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St. Peter speaking by the same Spirit of God which spake in Moses hath proved, that David foretold the resurrection of Christ, when he said, “ Thou shalt not “ leave my soul in hell, neither shalt thou suffer thy “ holy one to see corruption." And then it immediately follows , * « Thou shalt shew me the path of “ lives.” Now, in consequence of Christ's not seeing corruption, he was to be shewn the path of lives; and therefore the word lives here manifestly includes that life which Christ entered upon when he rose from the dead—and this was certainly an immortal life: “ For “ they who are accounted worthy to obtain a future 66 world and the resurrection of the dead, cannot die
And consequently this is an infallible proof, that the word Kiim, is expressive of immortality.
IV. But further, the expression doth not only declare that there is another state besides this in which the soul will exist ; but it also justifies the latter part of the definition, “ that the soul will be as susceptible of pleasure and pain in a future state as it was in the
pre“ sent:" For certainly to have life in the proper sense of the word, is to have what always attends life, sensation--Life and sensation are ideas inseparably united; so that whatever being the one is predicated of the other is of necessity implied—and whatever hath sensation, must also have either pleasure or pain; for pleasure and pain are only words which stand for our ideas of certain sensations. The holy Spirit then asserts, that the soul lives when separated from the body. Now it is absurd to suppose the soul living, and yet neither sensible of pleasure nor pain ; and therefore, he hath by this assertion expressly revealed, that the soul exists
Lorinus in Act. Apost. p. 96. Act iv. v. 28. “ Notas mibi fecisti * seinitas vitæ, &c." De resurrectione loquitur, & glorificatione, corporis & vitâ immortali, ad quam ante Christum nemo resurrexerat, * nemo noverat, hoc est, expertus fuerat. Id in Psal. 1 vol. p. 207. - Christus autem multo magis sub personâ David significat demonstratas uni sibi vias a patre, rationesque quibus & ipse & -sui obtinere inimortalitatem beatam valerent tum corporis tum animæ, &c.
in a future state of pleasure and pain, i. e. of rewards and punishments.
From these reasons then it is evident, that the holy Spirit hath, in this text, expressly revealed the immortality of the soul, and a future state: and this is abundantly confirmed from what is afterwards revealed concerning immortality. Among the other institutions in Eden, (Gen. ï. 9.) the Spirit of God hath mentioned the tree of lives, " which was a sacrament instituted to 6 be the earnest and pledge of eternal life.”—* It was a sacrament: because the virtue attributed to it could not be naturally inherent in it, but must have depended solely on the power of the institutor-And it was “ instituted to be the earnest and pledge of eternal a life;" because the words assert that it was a tree of lives, or immortality; and also because, when man had by his sin forfeited this sacrament of immortality, and was taught to expect salvation only through faith in Christ, that salvation through faith in him is still called by the same name as the first sacrament of immortality was, viz. the tree of lives" To him that overcometh," saith the Spirit, “ will I give to eat of the tree of life " that is in the midst of the Paradise of God;” (Rev. ii. 7.) and in another place, “ Blessed are they that do “ the commandments of Christ, that they may have “ right to the tree of life,” (Rev. xxii. 14.) Here the New Testament borrows an expression from the Old, to describe the life and immortality brought to light by Christ; and therefore the expression used in the New Testament to convey ideas of an happy immortality, must certainly have intelligibly described that immortality in the Old; for the words are the same in both Testaments, and consequently the ideas which they convey in both must be the same : so that Christ is now, to fallen man, what the tree of immortality was
* Capelli Comm. p. 320. Vitæ arbor dicta videtur, non quòd extraordinariâ & supernaturali quadam virtute inhærente prædita esset perpetuandam Adami vitam, sed quod Deus voluerit eam esse Adamo sig, num, Arrababonem, & veluti sacramentum, &c. § And Willet in his Hexapla on Genesis, p. 28. abundantly proves the same.
to innocent Adam—the virtue attributed to the one, being what is also attributed to the other-Christ is really to fallen man, the fountain of everlasting life; therefore such sacramentally was the tree of immortality to innocent Adam: for it would be very absurd, if Christ should be made to stand instead of the tree of immortality, and yet that tree was not instituted to effect for the innocent what he hath now effected for sinners; because then the substitution would be destroyed, and the ideas conveyed by the one or the other would be false. The tree of lives therefore was, and was known to be, because the holy Spirit expressly declares it to have been a sacrament of immortality; so that he hath not only revealed that the soul is immortal, but hath also revealed what was instituted to be the pledge and earnest of eternal life. And in both these passages he hath, as plainly as words can speak, expressly revealed a future state.
