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well acquainted with a future state as we are at present. The connection between the knowledge of Christ and a future state is so inseparable, that we need not lose time to prove it: and that the faith here so much insisted on is faith in Christ, the definition in the first verse fully proves; because no other can teach us the substance of what we are to hope for, or give us evidence of the things we have not seen ; and because this faith was able to effect the salvation of the soul, which none but the Christian faith can do. (Heb. x. 38, 39. and Acts iv. 12.) And certainly when “ Moses “ esteemed the reproach of Christ greater riches than “ the treasures of Egypt,” (ver. 26.) this could be nothing but faith in Christ, by whose merits he had learnt “ to have respect to the recompence of reward :" And so all the other instances of faith in the mercies of God, which only are to be obtained through faith in Christ. Let St. Peter convince us what this faith is. “therefore" (says he to the apostles and elders, who were met to consider whether it was necessary
for Christians to observe the law), “Why tempt ye God
to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which s neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? But “ we believe that through the grace of our Lord Jesus “ Christ we shall be saved, even as they," (Acts xv. 10, 11.) Then the fathers were saved by a belief in Jesus Christ, and therefore had not only faith in him, but knew that salvation also which he was to purchase for them. And if it be faith in Christ, every instance expresses their belief of a future state.* Thus Abraham certainly believed a future state, when he accounted that God was able to raise him up Isaac even from the dead. Thus the women who received their dead raised to life again ;-and they who did not desire deliverance from their tortures here, hoping they might obtain a better resurrection hereafter, “they whò confess“ed they were strangers on the earth and sought after “ a heavenly country ;-they of whom this world was “ not worthy;"_and they who, notwithstanding all their present sufferings for the sake of religion, believed that God " was a rewarder of them who diligently “ seek him ;” and such St. Paul says they all believed him to be, all these must have had a perfect knowledge and strong hopes of an happy immortality. For as he observes “these all died in faith,” so had faith in their death, and therefore did not confine their views to this life: because he justly adds, though they had not received the promises, i. e. had not seen the completion of them, yet they saw them afar off, and were persuaded of them: Acts xiii. 32, 33. fully prove, that it was the demonstration of a resurrection given us in the actual raising of Christ's body which they had not re'ceived.* Not that they had not been told of, or had not received promises, that their own bodies were to be raised.
* Hammond on the 11th Chapter of Heb. p. 754, &c. Theophylact. in Epist. 991, to 1008. Whitby on the New Testament, Vol. 2. from p. 536, to 544. J. Lindsay on the New Test. 778, to 783. Critici Sacri, Vol. 7. page 4325. Drusij Not. Bishop Wilkins, Serm. 8vo. p. 16. Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not
“ Where among the things hoped for and not seen, are clearly “ meant the happiness and salvation we expect hereafter, the rewards “ of a better life, which faith doth as really discern in the promises, as “ if they were actually present to the sense. Hence it is that salvation " is said to be the end of faith, 'receiving the end of your faith, even the
“ The promise (says St. Paul) which was " salvation of your souls,' 1 Pet. i. 9. “ So then if all religious actions “ be derived from faith, as the main root and principle of them, and if “ faith doth chiefly refer to the rewards hoped for and not seen, then it “ must follow that it is as necessary for a believer to have a principal, “aim at the rewards, as it is for him to live by faith; and that he may “ as well pretend to be above the life of faith, as to be above the help of “ those encouragements of the rewards and promises proposed in scrip-
and so far as faith bath an influence upon our religious actions, so far must we respect the recompence of reward.” See the whole discourse.
* Grotij Op. Theol. Vol. 3. p. 658. Poli Synopsis Cr. Vol. 4. p. 1607. Hammond on the New Test. p. 429. Acts xxvi. 6. And accordingly now I am accused for asserting the Resurrection of the dead, which as it is a doctrine acknowledged by the Pharisees, so is it the fundamental promise made of old. Whitby on the New Test. Vol. 1. p. 708, 709. Titus i. 2. “ In hope of eternal life which God that cannot lie pro“ mised, before the world began." See the absurdity of the translation, from Acts iii. 21. 2 Tim. i. 9. and Rom. xvi. 25. Critici Sacri, Vol. 7. p. 2432. Clarij Notæ, Acts xxvi. 6. “ Et nunc de spe pro.
“ made unto the fathers, God hath fulfilled the same “ unto us their children, in that he has raised up
Jesus again.” In Acts xxvi. 6, 7, and 8th verses, and in many other places the same expression occurs. Then it appears that God had promised the fathers he would raise up Jesus from the dead, though the fathers did not live to see and receive the actual completion of that promise, but yet, as above cited, “ saw it from afar, << were persuaded of it," and, fully believing it would be performed in due time, embraced it. Thus in the resurrection of Jesus was a demonstration given of life and immortality, the promise made to the fathers fulfilled, and in this sense “Life and immortality was “ brought to light by the gospel.” Though in any other sense it could not have been first discovered by the personal preaching of Christ and his apostles; because if the gospel brought it to light, then the Jews must have been acquainted with it: “ for unto them,
as well as unto us, was the gospel preached,” Heb. iv. 2.
