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New laws from him who reigns new minds may raise
In us who serve-new counsels, to debate
What doubtful may ensue. More in this place

To utter is not safe.

Assemble thou

Of all those myriads which we lead the chief;
Tell them that, by command, ere yet dim Night
Her shadowy cloud withdraws, I am to haste,
And all who under me their banners wave,
Homeward with flying march where we possess
The quarters of the North, there to prepare
Fit entertainment to receive our King,
The great Messiah, and his new commands,
Who speedily through all the Hierarchies
Intends to pass triumphant, and give laws.'
"So spake the false Archangel, and infused
Bad influence into the unwary breast

Of his associate. He together calls,

Or several one by one, the regent Powers,
Under him regent; tells, as he was taught,

That, the Most High commanding, now ere Night,
Now ere dim Night had disencumbered Heaven,
The great hierarchal standard was to move ;
Tells the suggested cause, and casts between
Ambiguous words and jealousies, to sound
Or taint integrity. But all obeyed
The wonted signal, and superior voice
Of their great Potentate; for great indeed
His name, and high was his degree in Heaven:
His countenance, as the morning-star that guides
The starry flock, allured them, and with lies
Drew after him the third part of Heaven's host.
Meanwhile, the Eternal Eye, whose sight discerns
Abstrusest thoughts, from forth his holy mount,
And from within the golden lamps that burn
Nightly before him, saw without their light
Rebellion rising-saw in whom, how spread
Among the Sons of Morn, what multitudes
Were banded to oppose his high decree;
And, smiling, to his only Son thus said :-
"Son, thou in whom my glory I behold
In full resplendence, Heir of all my might,
Nearly it now concerns us to be sure
Of our omnipotence, and with what arms
We mean to hold what anciently we claim
Of deity or empire: such a foe

Is rising, who intends to erect his throne

Equal to ours, throughout the spacious North;

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Nor so content, hath in his thought to try
In battle what our power is or our right.
Let us advise, and to this hazard draw
With speed what force is left, and all employ
In our defence, lest unawares we lose

This our high place, our sanctuary, our hill.'

"To whom the Son, with calm aspéct and clear Lightening divine, ineffable, serene,

Made answer:- Mighty Father, thou thy foes

Justly hast in derision, and secure

Laugh'st at their vain designs and tumults vain-
Matter to me of glory, whom their hate

Illustrates, when they see all regal power


Given me to quell their pride, and in event
Know whether I be dextrous to subdue

Thy rebels, or be found the worst in Heaven.'

"So spake the Son; but Satan with his Powers Far was advanced on winged speed, an host Innumerable as the stars of night,

Or stars of morning, dew-drops which the sun
Impearls on every leaf and every flower.
Regions they passed, the mighty regencies
Of Seraphim and Potentates and Thrones
In their triple degrees-regions to which
All thy dominion, Adam, is no more
Than what this garden is to all the earth
And all the sea, from one entire globose
Stretched into longitude; which having passed,
At length into the limits of the North



They came, and Satan to his royal seat

High on a hill, far-blazing, as a mount

Raised on a mount, with pyramids and towers

From diamond quarries hewn and rocks of gold-
The palace of great Lucifer (so call


That structure, in the dialect of men
Interpreted) which, not long after, he,
Affecting all equality with God,

In imitation of that mount whereon
Messiah was declared in sight of Heaven,
The Mountain of the Congregation called;
For thither he assembled all his train,
Pretending so commanded to consult
About the great reception of their King
Thither to come, and with calumnious art

Of counterfeited truth thus held their ears:

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Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers

If these magnific titles yet remain


Not merely titular, since by decree
Another now hath to himself engrossed
All power, and us eclipsed under the name
Of King Anointed; for whom all this haste
Of midnight march, and hurried meeting here,
This only to consult, how we may best,
With what may be devised of honours new,
Receive him coming to receive from us
Knee-tribute yet unpaid, prostration vile!
Too much to one! but double how endured-
To one and to his image now proclaimed?
But what if better counsels might erect
Our minds, and teach us to cast off this yoke!
Will ye submit your necks, and choose to bend
The supple knee? Ye will not, if I trust
To know ye right, or if ye know yourseives
Natives and Sons of Heaven possessed before
By none, and, if not equal all, yet free,
Equally free; for orders and degrees
Jar not with liberty, but well consist.
Who can in reason, then, or right, assume
Monarchy over such as live by right
His equals if in power and splendour less,
In freedom equal? or can introduce
Law and edict on us, who without law



Err not? much less for this to be our Lord,
And look for adoration, to the abuse
Of those imperial titles which assert


Our being ordained to govern, not to serve!'

