sent overtures to Henry successor of the emperor Conrad II., having with the sacred arms and crown of the German been elected during his father's life. He sucsovereigns. The envoys, it is said, found the ceeded accordingly in 1039. No emperor.since duke in the Hartz mountains, with a falcon Charlemagne sustained himself with more vigor upon his wrist, and this, according to tradition, or dignity throughout his reign. He repeatedly was the origin of his surname. Henry's elec- and successfully interfered in the affairs of Hantion was formally declared in 919, by the nobles gary, and a portion of that country (from Kahof Franconia and Saxony. The dukes of Swa- lenburg to the Leitha) was definitively united bia and Bavaria refused their homage, but were to Austria. Three claimants at this time were speedily brought to submission. Henry also contesting the papal tiara. Henry summoned conquered Lorraine, which had hesitated to ac- a council at Sutri in 1046, deposed them all, and cept him. He erected the fief into a duchy, created a German bishop of Bamberg (Suidger) giving his daughter in marriage to Duke Gisel- pope, under the title of Clement II. He subsebert; and having thus consolidated the sover- quently gave 3 successive German popes to Rome, eignty of Germany, he turned all his attention reserving to himself a thorough control of the to arresting the Slavic and Hungarian inroads. spiritual administration. The temporal princes The Hungarians advanced into the very heart he held at the same time in actual subjection, of Saxony (924). Their leader was captured; transforming the German empire into a mon. and the best terms Henry could obtain was a archy of which the elected sovereign was absotruce of 9 years in exchange for the restoration lute ruler. He promoted education, and enof the captured general, and a promise of the couraged art and science. He obtained the continuance of the yearly tribute. Henry made admiration of his subjects by challenging Henry the most of the truce by organizing his army, I. of France to mortal combat, for having acbuilding castles, fortifying cities, and reducing cused him of breaking his word. His first Brandenburg, together with the tribes upon the wife was daughter of Canute, king of England. Eider and the Elbe, and extending his rule to HENRY IV., emperor of Germany, son of Prague. From this period dates the fealty of the preceding, born in 1050, died in 1106. He the Bohemian princes to Germany (929). On was but little over 5 years old when his fa. the expiration of the truce war with the lun- ther died, and the regency was at first intrastgarians was renewed, and Henry gained a com- ed to his mother, Agnes of Aquitaine; but her plete and decisive victory on the banks of the authority was overthrown by the nobles, and Saale (933), which for the time relieved Germany she retired to Rome, while Henry was taken from all danger of invasion. In 934 he defeated to Cologne by the archbishop Hanno. Shortly the Danes, who were ravaging the coasts of his afterward he became the pupil and ward of northern provinces. He reigned 18 years, and Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen, from whom he during that period elevated the kingdom to the imbibed principles of hostility against the temheight of power and command. He was the poral lords, especially those of Saxon descent, terror of enemies, but mild, just, and kind to which embittered his whole reign. At 15 he friends and subjects. The municipal privileges was declared of age, and in the following year which he granted were the foundation of the (1066) was removed by the nobles from the imGermanic corporations.