But if the author of the divine legation should take up the arms with which the infidels have all along assaulted Moses, and it is certain he can have no other to defend his unchristian cause but the often foiled weapons of Sadducees, Infidels, and Atheists; and if he should object in their words, “ That supposing a “ future state was typified under the law, yet it had no « better effect than if it had not, because it was so hid“ den and obscure that the Jews did not see it.” But if St. Paul hath shewed us some of the types
that were intended to point out a future state, and if he hath said that the Jews knew this, that they looked beyond the types, and if it be no where said that they did not see and believe a future state, then one may presume that the authority of Christ and his apostles, who affirm
missionis,” &c. Prædicare Christum nihil erat aliud,
quam annunciare spem quæ ad patres facta erat esse impletam, cujus summa est resur. rectio mortuorum, cui inimici Judæ, dum ei resistunt, manifestó adversantur, Acts xxiii. 6, 2 Tim. i. 1.
that the Jews did see it, will convince every Christian that they actually did.* The apostle of the Gentiles forbids us to doubt of this point. “The law, says he,
was our schoolmaster unto Christ;" was to teach us first the letters, the types of which the service of the law consisted, which is the first business of a school master; and afterwards the meaning of them, what they represented, and what ideas they were designed to convey, of what persons, what objects, what actions. This is the next business of a schoolmaster, and indeed the chief. And therefore if the Jewish service consisted of such types, the Jews must have seen the meaning of them, not only because they could not be types to them unless understood, but also because it was the business of the law to be their schoolmaster to teach them how to understand them. And consequently if St. Paul hath said that there were certain types in the law, which were designed to point out a future state, and that the law was a schoolmaster to teach what they did point out, it follows that it could not but teach the Jews a future state: unless St. Paul should not have known the design of the law, or the law itself should prove a bad schoolmaster. But hear the same apostle on this subject. After he had told us, (Heb. ix. 19, 20, &c.) " That almost all things by the law are purg“ ed with blood, and that without shedding of blood " there is no remission,” he adds, 66 It was therefore “ necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens," things that demonstrated, pointed out, viz. the ceremonies of the law under which the heavenly things were demonstrated : so spoke a language very intelligible to every thinking Jew who had a soul to be saved, and which could not be saved, but by knowing and believ. ing that they were only the types and figures of the heavenly things, which types it was necessary should be
* See Bishop Bull's Sermons, Vol. 2. p. 574. Where he strongly proves, throughout this whole discourse, that the Jews even before the law, understood and believed that they should be rewarded after this life. Stillingfleet's Origines Sacræ, p. 174, 175, 176. Sect. 8. Acts iii. 21, 24, &c.
purified with these things that were also types. It was necessary that the law should contain such external objects to describe the person, actions, and sufferings of Christ, and convey the benefits of them, to purify. Christ was at a distance: It was therefore necessary that the wrath he had engaged to undergo, and all the circumstances of his sufferings should be on many accounts pointed out and demonstrated continually till
The external action, the type was necessary, because the Jews had bodies : and faith or an insight into the spiritual sense was necessary, because they had souls which only can be purified through faith, hope, and charity. * And thus it was necessary there should be material objects to demonstrate the heavenly things, because the eye of the soul sees only through the eye of the body: but the heavenly things themselves (which these demonstrated) by better sacrifices than these, it was necessary to the nature of the soul, that there should be faith, that it should be purified by the originals themselves, by looking at the real blood of that person,
which the blood of the beasts demonstrate ed. All the types and ceremonies were demonstrations of something they pointed at; material representations of something spiritual, which could communicate no virtue but when carried up from the literal to a higher meaning : because those things which the law demonstrated, as remission by blood, &c. were to be rightly apprehended before effectua!. The beast, till Christ came, was to be slain, his blood to be poured out, some parts to be burnt, &c. But then the benefit the sacri, ficer was taught to expect was from a better sacrifice than this: he was, if St. Paul may be believed, to look upon it in no other view, than as it demonstrated the great sacrifice of Christ, who was in effect “the Lamb
slain from the foundation of the world.” And therefore if the law did really explain its types and ceremonies, and if St. Paul says it was necessary it
* Rom. ii. 28, 29. Deut. X. 16. viii. 3. Rom. iii. 30, 31. X. 5,6. ] Cor. x. to ver 13.