"Thus far his bold discourse without control

Had audience, when, among the Seraphim,
Abdiel, than whom none with more zeal adored
The Deity, and divine commands obeyed,
Stood up, and in a flame of zeal severe
The current of his fury thus opposed:

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"O argument blasphemous, false, and proud—
Words which no ear ever to hear in Heaven
Expected; least of all from thee, ingrate,
In place thyself so high above thy peers!
Canst thou with impious obloquy condemn
The just decree of God, pronounced and sworn,
That to his only Son, by right endued

With regal sceptre, every soul in Heaven
Shall bend the knee, and in that honour due

Confess him rightful King? Unjust, thou say'st,
Flatly unjust, to bind with laws the free,
And equal over equals to let reign,



One over all with unsucceeded power!

Shalt thou give law to God? shalt thou dispute

With Him the points of liberty, who made

Thee what thou art, and formed the Powers of Heaven
Such as he pleased, and circumscribed their being?

Yet, by experience taught, we know how good,

And of our good and of our dignity

How provident, he is-how far from thought

To make us less; bent rather to exalt

Our happy state, under one head more near
United. But to grant it thee unjust

That equal over equals monarch reign

Thyself, though great and glorious, dost thou count,
Or all angelic nature joined in one,

Equal to him, begotten Son, by whom,

As by his Word, the mighty Father inade

All things, even thee, and all the Spirits of Heaven
By him created in their bright degrees,

Crowned them with glory, and to their glory_named
Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers?—
Essential Powers; nor by his reign obscured,
But more illustrious made; since he, the head,
One of our number thus reduced becomes;
His laws our laws; all honour to him done
Returns our own. Cease, then, this impious rage,
And tempt not these; but hasten to appease
The incensèd Father and the incensed Son
While pardon may be found, in time besought.'
"So spake the fervent Angel; but his zeal



None seconded, as out of season judged,


Or singular and rash. Whereat rejoiced

The Apostate, and, more haughty, thus replied:


“That we were formed, then, say'st thou? and the work

Of secondary hands, by task transferred
From Father to his Son? Strange point and new!
Doctrine which we would know whence learned !
When this creation was? Remember'st thou
Thy making, while the Maker gave thee being?
We know no time when we were not as now;
Know none before us, self-begot, self-raised

By our own quickening power when fatal course
Had circled his full orb, the birth mature
Of this our native Heaven, Ethereal Sons.
Our puissance is our own; our own right hand
Shall teach us highest deeds, by proof to try
Who is our equal. Then thou shalt behold
Whether by supplication we intend

Who saw


Address, and to begirt the Almighty Throne
Beseeching or besieging. This report,
These tidings, carry to the Anointed King;
And fly, ere evil intercept thy flight.'

"He said; and, as the sound of waters deep,
Hoarse murmur echoed to his words applause
Through the infinite host. Nor less for that
The flaming Seraph, fearless, though alone,
Encompassed round with foes, thus answered bold :--
"O alienate from God, O Spirit accursed,
Forsaken of all good! I see thy fall
Determined, and thy hapless crew involved
In this perfidious fraud, contagion spread
Both of thy crime and punishment. Henceforth
No more be troubled how to quit the yoke
Of God's Messiah. Those indulgent laws
Will not be now voutsafed; other decrees
Against thee are gone forth without recall;
That golden sceptre which thou didst reject
Is now an iron rod to bruise and break
Thy disobedience. Well thou didst advise;
Yet not for thy advice or threats I fly
These wicked tents devoted, lest the wrath
Impendent, raging into sudden flame,
Distinguish not: for soon expect to feel
His thunder on thy head, devouring fire.
Then who created thee lamenting learn
When who can uncreate thee thou shalt know.'
"So spake the Seraph Abdiel, faithful found;
Among the faithless faithful only he;
Among innumerable false unmoved,
Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified,

His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal;
Nor number nor example with him wrought

To swerve from truth, or change his constant mind,
Though single. From amidst them forth he passed,
Long way through hostile scorn, which he sustained
Superior, nor of violence feared aught;

And with retorted scorn his back he turned

On those proud towers, to swift destruction doomed."






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