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*Barton, Mrs. Lois, Eugene, Oreg -
Yellow Springs, Ohio.
*Doyle, William C., chairman, National Security Commission, The
Dungan, Miss Margaret E., Joint Peace Committee of Media and
Providence Meetings of the Religious Society of Friends, Walling-
Martin, William R., Young Friends Committee of North America,
McCrary, Dr. V. Eugene, American Optometric Association, Wash-
Shroyer, Montgomery J., End the Draft in '63 Committee, Wash-
*Udall, Morris K., Member of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower) --
*Statements submitted for the record; did not appear in person.
American Civil Liberties Union..
American Farm Bureau Federation.
•Statements submitted for the record; did not appear in person.
EXTENSION OF THE DRAFT
TUESDAY, MARCH 12, 1963
Washington, D.C. The subcommittee appointed to consider S. 846, composed of Senators Russell (chairman), Erwin, Byrd of West Virginia, Inouye, Beall, and Case met, pursuant to notice, at 10 a.m., in room 212, Old Senate Office Building.
Present: Senators Russell (chairman), Byrd of West Virginia, and Inouye.
Also present: John Ahlers for Senator Beall; Sam Zagoria for Senator Case; T. Edward Braswell and Gordon A. Nease, of the committee staff; Harry L. Wingate, Jr., chief clerk; and Herbert S. Atkinson, assistant chief clerk.
Chairman RUSSELL. Our hearings today are on S. 846, which would extend for a period of 4 years, from July 1, 1963, through July 1, 1967, the following provisions of law:
(1) The authority to induct persons into the Armed Forces.
(2) The authority to issue selective service calls for physicians and dentists and allied specialists.
(3) The suspension of permanent limitations on the active duty strength of the Armed Forces.
(4) The authority to pay a quarters allowance to all enlisted members of the Armed Forces with dependents irrespective of rank if the dependents are not furnished Government quarters.
(5) The authority for special pay to physicians, dentists, and veterinarians.
Yesterday the House passed a companion bill-H.R. 2438—but, since that bill has not yet been officially referred to the committee, we will conduct hearings on S. 846.
Before the members there is a copy of a committee print explaining the provisions of this bill and giving a summary of the major provisions of the Universal Military Training and Service Act. (S. 846 follows:)
(S. 846, 88th Cong., 1st sess.) A BILL To extend the induction provisions of the Universal Military Training and Service Act, and for
other purposes Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States o America in Congress assembled, That section 17(c) of the Universal Military Training and Service Act, as amended (50 App. U.S.C. 467(c)), is amended by striking out “July 1, 1963” and inserting in place thereof "July 1, 1967”.
SEC. 2. Section 1 of the Act of August 3, 1950, chapter 537, as amended (73 Stat. 13), is amended by striking out "July 1, 1963” and inserting in place thereof “July 1, 1967”.
Sec. 3. Section 16 of the Dependents Assistance Act of 1950, as amended (50 App. U.S.C. 2216), is amended by striking out “July 1, 1963” and inserting in place thereof “July 1, 1967”.
SEC. 4. Section 9 of the Act of June 27, 1957, Public Law 85–62, as amended (73 Stat. 13), is amended by striking out “July 1, 1963” and inserting in place thereof “July 1, 1967”.
SEC. 5. Sections 302 and 303 of title 37, United States Code, are each amended by striking out “July 1, 1963” wherever that date appears and inserting in place thereof “July 1, 1967”.
Chairman RUSSELL. The first witness today is the Honorable Norman S. Paul, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower. Following Mr. Paul's presentation and questioning by members, several organizations and individuals have requested the opportunity to testify and others have submitted statements for the record.
Because of the number of these witnesses, they have been requested to limit their oral testimony to a summary of not more than 10 minutes in duration and to furnish their entire statements for the record.
It appears from an examination of the list of witnesses that the subcommittee will also have an afternoon session.
Mr. Secretary, we are glad to have you appear before the subcommittee. You may make such statement as you desire with respect to this legislation.