mediate control of Adalbert. The counsel and
instructions of the archbishop, however, were and Henry found himself able to make war. never forgotten, and Henry soon manifested & Rudolph was forced to retire from Swabia, hatred of the Saxons by acts of oppression and which duchy, together with the hand of his violence. He had already espoused Bertha, the daughter Agnes, Henry bestowed upon a bold daughter of an Italian prince of Sasa, and now adherent, Count Frederic of Buren, who soon sought to be divorced from her. The pope built his castle on the summit of Mt. Staufen, and manifested opposition, and Henry, after vainly founded thus the greatness of the race of Hohenresorting to unworthy means for the accom- staufen. The war raged fiercely meanwhile plishment of his wishes, at length, with charac- in the fairest regions of Germany. The pope, teristic instability, became reconciled to his not sorry to find the rival emperors consuming young wife, whose noble conduct subsequently their strength against each other, is supposed to won and retained his affection. Meanwhile the have fostered the quarrel for his own purposes. exasperated nobles of Saxony rose against the At length, reproached by the Saxons in terms emperor, drove him from his favorite abode which seemed to brook no further delay, he at Goslar, and successively from other Saxon sent the crown to Rudolph, and again excomstrongholds which he had built. Henry was municated Henry. The latter, in turn, again compelled to seek safety in flight, and for declared the pope deposed, and caused an anti3 days wandered in the Hartz without food. pope, Clement III., to be elected. At this period Under the guidance of a mountaineer, he at (1079) fortune appeared to favor Henry; but length escaped to the Rhine, assembled an in the following year he lost a great battle in army, defeated the Saxons, and desolated their Saxony, near Gera. In the action, however, country with fire and sword. Other princes of Rudolph was slain by Godfrey of Bouillon, thé the empire now interfered, and the Saxon no- hero of the first crusade. The fall of Rudolph, bles, after public humiliation upon their knees, although the victory was won by his army, was were admitted to mercy. Many of them, how- considered a judgment of God, and the effect ever, were retained as prisoners, and their fiefs was to enlist an immense increase of numbers were made over to other vassals. Henry re- in the service of Henry, who now marched built his Saxon fortresses, and by his arrogance upon Rome, and besieged it with short intervals and extortion planted anew the seeds of revolt. during 3 years. Gregory, in great extremity, Meanwhile he was suddenly commanded by retreated into the castle of St. Angelo, and Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) to appear at Henry contented himself with a coronation by Rome to answer for crimes laid to his charge, his own pope, Clement (1084). Robert Guisupon penalty of excommunication. Henry's card, the Norman duke of Calabria, at length indignation vented itself for the moment in a approached from lower Italy, and Henry remissive addressed to the “false monk Hilde- tired, leaving Rome to be plundered by the brand," informing him of his deposition by the Normans, and Gregory to be rescued by them German prelates (Worms, 1076), and of his ex- from his own people, who had laid siege to the communication by judgment of the same as- castle. Hermann of Luxemburg succeeded Rusembly. The pope immediately issued sentence dolph in the rival emperorship, and Victor sucof excommunication. Henry soon learned the ceeded Gregory in the rival papacy (1085); but necessity of submission. Deserted and threat neither conld withstand the power of Henry. ened by the majority of the German princes, he Hermann soon resigned his dignity, and his suchastened to Italy, accompanied by his wife and cessor, Egbert of Thuringia, having been assasa single attendant, and humbled himself before sinated, the Saxons submitted. Henry's eldest the pope in the most penitential manner. Clad son, Conrad, whom he had named. king of the in a shirt of hair, and barefooted, he was com- Romans, was now gained over by the papal pelled, it is said, to pass 3 whole days in an outer party. He was deposed, and died in 1101. His court of the castle of Canossa, in midwinter, defection was followed by that of his brother awaiting Gregory's permission to appear before Henry, who, in view of the renewal of the papal him. On the 4th day he was admitted and re- ban against his father by both Urban and Pasceived absolution. With this, after finding ad- cal, who had in turn succeeded Victor, resolved herents among the Lombards, his courage and to support the church. He affected reconciliaresentment alike revived. He began a war with tion, however, and the emperor, having been the sword and with the pen, which for 30 years treacherously seized and carried prisoner to Inhe sustained with the greatest skill and determi- gelheim, was compelled by the prince to resign nation, and in which for the most part he main- his throne. Henry escaped from prison, and tained the ascendency. Such were the opening sought an asylum at Liége, where he soon died. scenes of the long and violent contest concern- HENRY V., emperor of Germany, surnamed ing investitures—à conflict between state and the Young, second son of the preceding, born in church which was destined to rage for half a 1081, died in Utrecht, May 22, 1125. His filial century, and which, subsequently resumed, was ingratitude and treachery are noticed in the protracted until 1268. During Henry's absence account of Henry IV., whom he succeeded in the German princes had deposed him, and elect- 1106. Notwithstanding his revolt against his ed Rudolph of Swabia, in a diet at Forcheim father, he acted from the outset of his reign ac(March, 1077); but there were yet cities and cording to the principles of the late emperor, bishoprics in Germany which remained faithful, and in defiance of the pope he claimed the right