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was an unfailing source of confusion and ruin, and inevitably productive of rebellion, mutiny, and finally of dissolution; as the poet says,—

(Persian.)—Ten dervishes may repose on one cloak,

But two sovereigns cannot be contained in the same climate.
The man of God, when he eats half a loaf,
Divides the other half among the poor and needy,
If a king subdues a whole kingdom, nay a climate,
Still, as before, he covets yet another.1

That there was every reason to expect that, in a few days, all the chiefs and servants
of Khosrou Shah would come in and make their submission to the King; that among
them there were many seditious and turbulent men, such as the sons of Ayub Beg and
some others, who had always been the movers and exciters of discord and enmity
among the Mirzas; that it was best, at the present moment, to send away Jehangir
Mirza for Khorasan on good and friendly terms, that he might not, by and by, occa-
sion me regret and repentance. As it was not in my nature to treat my brothers or
any of my relations with disrespect or harshness, however instant he was in his repre-
sentations, I could not be prevailed on to assent to them. For although great heart- He refuses.
burning and difference had formerly existed between Jehangir Mirza and me, arising
from our rivalry in authority, and from our both aiming at the possession of the sove-
reignty, yet, at this time, he had left his country to accompany me, he was my bro-
ther and my dependant, and, in addition to this, had not at this time done anything
which could be the ground of dissatisfaction. Afterwards, however, these very ex-
citers of sedition who had been pointed out, Yusef Ayub and Behlul Ayub, deserted
from me, went over to Jehangir Mirza, and were so successful in their seditious
schemes and machinations, that they alienated his mind from me, and carried him
into Khorasan, exactly as Baki Beg had predicted.

At this time there came strange long-winded letters from Sultan Hussain Mirza to Sultan HusBadia-ez-Zcman, to me, to Khosrou Shah, and to Zulniin Beg. These letters are still ^^,"7a s by me. The purport of them was as follows:—When the three brothers, Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Sultan Mahmud Mirza, and Ulugh Beg Mirza, united their forces and advanced against me, I guarded the banks of the river Murglmb,2 and the Mirzas, after having come close up to me, were compelled to retreat, without effecting anything. Should the Uzbeks now advance, I will again defend the banks of the Murghab. Badia-ez-Zeman Mirza, after having put the fortresses of Balkh, Shaberghan, and Andekhud,3 in a state of defence, and confided them to trusty officers, must himself proceed to Gurzewan, the Dereh-e-Zeng,4 and the rest of that hill-country.—He also wrote to me to this effect:—Do you defend Kehmerd, Ajer, and the tract of hillcountry in that neighbourhood. Khosrou Shah, after leaving trusty men in Hissar,

i

1 From the Gulistan of Sadi.

* The river Murghab, rising in the hills of Hazara, flows down by Merv.

* These were the three chief fortresses between the hills and the desert to the north of the Parana- misan mountains. „

4 Gurzewan and the valley of Zeng were the chief passes into the hill country between Balkh and Herat.

and Kundez, is to proceed, accompanied by his brother Wali, to the defence of the hilly tracts of Badakhshan and Khutlfin, so that the Uzbeks will be forced to retreat without effecting anything.—

These letters of Sultan Hussain Mirza threw us into despair; for, at that time, of the whole house of Taimur Beg, there was no sovereign so respectable, either in regard to age, dominions, or military force; and it was expected that envoys and agents would have been treading hard on each other's heels, and assiduously giving orders to collect so many vessels at the passes of Termez, Kilif, and Kirki,1 and so many materials for constructing bridges; and that commands would have been issued for guarding carefully the upper passes of Toguzulum, that the inhabitants, whose spirit for some years had been quite broken down by the incursions of the Uzbeks, might have time to recover heart. But when a mighty prince, like Sultan Hussain Mirza, who occupied the throne of Taimur Beg, instead of proposing to march against the enemy, only issued directions to strengthen a few posts, what hopes could people entertain?

