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would be, that the shipowners, the ship- upon the causes of the vice and misery, the builders and fitters, the importers and ex- cruelty and neglect which so degrade this porters, the merchants, are nearest to the humble but most important class of our citiwork. Let them take hold of it at once, zens. It is a disgrace to our merchants; it as an important educational measure, and as is a stain upon our country; it is a blot upon affecting the character of that class on whom, the face of our claim to Christianity and in case of war, the defense of our vast coast civilization. must in a great degree depend. It should be It will be thought that I have spoken too liberally assisted by the State. It should be severely of the character of our shipmasters. directed by the Chamber of Commerce, or I have not a word to take back, not an episome other mercantile organization of the thet to modify. I re-assert the truth of such ports with which it is connected.

instances of tyranny as, while writing, I have I would urge such associations also to been reminded of. I know that I could form rules for the provisioning of ships, and bring proof to a court to-morrow of much regulations for improving the circumstances more infamous cases than any of them, that and securing manly treatment to the sailor yet wholly escape the vigilance of law, and whose ship hails from their port, and to en- with which public opinion does never troudeavor to have those who disregard these ble itself. rules disgraced, and those who evade or But no man more highly appreciates the break the laws of the nation on this subject many noble qualities that distinguish the detected and punished.

great number of these men. No one is I hope my readers are ready to pardon more ready to pardon them and see their the strong personal interest which has de- excusability for that which is detestable in tained me so long on this subject. I know them. It is hardly necessary, I hope, to add it is not one of the most general public inter- also that there are many exceptions to the est ; but the very apathy and ignorance general character; men who have in all common with regard to it, require me to respects conquered and risen superior and make the most of every fitting opportunity uncontaminated from the midst of the influof stirring up reflection and urging action ences I have explained. For them, no one upon it. "I care not for any particular plan, can have a deeper respect or more sincere only that public opinion be brought to bear friendliness than I.

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I scarce can hear the curlew call,

And find me lying fast asleep,
I scarce can feel the night-wind's breath; Be inspiration round him thrown,
I only see the shadows fall,

That he may dig down very deep,
I only feel this chill is death.

Where never any sunshine shone.
My life has been unbroken gloom,

No friend my dying hour will see-
Oh, wherefore should he ask for room

In consecrated ground for me?

OUR GENERAL REVIEW.

AN ABSTRACT AND BRIEF CHRONICLE OF THE TIME.

FRANCE.

this many a day! And he hopes to sucore): Loris Napoleon is apparently of one mind he hopes to awaken once more the Napoleonie with that Irish servant who, having received enthusiasm of the masses, and be borne into notice to leave from his master, said: “ If you power by the force of their ignorant instinction don't know when you have a good servant, I He certainly inherits his uncle's contemptuous know when I have got a good place; and I will opinion of French human nature; and history not go !” The Prince is resolved to be re- seems to declare that a good deal of that coelected to his presidency against the express temptuous opinion was richly merited. It terms of the Constitution. He knows that it was disgraceful to the Frenchmen of a bygone he goes down now

generation that, having done so much in the

naine of freedom, they should basely lie down “ If he falls now, he falls like Lucifer,

and let a victorious little homicide trampk Never to rise again.”

them and their liberties into the mud, and A few months ago, he made a strong effort to then satisfy their souls with military bulletins. push the Constitution out of his way—to If, after the despotic manæuvres of Louis Nsabolish it, and get another framed of a more poleon, the people will still raise him to the accommodating nature. But the National President's chair or any other seat, then the Assembly defeated his purpose. He then judgment of the world must be reversed after perceived that, ever since his election to the all, and the Bonapartes acquitted of all blanie President's chair, he had been miscalculating for keeping down so worthless and miserable his chances. During that time he had en- a people. forced the system of reaction, and allied him