STATEMENT OF NORMAN S. PAUL, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF
DEFENSE (MANPOWER); ACCOMPANIED BY HAROLD WOOL ACTING DIRECTOR OF MANPOWER RESEARCH, OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE I(MANPOWER), AND LT. COL. MARTIN PUTNOI, MEDICAL CORPS, U.S. ARMY, ASSISTANT FOR PERSONNEL, DASD (HEALTH AND MEDICAL)
Mr. Paul. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I welcome the opportunity to appear before you in support of S. 846. This bill, if enacted into law, will extend until July 1, 1967, the authority to induct persons under the Universal Military Training and Service Act. Included under this authority is the authority for selective induction of physicians, dentists, and allied medical specialists. This bill will also extend for the same period the suspension of certain statutory limitations on Armed Forces strengths; it extends the provisions of the Dependents' Assistance Act and the provision for special pay for physicians and dentists.
EXTENSION OF INDUCTION AUTHORITY
Last month, Secretary McNamara appeared before your committee and presented in detail his report on the military posture and on the Department of Defense program for the coming 5 years. I need scarcely elaborate here on the sobering facts concerning the costs of survival in these times. One of these costs and, in my judgment, one of the most vital elements in our national defense posture, is the obligation for military service which derives from the induction authority.
During the past years we have carefully examined the possible alternatives for procurement of manpower and for fulfilling the military service obligation in both the Active Forces and in our Reserve
components. As a result of these studies, we have submitted separate legislative recommendations concerning the authorities for procurement of personnel for our Reserve components and the length of their Reserve service obligation. These recommendations would also revise and consolidate the authorities for deferment and exemption from induction based on Reserve membership and participation. With your indulgence, Mr. Chairman, I will, therefore, limit my present statement to the basic issue of the need for extension of the induction authority and for the related extension provisions of S. 84.
It is my firm conviction that extension of the induction authority is absolutely essential for maintenance of our military strengths. This conviction is shared by Secretary McNamara, by the Secretaries of the military departments and by the Chiefs of Staff. This judgment has been reinforced by our recent experiences and by the facts on our projected manpower needs.
As you gentlemen know, it has been the consistent policy of all of the services to rely on voluntary manpower sources to the maximum extent in maintaining their strengths. The military services offer a wide range of choices—more than 50 by our last count—for volunteering into the Regular Forces or the Reserve components.
In addition to recruitment efforts, the services conduct energetic reenlistment programs among their personnel and offer special inducements for reenlistments, such as advanced training opportunities and choices of duty assignment. There has also been a sustained effort to increase the career attractiveness of military service. The Congress has always generously responded to requests for legislation designed to improve the welfare of our servicemen, including most recently the adjustment in quarters allowances last year. I am confident that you will give equally sympathetic consideration to the military pay legislation proposed by the Department of Defense, which, in our judgment, will go even further in aiding the services to compete effectively for qualified personnel.
These measures have served to enhance our ability to obtain volunteer enlistments and reenlistments and thereby help to minimize the direct requirement for selective service draft calls. The Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force have not had to place draft calls in recent years. And, in the Army, the ratio of draftees has declined from more than one-fourth of total Active Army strength, in 1958, to about one-sixth in the current fiscal year.
Selective service inductions have, however, continued to be an essential manpower procurement source for Army throughout this period. When a rapid expansion of our military strengths was required during the Berlin contingency, one of the initial actions taken by the Secretary of Defense was to authorize a sharp increase in draft calls. For fiscal year 1962, as a whole, the number of men actually inducted into the Army totaled 157,500, about twice the total number originally planned for that year. The accelerated draft calls were met promptly and efficiently by the Selective Service System. These added inductees, upon completion of their initial training, formed the primary manpower source for the two new divisions activated by the Army last year, and for other new or augmented combat elements. In turn, the availability of these replacements made possible release of recalled National Guard and Reserve units in August, without adverse effect on our military posture.