Meanwhile, having left in Ajer such of the men and horses that had accompanied me as had been worn out with hunger and fatigue, together with the family, women, effects, and baggage of Baki Cheghaniani, of Ahmed Kasim's son, of the troops that accompanied them, and of the Aimaks who adhered to them, as well as everything on which they set a value, we marched out and took the field. Persons now arrived in The Mo- uninterrupted succession from the Moghuls in Khosrou Shah's service, announcing that Khosrou the whole Moghul tribes, desirous of professing their allegiance to the King, were on

si.ah's ser- their march from Taikhan,2 towards Ishkemish and Felul; that it was necessary, there vice declare .. . ill -ii • . i e for Baber. fore, that his Majesty should move with the utmost speed to join them; that many or

Khosrou Shah's followers were much distracted, and would embrace the King's service. At this very period, information arrived that Sheibani Khan had taken Andejan, and was advancing against Hissar and Kundez. On hearing this news, Khosrou Shah, unable to support himself in Kundez, took the route of Kabul with his whole force. No sooner had he left Kundez, than Mullah Muhammed Turkestani, one of his old and confidential servants, occupied that fortress, and declared for Sheibani Khan. Just as I reached the Kezel-su3 (the Red River), by the route of Shemtu, three or four thousand heads of houses of the Moghul clans, who had been dependant on Khosrou Shah, and who had been in Hissar and Kundez, came and joined me, with their whole families. Here, in order to gratify Baki Beg, I was obliged to discharge Kamber Ali, the Moghul, who has been so often mentioned. He was a thoughtless and rude talker; and Baki Beg could not put up with his manners. From this time forward, his son Abdal Shakur continued in the service of Jehangir Mirza. Khosrou When Khosrou Shah learned that the Moghul tribes had joined me, he felt his own

Shah submits.

1 These are the three chief passes over the river Amu or Jeibun, between Kabadian and Charju.

2 Mr Metcalfe's copy has Talikhan. Ishkemish is about 15 miles from Kundez to the south-east, and so miles west of Talikhan, which lies on the river of Kundez.

3 It is properly called the Surkhab, which has the same signification. It is the river that flows by Surkh-kilaa (Red-castle), from near Kehmerd on the west, and falls into the river of Anderab, below Doshi.

helplessness; and, seeing no remedy left, sent his son-in-law, Yakub Ayub, as his envoy, to make professions of submission and allegiance, and to assure me that, if I would enter into terms with him, he would come and submit himself. As Baki Cheghaniani, a man of much weight, though steadily attached to my service, yet was not without a natural bias in favour of his brother, he recommended a compromise to be made, on condition that Khosrou's life should be spared, and his property left entirely to his own disposal. A treaty was accordingly concluded on these terms. After Yakub had taken leave, we marched down the Kezel-su, and encamped near its conflux and visits with the river of Anderab. a er

Next morning (it was about the middle of the first Rabia1) I passed the Anderab with a few attendants, and took my seat under the shade of a lofty palm-tree, in the territory of Doshi.2 From the opposite quarter Khosrou Shah advanced with great pomp and retinue; according to the custom and usage, he dismounted at a considerable distance, and walked up on foot. In approaching to salute, he bowed three times, and as often when he retired back. He also bowed once on the usual inquiries being made, and when he presented his offering; and he showed the same marks of respect to Jahangir Mirza, and Mirza Khan. This pompous man, who for years had acted according to his own will and pleasure, and who wanted nothing of royalty, except that he had not caused the Khutbeh to be read in his own name, now bent himself for twenty-five or twenty-six times successively, and went and came back and forward, till he was so tired that he nearly fell right forward. The visions of empire and authority in which for years he had indulged, vanished from his view. After he had saluted me and presented his tributory offering, I desired him to be seated. He sat down and for one or two garis3 we conversed on various subjects and incidents. Besides being of an unmanly and perfidious character, he showed also great want of propriety, and a sneering turn in his conversation. He made two remarks, in particular, which appeared singular as coming from him, at the moment when his most trusty and confidential servants were going over in troops before his eyes, and taking service with me; and when his affairs had arrived at such a pass, that though a man who in his day had enacted the sovereign, he yet was compelled, sore against his will, to come in this wretched and miserable way, and submit himself in a very paltry manner. One of these was, when I was consoling him for the desertion of his servants; he replied, "These fellows have already left me four times, and always come back again." The other was, on my asking after his younger brother, Wali; when he would come, and by what ford he would cross the Amu? he answered, "If he can find a ford he will come over speedily; but when a river comes down in flood, the fords change; as the proverb runs, • the river has carried down its fords.'" At the very moment of the change of his fortune and of the desertion of his servants, Almighty God brought these words out of his own mouth. After one or two parts, I mounted and returned back to the camp, and he also returned to his encampment. That same day, great and small, good and bad, officers and servants, began to forsake him, and

