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higher than any other part of the same, and the corresponding lower corner being the lowest part of the diamond. The claim of the patent is this : “A wash-board of sheet metal, formed with a series of raised diamond-shaped projections, B, and a series of narrow diagonal grooves, b, between the projections, which cross each other, substantially as set forth.”

The case was heard on pleadings and proofs in the Circuit Court. That court entered a decree declaring that the equities were with the defendant and dismissing the bill.

It is entirely clear that the specification of the Todd patent describes the grooves in the metal as being horizontal and vertical, and gives no other meaning to the words “transverse" and “ longitudinal.” It describes the transverse and longitudinal corrugating or ribbing as producing projections wbich are bounded by horizontal and vertical grooves. From the evidence, Todd took the old zinc wash-board corrugated into horizontal grooves, and corrugated or ribbed it again by vertical grooves crossing the horizontal grooves at right angles. Nothing is said in the specification as to the method of producing the corrugating or ribbing, nor does the patent claim any process or machinery.

In the Galusha and Safford patent of December, 1857, there is shown a wash-board formed of corrugated sheet metal. The specification states that the corrugations are forined of a series of elevations and depressions, the elevations and depressions being in parallel rows and in alternate positions with respect to each other; that the corrugations are oblong, their ends and sides inclined, and their edges somewhat rounded ; that each elevation forms a figure approximating to a semi-cylinder pointed at each end, the ends of the elevations in one row overlapping the ends of those in the adjoining rows; that thus channels are forined for the escape of water downward; and that the form of the corrugations stiffens the board, as compared with the old form of parallel flutes extending entirely across the plate.

In the Crihfield patent of October, 1870, there is shown a zinc wash-board, composed of a series of irregularly placed diamond-shaped raised pieces, arranged in rows crosswise of the board from top to bottom, each alternate row being composed of more elevations than the adjacent row, the elevations in one

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row being opposite the spaces between the elevations in the two adjacent rows, and a series of oblique channels being thus formed up and down the board from either side. The specification states that the boards can be stamped out by die plates.

Nothing is shown in evidence to defeat the novelty of the claims of the Todd reissue, but, in view of the structures shown in the patents of Galusha and Safford and of Crihfield, the claims of the Todd reissue must be so limited as not to extend to a structure such as is described in the Hull patent. We do not perceive that in the wash-boards made by the defendant there is any substantial departure from the description in the Hull.patent.

The case is one where, in view of the state of the art, the invention must be restricted to the form shown and described by the patentee. In the field of wash-boards made of sheet metal, with the surface broken into protuberances formed of the body of the metal, so as to make a rasping surface, and to strengthen the metal by its form, and to provide channels for the water to run off, Todd was not a pioneer. He merely devised a new form to accomplish these results. Railway Company v. Sayles, 97 U. S. 554. The defendant adopts another form. Under such circumstances the Todd patent cannot be extended so as to embrace the defendant's form. The latter is not a mere colorable departure from the form of Todd, but is a substantial departure. These views are in accordance with those heretofore announced by this court in Merrill v. Yeomans, 94 id. 568; Keystone Bridge Co. v. Phænix Iron Co., 95 id. 274; and Burns v. Meyer, 100 id. 671.

Decree affirmed.

GAGE v. HERRING.

1. Where, within four months before their expiration, letters-patent, covering a

single claim for a combination of several elements, are reissued and extended, with the same description as before, but containing in addition to the original claim one for a combination of some of the elements only, the

reissue is invalid as to the new claim. 2. Letters-patent for a combination of several elements are not infringed by

using less than all the elements. 3. In letters-patent for an improvement in cooling and drying meal during its

passage from the millstones to the bolts, the claim was for the arrangement and combination of a fan, producing a suction blast; the meal chest; a spout forming a communication between the fan and the meal chest; a dust room above, to catch the lighter part of the meal thrown upwards by the current of air; a rotating spirally.flanched shaft in the meal chest, con. veying the meal to the elevator; a similar shaft in the dust room, convey. ing the meal dust to the elevator; and the elevator, taking the meal to the bolts. Within four months before the expiration of the letters, they were reissued and extended, with two claims, the one a repetition of the original claim, and the other for the combination of the fan, the communicating spout, the meal chest with the conveying shaft in it, and the clevator, but omitting the dust room with its conveying shaft. Held, that the reissue is valid for the old claim only; and is not infringed by the use of the fan, spout, meal chest with its conveying shaft, elevator, and dust room, without any conveying shaft in the dust room, or other mechanism performing the same function.

