A review of the financial situation of the East-India company, in 1824

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1825
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125 페이지 - It is asked whether a paramount sovereign shall give all the land, including pasture ground, highways, and the site of lakes and ponds ; an universal monarch, the whole earth ; and a subordinate prince, the entire province over which he rules ? To that question the answer is : the monarch has not property in the earth, nor the subordinate prince in the land. By conquest kingly power is obtained and property in house and field which belonged to the enemy. The maxim of the law, that the king is lord...
159 페이지 - Collector having any judicial power whatever. As Manager of an estate only he ought to be considered; consequently we must be jealous of his power, lest he should pervert it to purposes of extortion. Every Manager of an estate has, in India, a natural inclination or tendency towards extortion. If any man, whose business it is to collect rent from the Ryots, shall persuade himself that, while so occupied, he is the fittest person in the world to defend these Ryots from the oppressions which he and...
149 페이지 - Herculean task, or rather a visionary project, even in the most civilized countries of Europe, of which every statistical information is possessed, and of which the government are one with the people ; viz. to fix a land-rent, not on each province, district, or country, not on each estate or farm, but on every separate field within their dominions. In pursuit of this supposed improvement, we find them unintentionally dissolving the ancient ties, 'the ancient usages...
141 페이지 - The number of years, and the gradational rise in each year, depend upon the nature of the land and the custom of the village. They are known to all parties ; and all doubts are removed by their being detailed in a proclamation or cowle namah, under the Collector's seal, circulated to every village. If the cultivation is the same as last year's, and no failures occur among the ryots, the rents remain unaltered. If the crops are bad, and it appears that some of the poor ryots must have a remission,...
129 페이지 - ... wells. or by water raised by machinery from rivers and nullahs; provided the cultivators keep the wells or embankments (Dirroas) in repair at their own expense. A similar reduction shall be allowed on the lands watered by small tanks, wherever the cultivators agree to bear the expense of repairs. " 5th. Every Ryot shall be at liberty, at the end of every year, either to throw up a part of his land or to occupy more, according to his circumstances...
144 페이지 - ... negligence, or misfortune ? A must pay the debt of B. If a village be prosperous, it matters little, for the next village may have been exposed to some calamity ; and, from the abundance of the one, we exact wherewithal to supply the deficiency of the other. Is it possible to fancy a system...
164 페이지 - common law of India in civil matters, as that " by Jury is of England ; no native thinks that " justice is done where it is not adopted, and in " appeals of causes formerly settled, whether " under a Native Government, or under that of " the Company, previous to the establishment of " the courts, the reason assigned in almost * Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Muuro.
141 페이지 - the case of decrease, the rent of the lands thrown up " is deducted from the settlement of last year; in that " of increase, the rent of the land newly occupied is " added; and in both cases the rent of the remaining '' lands remains the same as before. The rent of the :' land newly occupied is determined by the accounts " of what it was in former times; or, if such accounts "• cannot be procured, by the opinions of the most in...
142 페이지 - I find a system requiring a multiplicity of instruments, surveyors, and inspectors ; assessors, ordinary and extraordinary ; potails, curnums, tehsildars,. and cutcherry servants ; and when I read the description given of these officers by the most zealous advocates of the system, their periodical visitations are pictured in my imagination as the passage of a flight of locusts, devouring in their course the fruits of the earth.

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