“Ay, down to the dust with them, slaves as they are." self with the party of “order” and conservatism. But, in so doing, he had violently The resignation of the Ministry, which took offended the sense of that moderate republic place towards the close of last month, seemeu anism which is powerful in France by his to embarrass the President. But his organs high-handed suppression of the liberty of the preserved a confident tone, and a new Minpress. This republicanism includes Changar- istry was announced, after several ineffectual nier, Cavaignac and other leading men, as attempts to construct one. The names of this well as the Assembly; and against these Louis Ministry are strange, and have no meaning to Napoleon found himself feebly backed by the foreign ears; but it is stated that the majority reactionists. In this predicament, he bethinks of them are disposed to aid in repealing tlie himself of another violent resource-nothing law of May, 1849. The Committee of Perless than the repeal of the law of May, 1849, manence, which the National Assebly has by which he himself helped to abolish uni- left in session during its own prorogation, is versal suffrage! By this law, he fancied he keeping strict watch on the progress of events. had broken the power of the democracy he In this committee sit Generals Caraignae, detests, and at the same time secured the ad- Changarnier, Bedeau, and other influential hesion of the bourgeoisie and what is called the men opposed to the policy of the President, party of order. But his plans were baffled; and deeply impressed with the importance of and now, perceiving that his chance of re- the present crisis. The Legitimists are, in election is lost, if he cannot appeal to the this matter, on the side of the Republicans; masses that made him President for his name's they hold themselves ready to thwart the sake, he resolves, without hesitation and ambition of Louis Napoleon in any attempt without a blush, to beat down a law which at supreme power. Such is the deplorable incommodes his ambition, and to open once condition of the French nation; its Governmore the popular flood-gates! The desperate ment a loose, ricketty, uncertain despotism, ambition of the man is indicated by such a tottering upon the verge of insurrection, and policy as this. Rather than not trample on ready to be swept away, at a week's warning, the Constitution and remain in his high place, in one more tempest of blood and gunpowder. he belies and repudiates his own policy of the Can it be possible that the Legitimist orator, last two or three years, and embraces that Berryer, is right, after all, when he veheuniversal suffrage monster at which he has mently exclaims that the French are not fit been backing with his sword or truncheon I for republicanism; that monarchy is the form

KOSSUTH IN ENGLAND.

of government which best suits the genius of the Austrians; from which we may see that that gallant and theatrical people? Political Kossuth was still a conqueror at Kutayah. prophets have declared that France will not | But we have no doubt the reporters in his be a republic in six months. The eyes of case did for him something of what reporters Europe are pretty steadily fixed on France do for every pablic speaker-saving Daniel just now. It is stated, on authority, that the Webster or Henry Clay. Nevertheless, KosEmperor of Austria, being rather low in suth's speeches at Southampton exhibited a funds, would reduce his army considerably, good deal of the earnest, ardent, in but hesitates to do so till the French crisis Governor of Hungary. The Times and Mornshall have shown itself less threatening. Ating Chronicle (London) newspapers are forethe first sound of insurrection in France, the most among the few who ridicule or denounce other peoples of the continent would fall to Kossuth ; but their reporters have given him the old barricading business. And so the pretty fairly. The gentleman of the Times despots are standing to their arms.

says that his bluish-gray eyes reminded him of O'Connell's. When " God save the Queen” had been played, Kossuth came forward bare-headed, and said: “It is a glorious

