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leng of Deveren, which consists properly of two plains, the one the auleng of Tito, the other that of Kush-Nader, which would make the aulengs of Kabul five in number. Each of. these two aulengs lies about a farsang from Kabul. Though but of small extent, they afford excellent pasture for horses, and are not pestered with gnats. There is not in all Kabul any auleng equal to these. The auleng of Siah-Seng lies on the east of Kabul. Between this last auleng and the Currier's-gate stands the tomb of Kutluk Kedem. This auleng being much infested with musquitoes in the hot weather, is not in such high estimation as the others. Adjoining to this last valley is that of Kemri. By this computation it appears that there are six aulengs about Kabul, but we hear only of the four aulengs.

The country of Kabul is very strong, and of difficult access, whether to foreigners Passes over or enemies. Between Balkh, Kundez, and Badakhshan on the one side, and Kabul on ^,h' the other, is interposed the mountain of Hindu-kush, the passes over which are seven in number. Three of these are by Penjhir;' the uppermost2 of which is Khewak;3 lower down is that of Tul ;4 and still lower, that of Bazarak. Of these three passes, the best is that of Tul, but the way is somewhat longer, whence it probably got its name of Tiil (or the long). The most direct pass is that of Bazarak. Both of these passes lead over to Sarah. As the pass of Bazarak terminates at a village named Barendi, the people of Sirab call it the pass of Barendi. Another route is that of Perwan. Between Perwan and the high mountain there are seven minor passes, which they call Heft-becheh (the Seven Younglings). As you come from the Arab side, two roads unite below the main pass, and lead down on Perwan by way of the Seven Younglings. This is a very difficult road. There are besides three roads in Ghurbend. That which is nearest to Perwan is the pass of Yangi-yuli (the new road), which descends by Walian and Khinjan. Another route is that of Kipchak, which leads by the junction of the rivers of Surkhab and Anderab. This is a good pass. Another route is by the pass of Shibertu. During the summer, when the waters are up, you can go by this pass only by taking the route of Bamian and Sikan ;s but in the winter season, they travel by way of Abdereh. In winter, all the roads are shut up for four or five months, except this alone; such as then proceed to Shibertu through this pas8,»travel by way' of Abdereh. In the season of spring, when the waters are in flood, it is as difficult to pass these roads as in winter; for it is impossible to cross the water courses, on account of the flooding of the torrents, so that the road by the water courses is not passable; and as for passing along the mountains, the mountain track is so difficult, that it is only for three or four months in autumn, when the snow and the waters decrease, that

1 Now Penjshir. s In this enumeration Baber begins from the east.

3 There is a pass over the Hindu-kush range, at the head of the valley of Penjshir, which is called the Kurindah Pass.

4 Tul is the Tool of Mr Elphinstone's map; Bazarak must be the straight road from Seifabad to Charmaghzar. The Perwan route is that by Perwan to Charmaghzar, which passes between Seifabad and the head of the valley of Sauleh auleng. Yengi-yuli is that by Doshakh direct upon Khinjan. The Kipchak route runs up the valley of Ghurbend, and then over the mountains to the junction of the two rivers at Kila Beiza. The Shibertu Pass is by Shiber. There seems to have been a direct road from that to Mader in dry weather; but in wet, people went round by Bamian, Seighan, and the pass of Dendan-shiken.

3 Or Seighan.

s

The Passes to India.

it is practicable. The Kafir robbers also issue from the mountains and narrow paths, and infest this passage.

The road from Khorasan leads by way of Kandahar. It is a straight level road, and does not go through any hill-passes.

From Hindustan there are four roads which lead up to Kabul. One of these is by way of the Lamghanat,1 and comes by the hill of Kheiber, in which there is one short billpass. Another road leads by Bangash; a third by Naghz,2 and the fourth by Fennnl. In all of these roads there are passes of more or less difficulty. Those who come by them cross the river Sind at three different places. Those who go by the Nilab passage,3 take the road of Lamghanat. In the winter season, however, they cross the river Sind, the river of Seward, and the river of Kabul, above the conflux of this last river with the Sind. In most of the expeditions which I made into Hindustan, I forded these rivers in this way; but the last time, when I invaded that country, defeated Sultan Ibrahim and conquered Hindustan, I crossed at the Nilab passage in boats. Except at the place that has been mentioned, the river Sind can nowhere be passed unless in boats. Those again who cross at D ink (it 4 take the Bangash road; while those who cross at Choupareh5 take the road of Fermul, if proceeding to Ghazni, and the road of the desht or plains if they are going to Kandahar.

In the country of Kabul there are many and various tribes. Its valleys and plains are inhabited by Turks, Aimaks, and Arabs. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tajiks. Many other of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashais, Paris, Tajiks, Berekis, and Afghans. In the hill-country to the west, reside the Hazaras and Nukderis. Among the Hazara and Nukderi tribes, there are some who speak the Moghul language. In the hill-country to the north-east lies Kaferistan, such as Kattor6 and Oebrek. To the south is Afghanistan. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kabul: Arabic, Persian, Turkic, Mogholi, Hindi, Afghani, Pa&hai, Parachi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghani. It is dubious whether so many distinct races, and different languages, could be found in any other country.

