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They gallop ålõng, with a roaring song,
Away to the eager awaiting sea!
The mustering squadron, and the clattering car
And swiftly forming in the ranks of war. 3. MODERATE RATE is used in ordinary assertion, narration, and description; in cheerfulness, and the gentler forms of the emotions; as,
When the sun walks upon the blue sea-waters,
The truth reflected which he casts on me. 4. Slow RATE is used to express grandeur, vastness, pathos, solemnity, adoration, horror, and consternation; as,
O thou Eternal One! whose presence bright
All space doth occupy, all motion guide;
Thou only God! There is no God beside!
Whom none can comprehend and none explore!
Embracing all, supporting, ruling o'er-
The lowing herd winds slowly o’er the lea;
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
V. MONOTONE. M ONOTONE consists of a degree of sameness of sound, W or tone, in a number of successive words or syllables.
2. It is very seldom the case that a perfect sameness is to be observed in reading any passage or sentence. But very little variety of tone is to be used in reading either prose or verse which contains elevated descriptions, or emotions of solemnity, sublimity, or reverence.
3. The monotone usually requires a low tone of the voice, loud or prolonged force, and a slow rate of utterance. It is this tone only, that can present the conditions of the supernatural and the ghostly.
The sign of monotone is a horizontal or even line over the words to be spoken evenly, or without inflection; as,
I heard a voice saying, Shall mortal man be more just than Gòd! Shall a man be more pure than his Maker!
EXERCISES IN MONOTONE. 1. Lord, thou hast been our dwelling-place in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God.
2. Man dieth, and wasteth awày: yea, man giveth up the ghóst, and where is hè? As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth úp, so man lieth down, and riseth nòt; till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.
3. The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces,
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve,
I am thy father's spirit;
VI. PERSONATION. D ERSONATION consists of those modulations, or,
1 changes of the voice, necessary to represent two or more persons as speaking.
2. This principle of expression, upon the correct application of which much of the beauty and efficiency of delivery depends, is employed in reading dialogues and other pieces of a conversational nature.
3. The student should exercise his discrimination and ingenuity in studying the character of persons to be represented,—fully informing himself with regard to their temperament and peculiarities, as well as their condition and feelings at the time,-and so modulate his voice as best to personate them.
EXERCISE IN PERSONATION.
Dream'st thou, sweet daughter, of a land more fair?
These spicy forests ? and this golden air ?
And more than all, O father, I love thee;
Where such things never were, nor e'er shall be.
To what pale, banished region wouldst thou roam ?
Let's seek that country of all countries—HOME!
Its head up toward heaven's blue and cloudless dome ?
My heart is wandering round our ancient home. He. Why, then, we'll go. Farewell, ye tender skies,
Who sheltered us, when we were forced to roam 1 She. On, on! Let's pass the swallow as he flies !
Farewell, kind land! Now, father, now——FOR Home!
D AUSES are suspensions of the voice in reading and 1 speaking, used to mark expectation and uncertainty, and to give effect to expression.
Pauses are often more eloquent than words. They differ greatly in their frequency and their length. In lively conversation and rapid argument, they are comparatively few and short. In serious, dignified, and pathetic speaking, they are far more numerous, and more prolonged.
The pause is marked thus , in the following illustrations and exercises.
N OMINATIVES.-A pause is required after a compound
I nominative, in all cases; and after a nominative consisting of a single word, when it is either emphatic, or is the leading subject of discourse; as,
Joy and sorrow move him not. No people y can claim him. No country can appropriate him.
2. WORDS IN APPOSITION.—A pause is required after words which are in apposition with, or opposition to, each other; as,
Solomon y the son of David y was king of Israel. False delicacy is affectation not politeness.
3. A TRANSITION.—A pause is required after but, hence, and other words denoting a marked transition, when they stand at the beginning of a sentence; as,
But y it was reserved for Arnold, to blend all these bad qualities into one. Hence Solomon calls the fear of the Lord u the beginning of wisdom
RULES FOR PAUSES.
53 4. CONJUNCTIONS AND RELATIVES.—A pause is required before that, when a conjunction or relative, and the relatives who, which, what; together with when, whence, and other adverbs of time and place, which involve the idea of a relative; as,
He went to school, that he might become wise. This is the man - that loves me. We were present y when La Fayette embarked at Havre for New York.
5. THE INFINITIVE.—A pause is required before the infinitive mood, when governed by another verb, or separated by an intervening clause from the word which governs it; as,
He has gone to convey the news. He smote me with a rod y to please my enemy.
6. IN CASES OF ELLIPSIS, a pause is required where one or more words are omitted ; as,
So goes the world : if wealthy, you may call this friend, that brother.
7. QUALIFYING CLAUSES.- Pauses are used to set off qual ifying clauses by themselves; to separate qualifying terms from each other, when a number of them refer to the same word; and when an adjective follows its noun; as,
The rivulet sends forth glad sounds, and ytripping o'er its bed of pebbly sands, or leaping down the rocks y seems with continuous laughter 4 to rejoice in its own being. He had a mindy deep active well stored with knowledge.
These rules, though important, if properly applied, are by no means complete : nor can any be invented which shall meet all the cases that arise in the complicated relations of thought.
A good reader or speaker pauses, on an average, at every fifth or sixth word, and in many cases much more frequently. His only guide, in many instances, is a discriminating taste in grouping ideas, and separating by pauses those which are less intimately allied. In doing this, he will often use what may be called suspensive quantity..