sight to Behold a queen on the throne repreKossuli, though a wandering man, has not senting the principle of liberty.” He then ceased to dó remarkable things. He seems to called for three cheers for her. Kossuth is be still waging the war of Ilungary, and indeed not that rash, uncalculating man people would not without a considerable degree of success. have us believe. The Mayor in his robes, For a short time, people in this country were and surrounded by the Corporation, addressed under the impression that he had quarrelled him in a very fine strain, linking the name of with the officers of the ship Mississippi on the Hun with the kindred names of Sydney, the passage to Gibraltar ; but the arrival of Hampden and Washington. How miserably that vessel in this country has put an end to the name and character of a Louis Napoleon that misapprehension, the officers having de- shrink in comparison with this iminortal clared that nothing of an unfriendly nature brotherhood! In his reply to the address, took place between Kossuth and themselves. Kossuth showed how well he understood the These slanders, therefore, of some Austrian old principle of liberty which has lived through tool have been utterly extinguished. Having the English Constitution for a thousand years, arrived at Gibraltar, and finding that the and which bears its “bright consummate orders of the Mississippi did not permit her flower" upon our own soil. He spoke of the to go out of her course in the direction of old county and municipal federations of EngEngland, Kossuth, his family, and a few of land, existing (the first, at least) in the Saxon his suite embarked in the Madrid, and reached times; recognized them as the guaranties of Southampton on the 23d of October. public liberty in both hemispheres, and con

The reception of Kossuth by the munici- trasted them with the fatal principles of cenpality and public of Southampton was very tralization obtaining in France and other enthusiastic and even affectionate, the warmth countries. Ile expressed himself full of graof feeling on the occasion being naturally titude for the interference of England in his enhanced by the appearance of his wife and case, and full of hope for Hungary and the three children-two boys and a girl, the eld- world from "Britannia” and the "young est about fourteen. From the moment of his giant" of the other hemisphere. If England landing, the Magyar patriot displayed to his will really merit the ardent enlogy pronounced gratified audiences an accomplishment for upon her by Kossuth, she would indeed be which they were not entirely prepared: he ! queenly and glorious among the powers of made speeches in English. During his im- the world. prisonment in Asia Minor, he was sedulously On the 24th, Kossuth was entertained at learning our language, and was fond of re- the house of Mayor Andrews at Winchester. freshing his studies by the perusal of Shak- On the way to that place, the Hungarian was speare. And so, when he first addressed the an object of great interest with the English crowd at the house of the Mayor of South- peasantry and artizans, who grasped his hand ampton with, “I

you will excuse my bad whenever they could. One honest ow, English. Seven weeks back I was a prisoner electrified out of his English sobriety by the in Kutayah, now I am a free man," he was mere look of M. Kossuth, came forward to cheered as much for his correct syntax and inform him that he (John) was a laboring man intonation as any thing else. But he con- and a patriot, whereupon the Hun made him tinued to speak admirably. Indeed, if he happy by bowing his homage to so praisespoke the speeches as they are set down, he worthy å character. Another working-man must be a man of extraordinary powers. came up courageously with a glass of ale, His victory over the English in this way is doubtless real stingo,—which he presented to tantamount in arduousness to a victory over the ex-governor of Hungary. The latter took

it, and drank to the health of the good old | its existence as a dynasty to him, and the de city of Winchester in a draught of its good claration was followed by tremendous cheerale. And so they passed along, the people ing. He could not fail to more his hearers, every where accepting the pageant and the being greatly moved himself. When he spoke man as belonging to themselves alone. At of his dead friend Bathyany, he was moved the Mayor's banquet, attended by Lord Dud- to tears; and also when he spoke of Han. ley Stuart and our consul, Mr. Croskey, among gary, assailed by Austria on one side and others, Kossuth made his great pronuncia- the Czar on the other, with not a single mento, set forth the cause and the catastrophe friend in Europe to help her! The Times of Ilungary, and fully succeeded in overcom- reporter has made the most of these tears, for ing the prejudices and winning the favor of the purpose of depreciating the man who the great majority of the English people. shed them. Certainly the Hungarian nature Altogether, it was and is one of the most re- is different from the Anglo-Saxon; for all the markable, and promises to be one of the most Magyars were moved to tears on the recepeffective manifestoes of our time; and shows tion of Kossuth, and it must have looked odd emphatically that the war of Hungary is not to the colder Englishmen. at an end.