APPEAL from the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of New York.

The case is stated in the opinion of the court.
Mr. George Harding for the appellants.

Mr. Eduin S. Jenney and Mr. Benjamin F. Thurston for the appellees.

MR. JUSTICE GRAY delivered the opinion of the court.

This is a bill in equity for the infringement of letters-patent for an improvement in means for cooling and drying meal, reissued to John Denchfield, and duly assigned to the plaintiffs. The original letters patent to Denchfield were dated 20th April, 1858. The reissued letters-patent were dated 16th January, 1872, and extended for a period of seven years from 20th April, 1872. The Circuit Court held that the first claim of

the reissued patent was valid and bad been infringed, and entered a decree for the plaintiffs. See 14 Blatchf. 293. The defendants appealed to this court.

The original patent begins by stating that Denchfield has invented a new and improved arrangement of means for cooling and drying meal, during its passage from the grinding stones to the bolts.” The reissued patent omits, in this connection, the words “during its passage from the grinding stones to the bolts.” But both the original and the reissue, after referring to the same accompanying drawings, proceed as follows, the words in brackets being inserted in the reissue only:

“ This invention consists in the peculiar arrangement of a suction fan, [conveyor or] conveyors, and elevators, as hereinafter described, whereby the meal, during its passage from the grinding stones to the bolts, is thoroughly dried and cooled within a limited space, the whole forming a simple and economical device."

Then follows a description, which is the same in the original patent and in the reissue, and is in substance as follows:

The millstones, A, and curbs, are arranged in the ordinary way on the bed, B. Spouts, C, carry the meal from the stones down into a chest, D, which is placed horizontally on the flooring of the mill. This chest is equal in length to the bed, so that all the spouts of the several stones may communicate with it; and it is divided horizontally lengthwise by a zigzag partition having openings in it. Within and at the bottom of this chest is placed a longitudinal shaft, F, having a spiral flanch on it. With one end of this shaft an elevator, F', communicates, which discharges its contents at e. A fan, G, is placed in a suitable box, H. This box communicates with a spout, I, the lower end of which communicates with the chest D, and the upper end with one end of a chest, J, in the uppermost part of the mill. Within that chest a series of vertical partitions, i, is so placed as to form a winding passage from its communication with the spout I to an opening at the opposite end of the chest. That chest also contains a longitudinal shaft, K, having a spiral flanch on it. Both shafts, F, K, are rotated by any proper means.

VOL. XVII.

41

The rest of the specification, and the claim, both in the original patent and 'in the reissue, differing only by inserting in the reissue the parts printed below in brackets, are as follows :

“The operation is as follows: The meal passes from the stones A down the spouts C and into the lower part of the chest D, and is conveyed by the spirally-flanched shaft F into the elevators F', the shaft F, which is a conveyor, moving the meal in the direction indicated by the arrows 3. The meal is carried up by the elevators and discharged at e directly into the bolts or into troughs, and may be conveyed by hopper-boys or any suitable conveying device into the bolts. While the meal is thus passed through the stones A, spouts C, and the chest D, a suction blast is produced by the fan G, said blast absorbing the moisture or vapor which the meal contains, and which is heated or warmed by the friction of the stones A. The meal, therefore, is dried and cooled, and, in consequence of the time consumed during its passage through the spouts C and chest D, will be perfectly acted upon by the blast, so that all free moisture will be absorbed. A portion of the finer and lighter particles of flour will follow the blast, and will be ejected up through the spout I and through the serpentine or winding passage formed by the parts i, and will settle in the outer end of the chest J, and be conveyed by the conveyor or flanched shaft K to a spout, j, through which it falls into the elevators F and unites with the meal which is received by the elevators direct from the chest D. (This compound arrangement for operating on the meal while passing through the chest D, and on the escaped flour in the chest J, returning the latter to the elevators, while it is extremely well adapted for large flouring mills running at high speeds and with a strong suction blast, may not be either necessary or even practicable in all cases. When the grinding friction evolves only a moderate degree of heat, the chest J and its apparatus may be dispensed with, for, the blast being moderated to correspond, 80 small a quantity of the fine flour will be drawn through the spout I, that such flour may be ejected on the mill floor, and be disposed of in any convenient way so as to enter the bolts.]

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