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107 ployed in several great transactions for raising loans, by which he realized a vast profit.

8. In time he became immensely rich, and put his three sons into the same kind of business in the three chiēf capitals of Europe-London, Păris, and Vienna. All of them prospered. They became the wealthiest private men whom the world has ever known. He who lived in London, left at his death thirtyfive millions of dollars. The other two have been created bărons, and are perhaps not less wealthy. Thus a family, whose purse has maintained war and brought ăbout peace, owes all its greatness to one act of honesty under trust.


. I.

MTEVER speak any thing for å truth which you know or

I believe to be false. Lying is a great sin ăgainst God, who gave us a tongue to speak the truth, and not falsehood. It is a great offense against humanity itself; for, where there is no regard to truth, there can be no safe society between man and man. And it is an injury to the speaker ; for, besides the disgrace which it brings upon him, it occasions so much baseness of mind, that he can scarcely tell truth, or avoid lying, even when he has no color of necessity for it; and, in time, he comes to such a pass, that as other people can not believe he speaks truth, so he himself scarcely knows when he tells a falsehood.

2. As you must be careful not to lie, so you must avoid coming near it. You must not equivocate, nor speak any thing positively for which you have no authority but report, or conjecture, or opinion.

3. Let your words be few, especially when your superiors or strāngers are present, lest you betray your own weakness, and 1 Vienna, (ve én' nå).

3 E quỉv' o cāte, to use expres? Băr' on, a nobleman ; in Eng- sions or words which may be underland, a nobleman of the lowest grade stood in two or more ways, with a of rank in the House of Lords.

view to mislead.

rob yourselves of the opportunity which you might otherwise have had, to gain knowledge, wisdom, and experience, by hearing those whom you silence by your impertinent' talking.

4. Be not too earnèst, loud, or violent in your conversation. Silence your oppo'nent" with reason, not with noise. Be careful not to interrupt another when he is speaking : hear him out, and you will understand him the better, and be able to give him the better answer.

5. Consider before you speak, especially when the business is of moment; weigh the sense of what you mean to utter, and the expressions you intend to use, that they may be significant, pertinent, and inoffensive. Inconsiderate persons do not think till they speak; or they speak, and then think.

6. Some men excel in husbandry,' some in gardening, some in mathematics. In conversation, learn, as near as you can, where the skill or excellence of any person lies ; put him upon talking on that subject, observe what he says, keep it in your memory, or commit it to writing. By this means, you will glean the werth and knowledge of everybody you converse with; and at an easy rate acquire what may be of use to you on many occasions.

7. When you are in company with light, vain, impertinent persons, let the observing of their failings make you the more cautious, both in your conversation with them and in your general behavior, that you may avoid their ērrors. If any one, whom you do not know to be a person of truth,' sobriety, and weight, relates strānge stories, be not too ready to believe or report them; and yet (unless he is one of your family acquaintances) be not too forward to contradict him. If the occasion requires you to declare your opinion, do it modestly and gently, not bluntly nor coarsely : by this means you will avoid giving

offense, or being abused for too much credulity.' I 8. If a man, whose integrity' you do not very well know,

"Im per ti nent, not relating to Hŭs' band ry, the business of the subject; rude; meddling with cultivating the earth, raising cattle, what does not belong to us.

and the management of the dairy. ? Op põ' nent, one who opposes; Truth, (trởth), see Rule 4, p. 24. especially one who opposes in a dis- "Cre dū’ litý, easiness of belief; putation or argument.

a disposition to believe on slight 3 Sig nyf' i cant, full of meanings evidence or proof.

4 Per tinent, appropriate to the In těg'ri ty, uprightness; the case; fitted to the end.

highest degree of honesty.

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u to your ; also, of him ved, his regard tonn

make you great and extraordinary' professions, do not give much credit to him. Probably you will find that he aims at something besides kindness to you, and that when he has served his turn, or been disappointed, his regard for you will grow cool. Beware, also, of him who flatters you, and commends you to your face, or to one who he thinks will tell you of it; most probably he has ēither deceived and åbūsed you, or means to do so. Remember the fable of the fox commending the singing of the crow, that had something in her mouth which the fox wanted.

9. Be careful that you do not commend yourselves. It is a sign that your reputation is small and sinking, if your own tongue must praise you; and it is fulsome’ and unpleasing to others to hear such commendations. Speak well of the absent whenever you have a suitable opportunity. Never speak ill of them, or of anybody, unless you are sure they deserve it, and unless it is necessary for their ăměndment, or for the safety and benefit of others.

10. Avoid, in your ordinary communications, not only oaths, but all imprecations and earnèst protestā'tions. Forbear scoffing and jesting at the condition or natural defects of any person. Such offenses leave a deep impression; and they often cost a man dear.