Kossuth explained, in, the first Kossuth seemed to be in his element on place, the condition of Hungary and its rela- this occasion, as if he felt he was still worktion to the house of Hapsburg, showing that ing for Hungary. After his own speech, he the Hungarians fought for their own nation rose for a moment to state that in Hungary and Constitution, not for any abstract revolu- there was no aristocracy of race, but simply tionary principle. Before this fatal war, the of birth. country contained half a million of nobles—the Mr. Cobden spoke also, and dwelt on the privileged class—the rest of the people being heartless and unbrotherly conduct of the the adscripti glebu, without any political rights. powers who witnessed, without protest, the For a series of years the Austrian influence murder of Hungary by the Czar. Mr. Cros. was corrupting the Government of Hungary, | key, the American consul, then spoke, and and preparing for a union which should absorb assured Kossuth of an ardent and honoral de its nationality. Under these circumstances, reception in the United States. He said the the Ilungarian patriots had long seen the ne- policy of this nation was non-interference; cessity of opposing to Austria a more effect- but that the time was nearly come when the ive force than the half million of Magyar United States would be forced to take a more nobles could put forth, and the emancipation active interest in European polities. This of the fourteen millions of the people was dis- brought up Kossuth again. It seemed to cussed. But the imperial Government always inspire himn with new ideas of English and contrived to obstruct this project, and it was American influences, and he went on as if he delayed up to 1848. Kossuth was one of the had not spoken before. To illustrate his most ardent emancipationists, and in the be- meaning that the English monarchy and the ginning of the troubles of 1818, le proposed | American republic were good Governments and carried the enfranchisement of the pea- and could only show which was the best by santry. Throughout his speech, he showed the way in which they acted, he told the that he acted with the Parliament of Hun- apologue of the Eastern Shah and his three gary. After the Emancipation Act, he went sons. The old man had a precious ring, which with the Arch-duke Palatine to Vienna, bear- could make its owner agreeable to gods and ing for the sanction of the Emperor the new men, and not knowing to which of his boys laws which the Ilungarian Parliament had to leave it, he got two others made like it, just passed. Vienna was at this time in re- and left them one apiece, telling them that volt, and when Kossuth urged the claims of each must act as if he was the possessor of Ilungary and also the rights of the imperial the true one. Thus, with an oriental ingepopulation, the Emperor sent for him, and nuity, did. Kossuth try to reconcile his pare promised that he would sign the Hungarian tialities for the two great families of the same Constitution if Vienna could only be kept quict. stock. He expressed the most fervent respect The city was kept quiet. “It was," said Kos- for the United States, and concluded by tunsisuth, “one of those curious examples of the vi- ing the sovereign rights of the people and the cissitudes of human life in which myself, an cessation of all despotisms. humble son of llungary, was in a position to We can perceive from all this low intrhold the destinies of the house of Hapsburg in pensable it was to Kossuth that he slopillon these lands!" "Tiere," says the Times' repor- to England in the first instance. There was ter, “M. Kossuth mandle a powerful impression another cause for his turning aside, and that by the energy of his manner, stretching out was the placing his boys at an English schon both his hands as he finished the sentence.” Ile and leaving his daughter, Wilhelmina, with certainly swayed his audience a good deal by Richard Cobden, as he had promised to do. lis impassioned mode. He took the Eternal But these reasons, though all-sufficient, iete to witness that the house of Hapsburg owed | not the chief. Kossuth feels, and it is now

GERMANY AND RUSS A.