1 The end of August, 1*04.

2 Doshi lies above Ghuri, on the river Anderab, at its conflux with the Surkhab.
'A gari is twenty-four minutes.

B

came and joined me with their families and effects; so that, on the morrow, between mid-day and afternoon prayers, not a man remained with him. (Arabic.) " Say, O my Lord! Thou art the King of kings! Thou givest empire unto whom thou pleasest, and takest empire from whom thou pleasest; and increasest whom thou pleasest, and reducest whom thou pleasest: Beneficence is in thy hand; for, verily, thou art powerful over all things." The Lord is wonderful in his might! A man who was master * of twenty or thirty thousand retainers, and who possessed the whole tract of country

formerly subject to Sultan Mahmud Mirza, extending from Kahlugheh,1 which is also termed Derbend-e-aheni (the Iron-gate), as far as the Hindu-Kush mountains, and one of whose tax-gatherers, named Hassan Birlas, an aged man, had conducted me, in the surliest manner, from Ilak to Ubaj, giving me orders how far I was to march, and where I was to encamp; that this very person, in the space of half a day, without battle, without contest, should be reduced to appear in such a state of distress and wretchedness before a needy and reduced fugitive like me, who had only two hundred or two hundred and fifty tatterdemalions, all in the greatest want; that he should no longer have any power over his own servants, nor over his wealth, nor even his life, was a wonderful dispensation of the Omnipotent! He is char- The evening of the same day in which I returned from the interview with Khosrou murder by Shah, Mirza Khan2 came into my presence and accused him of the murder of his broMirza thers. Many among us were for receiving the charge; and, indeed, it was conformable to every law, human and divine, that such a man should meet with condign punishment; but as an agreement had been entered into with Khosrou Shah, he was left but suffered free and unmolested, and orders were given that he might carry off as much of his' to epan. property as he chose. He accordingly loaded three or four strings3 of mules, and as many camels as he had, with jewels, gold and silver utensils, and other valuables, and set out with them. I directed Shirim Taghai to conduct Khosrou Shah by the route of Ghuri4 and Dehaneh towards Khorasan, and then to proceed himself to Kehmerd and bring my family after me to Kabul. n.ibtr I now left my encampment and marched against Kabul. I halted at Khwajeh-zeid/

"''ainst* That same day, as Khamzeh-bi Mankfat, who headed a plundering party of Uzbeks, Kabul; had made an incursion, and was ravaging the territory of Doshi,6 I dispatched Syed Kasim, the chamberlain,7 and Ahmed Kasim Kohbur, with a party of horse, who fell upon the pillagers, completely routed them, and brought in a number of their heads. At this station the arms and armour which were left in the stores of Khosrou Shah were divided among the troops. There were about seven or eight hundred coats of mail, and suits of home furniture. These were one part of the articles which Khosrou Shah left behind; there were many others beside, but nothing of consequence.

1 This pass, generally called Kaluga, is famous in the history of Taimur Beg, and Chengis Khan. It leads through the chain of the Kara-tagh hills, that lies between Khozar and Hissar.

