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ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

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For ó, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, 00, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.

For o, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.

For ở, ew, 0e, 00, ou, w, ui ; as in grew, shoe, spoon, soup, rude, fruit.

For , eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.

For ů, 0, 0e, 00, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ů, 0, 00, ou; wolf, book, could.
For ou, ow; as in now.
For oi (đi), oy; as in boy.

II. SUBTONIC AND ATONIC ELEMENTS.
For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph.
For j,g; as in gem, gin.
For k, c, ch, gh, 2; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette.
For s, c; as in cell.
For t, d, th, phth ; as in danced, Thames, phthisic.
For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen.
For y, i ; as in pinion.
For z, C, 8, 2; as in suffice, rose, xebec.
For 2, 9, 8; as in rouge, osier.
For ng, n; as in anger, bank.
For ch, t; as in fustian.

For sh, c, ch, s, ss, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure, martial.

V.

ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

AFTER the instructor has given a class thorough drill

on the preceding tables, as arranged, the following exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the student with different combinations of sounds. Students will not pass from these exercises until they can utter the elements represented by the figured vowels in whatever order the instructor may require. As the fifth element represented by a, and the third element of e, are always immediately followed by the oral element of r in words, the r is introduced in like manner in these exercises. The sixth sound of a, when not a syllable by itself, is always immediately followed by the oral element of f, n, or s, in words. For convenience, f only is introduced in these combinations.

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I. TONICS AND SUBTONICS. ba, ba bar, baf; be, be, ber; bồ, bỏ, bỏ; bi, bủ, bủ; bou.

b, b, arb, af; ab, b, érb; | db, b, b; b, b, b; oub.

dair, daf; de, | der; dů; dù, dů, doll. ard, af; ad, | ad, érd;

d; id, id, oud. går, gåf;

ger; gỗ; gủ,

gou. årg, åf;

oug.

erg;

og;

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jåf, jår,

1 , 也;

jú; jou. låf, lår,

lả, là; | lén, le, le; 11, i;

lů, lů, lů; lou. åf, årl, ål,

al, dl; 1, il; 31,

| u; oul. måf, mår, må, | ma, ma; mer, me, me; mi, mi; mů, mò; mů, mů, mů; mou. afarm, am, am, am, am; arm, em, em; im, im; m, m, om; tim, im, im; oum.

nå, nå, nå, når, nåf, nå; nė, něr, ně; ni, ni; nd, no, nd; nu, ni, na; nou.

ång, årng, ång, åf, ang, ang; eng, erng, eng; | jing, ing; óng, ing, ing; ing, ing, ing; oung.

rả, rå, rår, rå, så, råf; rė, rêr, re; n, i; r, b, rd; ri, ri, ; rou,

ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

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4. Anhà, thå, fhår, fhåf, fhà, fins; ther, the, thể;

hi, thỉ; 8, thô, tỏ; thu, thủ, hủ; hoi. åth, afh; df, åth, årth, å fh; ěth, érth, eth;

ith; oth, öth, oth; åth, ùth, úth; outh va, var, va, vf . ya; ver, ve, vé; vi; vo, vs. v; va, a, vu; you.

åv, årv; érv, év, év; [iy; ov, y, ov; ův, úv, ův; ouv.

wa, war, w, wa, waf; wer, we, we; w, wi; wo, w, wd; wu, w, wh; woul.

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1. , fa, 强, , gr, f; , , er; | f, f; f, 3, 8; , , ; fou. hår, håf, hå, hå, hā, hă; hệ, hê, hêr;

| hi; ho, | hd; hu, hd, hi; hou.

ăk, åk, ark, f; ēk, erk; ik, ik; ök,

8k; ūk, Åk, úk; ouk. pă, på, på, pår, påf; pě, pē, për; pl; po,

pů, pů; pou. f ars, , as, as, as; ars, 8, 6s; is, IS; 6s, OS, OS; as,

。 s, is; ous. tắt, tảy, tá, tủ, tà, tã; t&r, te, tế;

, i; th, t, to; tu, th, u; tou. that thar, tha, tha, tha, tha; ther, the, the; ith, th; oth, th, oth; ath, th,th; outh, ouch; ch, ach, ich; ch, ch, och; ich, ich; arch, ech, ech; at ach, ach, arch, ach, ach.

3. chou; chủ, chũ, chủ; chỗ, chó, chõ; chi, chĩ; | chẳr, chế, chế; cha, chã, chủ, chả, chẳr, chăf.

oush; ůsh, ush, ūsh; Òsh, ởsh, osh; ish, īsh; érsh, ēsh, ësh; ash, if, ăsh, åsh, åsh, årsh, shou; shů, shủ, shū; sh8, shỏ, sho; shī, shị; shër, shē, shë; shåf, shår, shā, shå, shă, shå. whou; whủ, whů, whū; who, who, whỏ; whī, whỉ; wher, whệ, whē; whåf, whår, whå, whă, whā, whà.

VI. ERRORS IN ARTICULATION. T RRORS in Articulation arise chiefly, first, from the U omission of one or more elements in a word; as, an for and.

stå’m for storm. frien's 66 friends. wãom ( wẩm. blin'ness “ blind ness. bois t'rous “ bois tér ous. fac's 6 facts.

chick’n 6 chick en. sof' ly 6 soft ly. his try « his to ry. fiel's 6 fields.

nov'l 6 nov ěl. wil's 66 wilds.

travl 6 trav čl. Secondly, from uttering one or more elements that should not be sounded; as, év en for ev'n.

ravěl for rav'l. heav en “ heav'n. sev en 6 sev'n. tảk en tåk’n.

Sof tên “ sofn. sick en 6 sick’n.

shåk en shåk'n. driv el 66 driv'l.

shov el “ shov'l. grov el 6 grov’l. shriy el “ shriv'l. Thirdly, from substituting one element for another; as, set for sit.

dånce for dånce. sence 66 since."

påst “ påst. shet « shůt.

6 åsk. for git « for get.

gråss. cåre o cảre.

srill

shrill

åsk gråss

ANALYSIS OF WORDS.

wirl for whirl.

chil drun for chil dren. a gån " again (ă gen). sůl ler 66 cel lar. a gånst « against (ă genst). mel ler " mel lów. hèrth 6 hearth (hårth). pil ler 66. pil lów. cårse « course.

mo munt « mo mėnt. re pårt re port.

harm liss" harm léss. tröf fy & trò phy.

kind niss « kind nėss. på rent 6 pår ent.

wis per 6 whis per. bản net & bồn net. | sing in “ sing ing.

VII.
ANALYSIS OF WORDS.

TN order to secure a practical knowledge of the preced

I ing definitions and tables, to learn to spell spoken words by their oral elements, and to understand the uses of letters in written words, the instructor will aid the pupil to master the following exhaustive, though simple analysis.

ANALYSIS.—1st. The word SALVE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of three oral elements; så v—salve. [Here let the pupil utter the three oral elements separately, and then pronounce the word.] The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The third is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word SALVE, in writing, is represented by five letters; salve-salve. S represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the first oral element of z; hence, it is a cognate of %. A represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. L is silent. V represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is formed by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of f; hence, it is a cognate of f. Eis silent.

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