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any provocative military measures. At the same time His Majesty asked me I should transmit to Vienna the British proposal that Austria was to take Belgrade and a few other Servian towns and a strip of country as a main mise (sic) to make sure that the Servian promises on paper should be fulfilled in reality. This proposal was in the same moment telegraphed to me from Vienna for London quite in conjunction with the British proposal; besides I had telegraphed to His Majesty the Czar the same as an idea of mine before I received the two communications from Vienna and London. As both were of the same opinion, I immediately transmitted the telegrams vice versa to Vienna and London. I felt that I was able to tide the question over and was happy at the peaceful outlook.
“Five. While I was preparing a note to His Majesty the Czar the next morning to inform him that Vienna, London, and Berlin were agreed about the treatment of affairs, I received the telephone message from his excellency the chancellor that in the night before, the Czar had given the order to mobilize the whole of the Russian Army, which was of course also meant against Germany; whereas up till then the southern armies had been mobilized against Austria.
“Six. In a telegram from London my ambassador informed me he understood British Government would guarantee neutrality of France and wished to know whether Germany would refrain from attack. I telegraphed to His Majesty the King personally that mobilization being already carried out could not be stopped, but if His Majesty could guarantee with his armed forces the neutrality of France, I would refrain from attacking her, leave her alone, and employ my forces elsewhere. His Majesty answered that he thought my offer was based on a misunderstanding, and as far as I can make out Sir Edward Grey never took my offer into serious consideration. He never answered it. Instead he declared England had to defend Belgian neutrality, which had to be violated by Germany on strategical grounds, news having been received that France was already preparing to enter Belgium and the King of the Belgians having refused my petition for a free passage under guarantee of his country's freedom. I am most grateful for the President's message. Wilhelm.”
GERARD, American Chargé d'Affaires, Copenhagen.
SEVERANCE OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN LIBERIA AND
The Secretary of State of Liberia to the German Consul at Monrovia
May 5, 1917 SIR,
As the policies of a nation must always be adjusted to meet new conditions affecting its vital interests, as they arise from time to time, so the transpiring of certain events, in connection with the Great European war which has staggered humanity in its ruthless operations and stupendous financial output, have rendered necessary a change of Liberia's attitude of strict neutrality, hitherto assumed and consistently maintained. I refer to the new German submarine program, drawn up by the Imperial German Government and put into execution on the 1st day of February of the present year, the detailed operations of which you are very well conversant with and informed.
While Liberia has endeavored to stand aloof from a conflict, the original causes of which were of purely European concern and interest, yet the method adopted by the Imperial German Government and its allies to vindicate what they conceive to be their national rights and honor and to bring to their arms a speedy and successful victory by such means as the sinking of unarmed ships of their enemies and neutrals without warning, the bombardment of undefended towns and villages, and the violation of the rights of small neutral States, are such flagrant violations of the rules of civilized warfare as to justly create on the part of Liberia grave apprehensions and fears of the eventual permanent establishment of the doctrine of "might" over "right" in the realms of international relations, which doctrine, if allowed to obtain, can only result in the complete subjugation and elimination from the sisterhood of nations of all small and weak States.
Hence the Government and people of Liberia cannot any longer, in their own interest, continue to view with indifference and unconcern the present world's cataclysm, especially since the new German submarine program seriously threatens the lives of Liberian citizens traveling on the high seas as passengers and crew on allied and neutral ships.
Although Liberia is fully conscious of her utter inability to enforce, upon any of the belligerent nations, respect and due regard for the rights
1 Official Bulletin, Washington, July 10, 1917.
and safety of her citizens, yet that fact will not deter her from protesting, by the most effective means at her disposal, against any attempt to infringe upon her sacred international rights — in spite of the veiled threats made by the acting Imperial German consul in his published statement of "war news," issued and circulated in this city, under the official seal of his Imperial Government on the 21st of April, to the effect that powers of the third and last importance will be held to strict accountability for all damage done to German interest, the bill for which will be presented and payment thereof enforced after the happy issues of the war.
The Liberian Government is therefore constrained, as an earnest protest against the continued enforcement of the new German submarine program, which threatens the lives of Liberian citizens, as well as grave financial and economic embarrassments to the Republic, to sever relations with the Imperial German Government, and to revoke the exequatur granted to Germany's official representative at this capital.
With assurances of my high esteem and profound respect, I have the honor to subscribe myself,
Your obedient servant,
Secretary of State.
RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE REGULATION, MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF THE PANAMA CANAL AND THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS
By the President of the United States of America
No. 1371, May 23, 1917 Whereas the United States exercises sovereignty in the land and waters of the Canal Zone and is responsible for the construction, operation, maintenance, and protection of the Panama Canal:
Now, therefore, I, WOODROW WILSON, President of the United States of America, do hereby declare and proclaim the following Rules and Regulations for the regulation, management and protection of the Panama Canal and the Maintenance of its Neutrality which are in addition to the general “Rules and Regulations for the Operation and Navigation of the Panama Canal and Approaches Thereto, including all Waters under its jurisdiction” put into force by Executive Order of July 9, 1914.
Rule 1. A vessel of war, for the purposes of these rules, is defined as a public armed vessel, under the command of an officer duly commissioned by the government, whose name appears on the list of officers of the military fleet, and the crew of which are under regular naval discipline, which vessel is qualified by its armament and the character of its personnel to take offensive action against the public or private ships of
Rule 2. An auxiliary vessel, for the purposes of these rules, is defined as any vessel, belligerent or neutral, armed or unarmed, which does not fall under the definition of Rule 1, which is employed as a transport or fleet auxiliary or in any other way for the direct purpose of prosecuting or aiding hostilities, whether by land or sea; but a vessel fitted up and used exclusively as a hospital ship is excepted.
Rule 3. A vessel of war or an auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, other than the United States, shall only be permitted to pass through the Canal after her commanding officer has given written assurance to the Authorities of the Panama Canal that the Rules and Regulations will be faithfully observed.
The authorities of the Panama Canal shall take such steps as may be requisite to insure the observance of the Rules and Regulations by auxiliary vessels which are not commanded by an officer of the military fleet.
Rule 4. Vessels of war or auxiliary vessels of a belligerent, other than the United States, shall not revictual nor take any stores in the Canal except so far as may be strictly necessary; and the transit of such vessels through the Canal shall be effected with the least possible delay in accordance with the Canal Regulations in force, and with only such intermission as may result from the necessities of the service.
Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same Rules as vessels of war of a belligerent.
Rule 5. No vessel of war or auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, other than the United States, shall receive fuel or lubricants while within the territorial waters of the Canal Zone, except on the written authorization of the Canal Authorities, specifying the amount of fuel and lubricants which may be received.
Rule 6. Before issuing any authorization for the receipt of fuel and
lubricants by any vessel of war or auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, other than the United States, the Canal Authorities shall obtain a written declaration, duly signed by the officer commanding such vessel, stating the amount of fuel and lubricants already on board.
Rule 7. Fuel and lubricants may be taken on board vessels of war or auxiliary vessels of a belligerent, other than the United States, only upon permission of the Canal Authorities, and then only in such amounts as will enable them, with the fuel and lubricants already on board, to reach the nearest accessible port, not an enemy port, at which they can obtain supplies necessary for the continuation of the voyage. Provisions furnished by contractors may be supplied only upon permission of the Canal Authorities, and then only in amount sufficient to bring up their supplies to the peace standard.
Rule 8. No belligerent, other than the United States, shall embark or disembark troops, munitions of war, or war-like materials in the Canal, except in case of necessity due to accidental hindrance of the transit. In such cases the Canal Authorities shall be the judge of the necessity, and the transit shall be resumed with all possible dispatch.
Rule 9. Vessels of war or auxiliary vessels of a belligerent, other than the United States, shall not remain in the territorial waters of the Canal Zone under the jurisdiction of the United States longer than twenty-four hours at any one time, except in case of distress; and in such case, shall depart as soon as possible.
Rule 10. In the exercise of the exclusive right of the United States to provide for the regulation and management of the Canal, and in order to ensure that the Canal shall be kept free and open on terms of entire equality to vessels of commerce and of war, there shall not be, except by special arrangement, at any one time a greater number of vessels of war of any one nation, other than the United States, including those of the allies of such nation, than three in either terminal port and its adjacent terminal waters, or than three in transit through the Canal; nor shall the total number of such vessels, at any one time, exceed six in all the territorial waters of the Canal Zone under the jurisdiction of the United States.
Rule 11. The repair facilities and docks belonging to the United States and administered by the Canal Authorities shall not be used by a vessel of war or an auxiliary vessel of a belligerent, other than the United States, except when necessary in case of actual distress, and then only upon the order of the Canal Authorities, and only to the degree