11. Be very careful that you give no reproachful, menacing,' or spiteful words to any person. Good words make friends : bad words make enemies. It is great prudence to gain as many friends as we honestly can, especially when it may be done at so easy a rate as a good word ; and it is great folly to make an cnemy by ill words, which are of no advantage to the party who uses them. When faults are committed, they may, and by a superior they must, beæreproved ; but let it be done without reproach or bitterness : otherwise it will lose its due end and use, and, instead of reforming the offense, it will exasperate the offender, and lay the reprover justly open to reproof.

12. If a person be passionate, and give you ill language, rather pity him than be moved to anger. You will find that silence,

? Extraordinary, (eks trår di na- ing by over-fullness, or too much ; rỹ), out of the common course ; more nauseous. than common.

3 Měn' a cing, expressing a deter• Făl some, offending or disgust- mination to injure; threatening.

or věry gentle words, are the most ěx'quisite' revenge for reproaches ; they will either cure the distemper in the angry man, and make him sorry for his passion, or they will be a severe reproof and punishment to him. But, at any rate, they will preserve your innocence, give you the deserved reputation of wisdom and moderation, and keep up the serenity” and composure of your mind. Passion and anger make a man unfit for every thing that becomes him as a man or as a Christian.

13. Never utter any profane speeches, nor make a jest of any Scripture expressions. When you pronounce the name of God or of Christ, or repeat any passages or words of Holy Scripture, do it with reverence and seriousnèss, and not lightly, for that is “ taking the name of God in vain.” If you hear of any unseemly expressions used in religious exercises, do not publish them : endeavor to forgět them ; or, if you mention them at all, let it be with pity and sorrow, not with derision or reproach.



N EVER have I known such ă fireside companion as Dr.

Franklin. Great as he was, both as a statesman and a philosopher, he never shone in a light more winning than when he was seen in a domestic circle.

2. It was once my good fortune to pass two or three weeks with him, at the house of a private gentleman, in the back part of Pennsylvaniä ; and we were confined to the house during the whole of that time, by the unintermitting: constancy and depth of the snow. But confinement could never be felt where Franklin was an inmate. His cheerfulness and his colloquial powers spread around him a perpetual spring. There was no ambition of eloquence, no effort to shine in any thing that came

* Exquisite, (éks' kwi zit), care- 3 Un'in ter mit' ting, ceaseless; fully selected or sought out; hence, without interruption. very nice; very great; giving rare Con' stan cy, permanent state; satisfaction.

unalterable continuance. ? Se rěn' i ty, clearness and calm 6 Col lo' qui al, conversational; ness ; quietness; coolness,

relating to conversation.



light, withoision" like hitheir nati

from him. There was nothing which made any demand zither upon your allegiance' or your admiration.

3. His manner was as unaffected as infancy. It was nature's self. He talked like an old pātriarch ;' and his plainnèss and simplicity put you, at once, at your ease, and gave you the full and free possession and use of all your faculties.

4. His thoughts were of a character to shine by their own light, without any adventitious: aid. They required only a medium of vision like his pure and simple style, to exhibit to the highest advantage their native rādiance and beauty.

5. His cheerfulness was unremitting.' It seemed to be as much the effect of the systematic and salutaryo exercise of the mind, as of its superior organization. His wit was of the first order. It did not show itself merely in occasional corusca- tions ;” but, without any effort or force on his part, it shed a constant stream of the purèst light over the whole of his discourse.

6. Whether in the company of commons or nobles, he was always the same plain man; always most perfectly at his ease, his faculties in full play, and the full orbit” of his genius forever clear and unclouded. And then the stores of his mind were inexhaustible. He had commenced life with an attention so vigilant, that nothing had escaped his observation, and a judgment so solid, that every incident was turned to advantage.

7. His youth had not been wasted in idleness, nor overcast by intemperance. He had been all his life a close and deep reader, as well as thinker ; and by the force of his own powers,

1 Allegiance, (al le'jans), the ob- Rā' di ance, vivid light; brilligation or tie, declared or under liancy; brightness. stood, which a subject owes to his Un're mỉt' ting, not abating ; government, prince, or superior. ceaseless ; constant.

? Pa' tri arch, the father and ruler, 8 Sýs'tem åt' ic, orderly; regu. of a family.

'lar; according to a fixed plan. * Adventitious, (åd'ven tish' us), Săl' u ta ry, useful; wholesome; coming from abroad; added ; casual healthful. or accidental.

10 Or' gan i zā' tion, structure; 4 Mē' di um, necessary means of the parts of which a thing is formed. motion or action; that through or Corus cā' tions, shinings ; by which any thing is done, con- quick flashings of light. veyed, or carried on.

12 Orbit, circle in which some • Vision, (viz' in), sight.

thing moves.

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