2 Mirza Khan was Sultan Weis Mirza, youngest son of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, Baber's uncle. One of his brothers, Baiesanghar Mirza, had been murdered, and Sultan Masaud Mirza, another of them, had been blinded by Khosrou Shah, as has been already related in these Memoirs.

3 Seven to a string.—Leyden. * Ghuri lies N.E. from Kehmerd.

5 In the Persian copy, Khwajeh Rind. 'Doshi lies ten or twelve miles S.E. of Ghuri.

'Ishek-agha.

From Khwajeh-zeid, by three or four marches, we reached Ghur-bend.1 On coming to our ground at Ushter-Sheher, we got intelligence that Shirkeh Arghun, the Beg in whom Mbkim reposed the greatest confidence, still ignorant of my approach, had advanced with an army, and taken post on the river Baran, for the purpose of intercepting any who might attempt, by the route of Panjhir,2 to join Abdal Rizak Mirza,3 who had fled at that time from Kabul, and was then among the Turkolani Afghans in the territory of Lamghan. The instant I received this information, which was between mid-day and afternoon prayers, we set out, and marching all night, ascended the hill-pass of Hupian.4 Till this time I had never seen the star Soheil,' (Canopus,) but on reaching the top of a hill, Soheil appeared below, bright to the south. I said, "This cannot be Soheil!" They answered, " It is indeed Soheil." Baki Cheghaniani recited the following verses:—

O Soheil, how far dost thou shine, and where dost thou rise?
Thine eye is an omen of good fortune to him on whom it falls.

The sun was a spear's length high when we reached the foot of the valley of Senjed •

and alighted. The party whom we had sent on in advance to reconnoitre, with a number of enterprising young warriors, fell in with Shirkeh below Karabagh,6 in the territory of Aikeri-Yar, and instantly attacked him; they kept harassing him for some time in a skirmishing fight, till reinforcements came up, when they made a vigorous charge, and completely routed his troops. Shirkeh himself was dismounted and made prisoner, with seventy, eighty, or a hundred of his best men. I spared his life, and he entered into my service.

When Khosrou Shah abandoned Kundez, and set out for Kabul, without troubling is -oined K., himself about his lls and Uluses, (the wandering Turki and Moghul tribes,) the troops some Hazi-in his service, including the Us and Uluses, formed five or six bodies. One of these bodies was composed of the men from the hill-country of Badakhshan. Sidim Ali Derban, with the Hazaras of the desert, having passed the straits of Penjhir,? joined me at this stage, and entered into my service. Another of these bodies, under Yusef Ayub

1 Ghur-bend, or the Pass of Ghur, which lies to the south of the high hills of Hindu-kush, is one of the chief passes from Balkh to Kabul, across that great range.

2 Now Penjshir.

3 Abdal Rizak Mirza was the son of Ulugh Beg Mirza, one of Baber's uncles, the King of Kabul and Ghazni. Ulugh Beg died in 907 of the Hejira, about three years before Baber's invasion. He was succeeded by his son Abdal Rizak Mirza ; but that prince being very young, Shirim Ziker, one of his nobles, usurped the supreme direction of affairs. The other Begs, disgusted with Shirim's conduct, formed a conspiracy and put him to death. During the confusions that ensued, Muhammed Mokim, a son of Zulnun Beg, surprised Kabul in 908, and married a sister of Abdal Rizak Mirza. Affairs were still in confusion when Baber entered the country in 910.

'Hupian, or Upian, is a few miles north of Charikar, on the way to Perwan. Senjed Dereh lies west, or north west of Ghurbend.

5 Soheil is a most conspicuous star in Afghanistan. It gives its name to the south, which is never called Junub, but Soheil. The rising of Soheil marks one of their seasons.

6 Black-garden.

7 The Pass of Penjhir., or Penjshir, is in the Hindu-kush range, to the east of that of Kipchak, by which Baber had come.

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