And though these texts be not contained in (what is called) the body of the law, yet are they nevertheless conclusive; because every Jew who read the one of them, must know that he had an immortal soul; and because, though he read that the first sacrament of immortality was forfeited, yet he could not avoid reading in the law itself, that there was another instituted: for the law taught him, not only by expressive actions, but also by the plainest words, though he was a sinner, yet there was a way still open for him to future happiness ; particularly, in the following passage he was taught this literally, and without a figure: God prohibits the eating of blood upon the penalty of death; and he gives a reason for the prohibition—"For the life of the i flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon “ the altar, to make an atonement for
souls ; for - it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul," (Lev. xvii. 11.) Now, if we take the word here rendered soul to denote the spiritual part of man, this would be a self-evident proof, that sacrifices were known to have a spiritual effect, and as such the atonement
they made to regard a future life. But if we take the word to denote what is always used in scripture to signify the animal frame, in what sense could the blood make an atonement for it? The end of making an atonement is to protect and secure a criminal from justice; and when this atonement is accepted, justice is satisfied. Now the present life was known to have been forfeited by sin, and how then could the Jews be so slow of heart as to imagine that this blood was to atone for the temporal life of the body? Blood could not possibly have any such virtue of its own; and it was daily demonstrated, that it had no such virtue imputed to it: “ For as by one man sin entered into o the world, and death by sin; so death passed upon “all men, because all have sinned.” And surely two thousand years experience had sufficiently convinced the Jews of this truth, and demonstrated to them, that they were all to go down to the grave, and that the pit was to shut its mouth upon them. Against this demonstration then they could never imagine that blood was to atone for the temporal life of the body; and therefore they had a demonstration that there was some other life forfeited, besides the present, for which blood was to atone.
* Now Moses had taught them, in this text and elsewhere, to look upon sacrifice in a spirtual sense-that spirtual sense was the relation it bore to a Redeemer and the blessings derived to mankind by that Redeemer were not temporal-However, an exemption from temporal death was not one of these blessings—And yet the blood which was known to typify the blood of the Redeemer, did preserve the body from some kind of death; which being not from temporal, must of necessity be from eternal death : for, if only the present life had
* Exod. xxiv. 8. proved by St. Paul, Heb. ix. 20, 21, &c. to signify the blood of Christ. § B. Lamy de Tabernaculo Fæd. Par. 1720. p. 475. “ Pius Israelita, qui immolabat agnum, non in sanguine animalis
spem salutis & fiduciam reponebat, sed cogitabat alium agnum, viz. “ Jesum Christum, qui sanguinem suum fusurus erat pro remissione peccatorum.”
been forfeited by sin, the debt was always paid; and why then was not justice satisfied, but when this punishment was sure to be inflicted, it still required a further atonement ? And as this atonement reached further than the present life, of necessity there was another life which was forfeited, and for which the atonement to divine justice was made.
And can there be a plainer description of a future state than this ? when the offerer, who hath by his sin forfeited all title to life, brings his sacrifice before the Lord with hopes that some more perfect sacrifice would restore him to life; and with these hopes sheds the blood of the creature—This blood God absolutely forbids him to eat, and the reason of the probibition is thus expressed—“ I have instituted sacrifice to be 'a type
of the Redeemer-the blood in which is the life “ of the flesh to be a type of his precious blood; which 66 he will shed to redeem the life of man; and upon " that account I have set apart blood for this use it " is to be put upon the altar to represent his blood who 6 is to make the real atonement for your life : for all 66 the creatures in the whole earth are mine, and their “ blood can have no merit with me the blood of the - Redeemer alone can make an atonement for the life of man;
and that life for which his blood is to atone, “ cannot be present-Yoự will all be gathered to your “ fathers and see corruption ; and therefore his blood “ is to atone for your future life; and as the benefits “ promised you through him are spiritual, you will then “ feel the effects of his atonement, when your
bodies “ shall be raised from the dead; and ye who have be
* Critici Sacri. Lon. 1660, p. 817. " Quâ re (Effusione sanguinis super altare) adumbratus (inquiunt Doctores) est verus usus san. “ guinis domini ac servatoris nostri Jesu Christi, viz. quod solus sanguis “ illius pro peccatis nostris effusus sit, placatio pro animabus nostris, & “ reconciliatio, & sanctificatio nostra. Sam. Clark, A. M. Annotations in the Old and New Testaments, 1690, Note on Lev. xvii. 11. It is the blood, viz. of the sacrifice sacramentally and typically, and of Christ that makes atonement really. Rom. iii. 25. Col. i. 20. Heb. ix. 12. And Willet's 2d vol. Hexapla on Lev. p. 409. SH. Maius de Æcon, Temp. Vet. Test. p. 387.