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SEAMANSHIP,

BEING THE SEAMANSHIP REQUIRED OF CANDIDATES FOR
CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY BOTH IN THE ORDINARY AND EXTRA

EXAMINATIONS, ARRANGED IN QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS,

WITH PLATES OF THE NEW COMMERCIAL CODE

OF SIGNALS, &c.,

BY THOMAS L. AINSLEY,

TEACHER OF NAVIGATION, AND AUTHOR OF “A GUIDE BOOK TO THE LOCAL MARINE
BOARD EXAMINATION,” “THE EXTRA MASTER'S GUIDE BOOK,"

“THE ENGINEER'S MANUAL,ETC.

Thirty-third Edition.

SOUTH SHIELDS:
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THOMAS L. AINSLEY, MILL DAM,

AND PRIMAVESI CHAMBERS, JAMES STREET, CARDIFF.
LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & Co., STATIONERS' HALL COURT;

HAMILTON, ADAMS, & Co., PATERNOSTER ROW;
SAMPSON, LOW, MARSTON, & Co., FLEET STREET:

R. H. LAURIE, 53, FLEET STREET; CHARLES WILSON
(LATE NORIE AND WILSON), 156, MINORIES; JAMES IMRAY AND SON,

89 AND 102, MINORIES; J. D. POTTER, 31, POULTRY.
LIVERPOOL: G. PHILIP AND SON, CAXTON BUILDINGS.

EDINBURGH: J. MENZIES & Co.
SYDNEY & MELBOURNE: GEORGE ROBERTSON.

BURGH: I. 'MOON, CAXTON POULTRY.ND SON,

26325, e. 21

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Masting, Rigging, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. I

Placing of the Standing Rigging .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6

Fittings of the Standing Rigging .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7

Rigging of the Yards .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17

Stowage of Cargoes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 23

Lead Line .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35

Log Line .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37

Tacking, Wearing, Boxing, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Clubhauling .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 45

Boxhauling .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 45

Making and Taking in Sail, &c. .. ..

Lying-to, Scudding, Getting Aback, Squalls, &c. i.

Accidents .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58

Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, &c. .. .. .. .

Aids to Memory, in four verses .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 70

Diagrams to illustrate the use of Lights carried by Vessels at Sea ..

Questions on the Rule of the Road .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72

Commercial Code of Signals, with Plates .. .. .. .. .. .. 93

Use of Mortar and Rocket Apparatus .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 116

Management of Open Rowing-Boats in a Surf .. .. .

117

Ship’s Log Book . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 118

Unmooring, Mooring, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119

Management of a Ship at Single Anchor .. .. .. .. .. .. 127

Diagrams to illustrate the Management of Ships at Single Anchor 133

Mates Duties and Responsibilities .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 134

Additional for First Mates :-

Official Log Book .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 137

Taking in Heavy Weights .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 141

Navigating the English Channel .. .. .. .. .. .. 143

Master's Examination :-

Ship’s Business .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 163

Charter Party .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 163

Bills of Lading .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 167

Invoice .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 172

Manifest .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 172

Lloyd's Agents .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 173

Protests, Surveys, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 173

Bottomry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 179

Average-General and Particular .. .. .. .. .. .. 178

To clear a Ship and Enter her Outwards, &c. .. .. .. 181

Miscellaneous Questions, Jury Rudder, Construction of Rafts, Sea

Anchor, Heaving Down a Ship, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. 186

Questions Relating to Steamers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 197

HEADS OF SEAMANSHIP EXAMINATIONS

. FOR ALL GRADES.

The following list of subjects has been prepared in order to give some idea of the nature of the questions which have to be answered.

SUBJECTS.
Measure blocks, rope, chain, canvas, &c.
Parcel, serve, and fit rope.
Make cringles, rattle rigging.
Reeve tackles, cat fall, lanyards, &c.
Take in, bend, and range cable.
Carry out kedge and bower anchors.
Clear hawse-Use of anchor and mooring buoys.
Out longboat-To manage boat in surf and sea way.
Set and take in topgallant-sails and courses.
Man overboard on a wind, and free-Out and in reefs.
Carrying away parrels, bobstays, braces, backstays, downhauls, &c.
Steering gear carried away-Bowsprit sprung.
Trestle-trees coming down-Rigging slack.
Tacking-Wearing—Changes of wind—Squalls, &c.
Repairing sails; overall patch, and new cloth.
Strip ship-Rig ship.
Jibboom in and out.
Yards and masts up and down-Ship and unship rudder.

ADDITIONAL FOR MATES AND MASTERS.
Tending ship in a tide way.
In and out lowermasts.
Use of Log Book.
Ship on her beam ends—In and out heavy weights.
Boxhaul -Clubhaul.
Get under weigh-Come to an anchor.
Mooring and unmooring-Dragging on a lee shore.
Rig jury rudder-Construct a raft, &c.

QUESTIONS IN SEAMANSHIP, &c.

MASTING, RIGGING, &c. Q.-If you have a largo ship, just launched and lying in the river, the spars for shears floating alongside, how would you get them on board ?

A.-Sling "skids” up and down the sides for the purpose of keeping the shear legs clear of the sides. Secure three or four small spars in a slanting direction from the bulwark, to ease the shears down on. The shears being brought alongside, with their small ends aft, are taken on board either by parbuckle, derrick, or shears. As it is difficult to get heavy spars over the ship's topgallant bulwark, without breaking it, the better plan seems to be to have a pair of small shears forward with two tackles on the head of them, and to get the spars intended for shears in over the bows.

Q.–Next proceed to rig a pair of shears to take your masts in ?

A.- Place their heads or after ends either on the taffrail, the break of the poop, or a spar placed in the most convenient spot, the more elevated the better. Square the heels exactly one with the other, so that when they come to be raised the legs may be found of equal height. Cross their heads, placing the shear head of the side on which the mast is coming in uppermost, and put on the head-lashing of new well-stretched rope, the lashing being at equal distances from the heels of both. After the lashing is on, the lower parts of the shears are drawn asunder, carrying one over to each gangway, and placing it on a solid piece of oak, or shoe, and lash them to the eye-bolts in the shoes; nail cleats on the heel of the shears to prevent the lashing slipping down. Clap stout tackles on the heels, two on each, one leading forward the other aft; set taut the after ones and belay them. Lash a three or four-fold block, as the upper one of the main purchase, over the first lashing (so that it will hang plumb under the cross), with canvas underneath to prevent chafing, passing the lashing round each shear head alternately; also, sufficiently long to secure the free action of the block. Lash the small purchase

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