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effect, “These are my ideas on the subject; you may accept them or not as you choose." On the contrary, he must have a keen desire that his views be accepted, and what is more, a will that they be accepted. This means that when he stands before his auditors he must constantly direct his efforts so to set forth information, to clarify, to remove objections, to please, to appeal to vital motives, to inspire as to induce acquies

Behind his descriptions, his anecdotes, his facts, his generalizations, lies that dominant purpose. The very fact that such a worthy ambition exists will help, on the one hand, to submerge hampering thoughts of self, and on the other hand, to make the expression of thoughts and feelings vital and attractive. No matter, therefore, whether the speaker wishes to get an adoption of text-books for a publishing house, a contribution for infirm inebriates, an acquittal for a client, or an agreement that Shaw is not an imitator of Ibsen, he should go before his listeners with the spirit that wins—the determination to carry them with him.

D. A SPIRIT OF HELPFULNESS The will to persuade and convince has just been referred to as a “worthy ambition.” In justifying this expression, we are concerned with the final factor involved in the attitude of the speaker toward his audience: a desire to benefit those to whom he speaks, or to advance a worthy cause. It is quite possible that in many cases the inexperienced speaker will get from his early efforts the chief benefits, but that might be said about an embryo surgeon or a tyro in the legal practice. Another admission which may be disclosed without hesitation is that, in general, the more a speaker benefits his listeners, the more credit redounds to himself. So, just as honesty pays in speaking, helpfulness pays. In fact, the main point in this discussion is to emphasize the idea that the man who speaks because he desires to perform a service rather than to glorify himself is not only altruistic, he is also wise. If sincerely actuated by the former motive, he is much more likely to be free from the speech shortcomings which arise from attempts to make a personal "hit.” Nervousness, stilted language and construction, forced humor, an effect of insincerity, and other faults tend to characterize the selfcentered speaker. On the contrary, a person who feels a desire to inform, to point out mistakes, to indicate advantages, or to enlist support for a good cause tends toward the simple, attractive, convincing, and natural style of address which has been urged throughout this book.

To secure for himself these advantages and to confer upon others the benefits of helpful address, the speaker needs to sympathize with his audience. When he is talking to those whose point of view is the same as his own, the sympathetic attitude is comparatively easy. But when, because of dissimilarity in education, political or religious convictions, material interests, or social status, the speaker's viewpoint differs from that of his audience,-then arises the necessity for a sympathy more rarely experienced. This, which we call comprehensive sympathy, requires, not that the speaker should think as do his listeners, but that he should understand and appreciate why they think as they do. Occasions thus calling upon a person to view matters from a point of view differing from his own are not uncommon. And it is distinctly to his advantage to cultivate the broad sympathies which enable him to do this. A prosperous man who can, with fellowfeeling, see the situation of a group of disgruntled dock-laborers as these dock-laborers see it themselves, a Free-trader who can really appreciate the viewpoint of a Protectionist audience-such a man is in a favorable position to lead his listeners toward the view which he considers best for them. The ability to see things from the “other fellow's” viewpoint is illustrated in this brief extract from another of Mr. Rockefeller's addresses.

“In order to live, the wage-earner must sell

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his labor from day to day. Unless he can do this, the earnings from that day's labor are gone forever. Capital can defer its returns temporarily in the expectation of future profits, but labor cannot. If, therefore, fair wages and reasonable living conditions cannot otherwise be provided, dividends must be deferred or the industry abandoned. I believe that a corporation should be deemed to consist of its stockholders, directors, officers and employees; that the real interests of all are one, and that neither labor nor capital can permanently prosper unless the just rights of both are conserved.”

E. SUMMARY To sum up briefly, we have seen that the speaker's attitude should be characterized, first, by a watchfulness which enables him to take advantage of the visible effects of his words. This advantage, it was further observed, involves the speaker's ability to adjust his presentation to meet the varying responses of an audience. The second requisite is friendliness. The speaker was cautioned against the domineering attitude, which springs from a disputatious nature, or from the false idea that an audience can be coerced, or is unfortunately adopted as a mask for timidity. On the contrary, he was advised to use the quiet, frank expression of a well-wishing person in dis

cussion with his friends and peers. A will to convince and persuade the audience was the next characteristic advocated. It was noted that the indifferent attitude would not accomplish the desired results, but that the speaker would be helped to achieve his aims by a constant underlying determination to carry his audience with him. Helpfulness, the final factor of the attitude in question, was presented as a quality which is no less beneficial to the speaker than to the auditors. The undesirable results of aiming at self-glorification were pointed out, and the speaker was advised to profit by forgetting himself in a desire to help those addressed. As an aid in accomplishing this end most effectively, he was urged to cultivate broad sympathies with those who for various reasons hold views differing from his own.

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