beginning to be understood, that it was chiefly | London, calling on Italy to prepare for another to the politic interference of England he owed great fight for her liberties. It was thought his safety froin the power of Austria. But Kossuth would join in a general demonstration for the secret backing of England, the Porte of the kind. But his decision on the matter is would have either sent away or surrendered not yet known. He has been visited by Count the fugitive. Nothing but the influence of Alexander Tekeli, a relative of Prince Albert, England could make Turkey firin against the and several distinguished refugees of his own frowning aspects of Russia and Austria. The nation. Our minister, Mr. Lawrence, and Mr. policy of England at this moment is liberal. Walker, late of the treasury, called also upon Mr. Gladstone and Lord Palinerston have in- Kossuth. It was the intention of the latter dicated this on the part of the Ministry. The to set out for America, after a stay of ten days Neapolitan Prince Castelcicala sent, the other in England. But he cannot stay long from day, to Palmerston a refutation of Gladstone's Europe. His heart is in Hungarypamphlet, which exposed the horrors of the

“ By Buda's wall and Danube's side;"! state prisons of Naples. Palmerston, in reply, said he did not believe the refutation, and did and we doubt not that, in some unexpressed believe the original charges-a very direct, understanding with the English Government, imdiplomatic sort of reply. All these things he will wait for some chance of war to arise are favorable indications of the disposition of in Eastern Europe or Western Asia. The England. Lord Palmerston said he should present state of Europe is very like that stillbe happy to see and shake hands with Kos- ness which usually goes before the outbreak suth, which simple piece of English courtesy of a hurricane. will certainly have the full force of a European deinonstration.

As we have said, Kossuth is still carrying on the war. What it wants in intensity, it The Austrian press expresses a vehement has in general diffusion. His very presence indignation against England for the preparatends to awaken high and noble feelings. tions made to welcome Kossuth, the traitor. John Bull is seized with a fit of Orientalism Lord Palmerston it heartily abused, and the and poetry in presence of this pilgrim--this municipalities of London and Southampton Peter the Hermit of Ilungarian nationality. placed under the ban of the Kaisar. The The great conservative classes are conciliated, Austrians cannot conceive that the English and consider him a very respectable sort of should do any thing independently of their man-no red republican, after all; the ministry Government. These imperial editors say, not lean to the side of liberal sentiments; and the without some show of meaning, “ England people, to be sure, are hoarse with hurraing. has Ireland, Canada, and Australia ; and the Kossuth has had a great triumph in England, United States have more than one “Missisand has been doing the work of liberty with sippi,' ” meaning the ship, not the Father of & vast amount of energy and discretion- Waters. It is determined that Hungary shall admirable discretion. It was a very trifling be, henceforward, an integral part of the indiscretion, indeed, to denounce such a Austrian empire.' The Archduke Albrecht worthless and tottering adventurer as Louis has been appointed Governor of Hungary, Napoleon. Kossuth has declined to accept a while to an Imperial Commission of three is public banquet in London, urging that he delegated the duty of arranging the future wishes to avoid any imputation of mixing political organization of the empire.

with any distinct class of men in A railway treaty between Austria, Tuscany, England. The French socialists, and some of the Papal dominions, Modena, and Parma, has the English democrats also, are not quite been published. The railroad will run on one pleased with Kossuth for this resolution, and side from Placenza through Parma and Mofor his professed respect for the Queen, for dena, and on the other, from Mantua to Reg. monarchy, and so forth. They blame him, as gia; it will be called the Central Italian Railour friends the abolitionists blamed Father road. Mathew, when he refused to narrow his mis- The Austrian Government has a remonșion and go upon any platform. But England strance to Lord Palmerston concerning Kosis not France, and Kossuth is too wise to have suth. The Germanic Diet have sent back any thing to do there with politics which may Gladstone's pamphlet against the much-masuit the meridian of Marseilles very well. He ligned King of Naples with a tart reply; and expects much from England, who, perhaps, his Majesty the Czar has done the same. The expects something from the Hungarian rebels amiable Borbone has very good friends in the in return, should the Czar come to blows with north. Her sepoy's, on account of the succession of the There is a report that a conspiracy to disKhan of llerat in Persia. England was always place and murder the Czar has been discovered famous for her far-seeing policy. Mazzini has among the nobility at St. Petersburg. There published a revolutionary proclamation in lis a chance of an English and Russian collision

himself up

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