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OF THE

AMERICAN ACADEMY

OF

ARTS AND SCIENCES.

VOL. VI.

FROM MAY, 1862, TO MAY, 1865.

SELECTED FROM THE RECORDS.

BOSTON AND CAMBRIDGE:
WELCH, BIGELOW, AND COMPANY.

18 6 6.

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

A MERICAN ACADEMY

OF

ARTS AND SCIENCES.

SELECTED FROM THE RECORDS.

VOL. VI.

Five hundred and ninth meeting.

May 27, 1862.- ANNUAL MEETING. The PRESIDENT in the chair.

The Corresponding Secretary read letters relative to the exchanges of the Academy.

As Secretary of the Council, he also read its Annual Report upon the changes which have occurred in the Academy during the past year, as follows:

Five Resident Fellows, one Associate, and three Foreign Honorary Members have deceased since the last anniversary meeting.

The names now removed from our list of immediate members are those of NATHAN APPLETON, SAMUEL A. Eliot, RICHARD SULLIVAN, CORNELIUS Conway Felton, and LUTHER V. BELL.

The Hon. NATHAN APPLETON, LL. D. died at his residence, in this city, on the 14th day of July last, at nearly 82 years of age, — having been born on the 6th day of October, 1779.

He was a native of New Ipswich, in the State of New Hampshire, whither his family had removed from Old Ipswich, in the State of Massachusetts. He enjoyed the advantages of a good school education, was fitted for College, and was regularly admitted to the Freshman Class at Dartmouth, in August, 1794. But it having been decided that he should be a merchant rather than a scholar, he abandoned the collegiate course at the very outset of the term, and came at once

VOL. VI. 1

to Boston, to enter upon commercial pursuits in connection with his elder brother, the late excellent Mr. Samuel Appleton. By his perseverance, his industry, his integrity, and his force of character, he rose to the very first rank among the merchants of Boston, and identified himself with not a few of the most important enterprises of the last half-century. He was associated with the late Mr. Francis C. Lowell in the introduction of the power loom into our country, and in the establishment of the cotton manufacture in New England; and he was one of the founders of the great manufacturing city which bears the name of his associate and friend.

But his practical pursuits by no means absorbed his attention. He found time to observe, to think, to read, and to study; and he acquired the power of communicating the results of his reading and reflection in a style of remarkable condensation and clearness.

He was not without a taste for natural science, and was early accustomed to travel with a compass in his pocket, with a view to making observations as he went along. In a communication which he prepared in April, 1826, and which was published in Silliman's Journal in the following October, under the title of Proofs that General and Powerful Currents have swept and worn the Surface of the Earth,” he was among the first to call attention to those grooves and scratches on the surface of the rocks which have since given occasion to so much scientific discussion..

His studies, however, were mainly directed to subjects connected with his business pursuits. He studied the laws of currency and credit, of trade and revenue, of labor and wages ; and his writings on all these topics were among the most valuable of the period in which he lived. They were generally brief articles, thrown into the columns of a newspaper from day to day, to meet the exigencies of an immediate question. But sometimes they assumed the form of elaborate essays. His “ Remarks on Currency and Banking,” published originally in 1841, and which reached a third edition in 1857, may be mentioned particularly, as an important contribution to the right understanding of this much-vexed subject, and one which has by no means lost its interest or its value with the occasion which called it forth.

Mr. Appleton was frequently employed in public life, and rendered distinguished service to the Commonwealth and to the whole country, both as a member of our State Legislature, and as a member of Congress. His speeches, in the House of Representatives of the OF ARTS AND SCIENCES : MAY 27, 1862.

United States, on the Tariff and the Protective System, were marked with great ingenuity and ability. He was an antagonist whom no one cared to encounter a second time. But his tastes were not for the strifes and contentions of political service, and he always returned with eagerness to the quieter walks and duties of life. He was universally respected in the community in which he lived, and will long be remembered among our most sagacious and successful merchants, and among our most enterprising, upright, and public-spirited citizens.

The Hon. SAMUEL Atkins Eliot died at Cambridge, on the 30th day of January, 1862, in the 63d year of his age.

He was the third son of Samuel Eliot, Esq., an eminent and wealthy merchant of Boston, whose name is so honorably connected with the Professorship of the Greek Language and Literature at Harvard University.

March, 1798, and was graduated at Harvard in 1817. After finishing his collegiate course, he entered on the study of divinity, but soon abandoned the idea of becoming a clergyman. He did not attach himself, however, to any other profession, but devoted himself for many years to literary studies and pursuits. He was deeply interested in the public charities of Boston, and contributed several elaborate articles in relation to them to the pages of the North American Review. He was an ardent lover of music, and was hardly second to any one of his time in his efforts to promote the systematic culture of this delightful science in the community in which he lived.

He was an active and earnest friend to the University at Cambridge; serving it faithfully for more than ten years as its Treasurer ; adding to its Library a noble collection of works on American History, at a cost of not less than five thousand dollars ; and preparing and publishing (in 1848) a compendious and excellent sketch of its rise and progress.

His services were often put in requisition by his fellow-citizens in important public stations. He was associated, for a period of five successive years, with the municipal government of his native city, — for two years as one of its Aldermen, and for three years as its Mayor. In 1850 he was elected to Congress as the Representative of the Boston District, and took his seat at a moment when the ordinary responsibilities of the longest service were crowded within the little period of an expiring term. In all these positions he exhibited a

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