The country of Kabul is divided into fourteen Tumans. In Samarkand, Bokhara, and those quarters, the smaller districts into which a country is divided, are called TUtnan.- in Andejan, Kashghar, and the neighbouring countries, they get the name of Urchin, and in Hindustan they call them Perganah. Although Bajour, Seward, Pershower, and Hashnaghar,1 originally belonged to Kabul; yet at the present date some of these districts have been desolated, and others of them entirely occupied by the tribes of Afghans, so that they can no longer be properly regarded as provinces.

Division of
Kibul.

1 The Lamghan road is the great road from Kabul to Peshawar. The Bangash is explained by its name.

* Naghz, now unknown, seems to have been on the upper course of the Kurram. Fermul was probably Urghun, where the Fermulis, a Persian race, still reside.

5 Nilab stands somewhat lower down the Sind than Attok. The present Nilab is about 15 miles below Attock. I may remark, that I have not been able to discover any Indian authority previous to the time of Abulfazl, for the Sind being called Nilab, though it would help to explain an ancient geographical difficulty.

* Dinkot is probably at or near the present Khushialghur, unless its being afterwards mentioned as a northern boundary of Banu should render it probably that it was Kalabagh.

1 The road from Choupareh to Fermul was probably the direct road through Kaneguram to Urghun. The road of the desht or plain, was no doubt that through Daman, the flat part of which Baber always calls Desht. Choupareh was probably situated near Kagalwala on the Kurram.

* Kattor or Katar, is a place of note in Kaferistan. Gebrek also lies in the Kafer country.

On the east lies the Lamghanat,2 which comprehends five Tumans and two Baluks. LamghaThe largest of the Tumans of Lamghan is Nangenhar,3 which, in many histories, is written Nekerhar. The residence of the darogha, or commandant of this district, is Adinapur. Nangenhar lies to the east of Kabul, thirteen farsangs4 of very difficult road. In three or four places there are some very short kotuls or steep hill-passes, and in two or three places there are narrows or straits. The Khirilchi and other robber Afghan tribes infest this road with their depredations. There was no population along this road till I settled Karatu below the Kuruk-sai,5 which rendered the road safe. The Germsil (or region of warm temperature) is divided from the Serdsil (or region of cold temperature) only by the steep pass of Badam-cheshmeh.6 Snow falls on the Kabul side of this pass, but not on the Kuruk-sai and Lamghanat side. The moment you descend this hill-pass, you see quite another world. Its timber is different, its grains are of another sort, its animals of a different species, and the manners and customs of the inhabitants are of a different kind. Nangenhar has nine streams.7 Its rice and wheat are excellent. Oranges, citrons, and pomegranates, are very abundant, and of good quality.. Opposite to the fort of Adinahpur," to the south, on a rising ground, I formed a charbagh (or great garden), in the year nine hundred and fourteen.9 It is called Baghe Vafa (the Garden of Fidelity). It overlooks the river, which flows between the fort and the palace. In the year in which I defeated Behar Khan and conquered Lahore and Dibalpur, I brought plantains and planted them here. They A. H. 930, grew and thrived. The year before I had also planted the sugar-cane in it, whioh A' ' ,*' throve remarkably well. I sent some of them to Badakhshan and Bokhara. It is on an elevated site, enjoys running water, and the climate in the winter season is temper-' ate. In the garden there is a small hillock, from which a stream of water, sufficient to drive a mill, incessantly flows into the garden below. The four-fold field-plot10 of this garden is situated on this eminence. On the south-west part of this garden is a reservoir of water ten gez11 square, which is wholly planted round with orange trees; there are likewise pomegranates. All around the piece of water the ground is quite

I This place is now always called Heshtnagar.

3 A singular proof of the imperfect state in which the geography of those countries long remained is, that Petis de la Croix places Lamghan in Kashmir.—Hist, de Timur Bee, Vol. II. p. 18.

3 Nangenhar lies along the Kabul river on the south. It is the Nungnehaura of Mr Elphinstone's map.

4 Upwards of SO miles. * The dry water channel.—Leyden. Perhaps the Park river.

6 i. e. Almond-spring. The Pass of Badam-cheshmeh lies south of the Kabul river, between Little Kabul and Barik-ab.

7 Whence it is said to derive its name, which in Afghani means nine streams.

* The fort of Adinahpur is to the south of the Kabul river. '' About A. D. 1508.

10 It is usual for the Persians to divide their gardens into four plots by two roads which cross each other.

II The original has only ten by ten, but the get is probably the measure understood, which would make it a square of about twenty feet or upwards.

covered with clover. This spot is the very eye of the beauty of the garden. At the time when the orange becomes yellow, the prospect is delightful. Indeed the garden is charmingly laid out. To the south of this garden lies the Koh-e-Sefid (the White Mountain) of Nangenhar, which separates Bangash from Nangenhar. There is no road by which one can pass it on horseback. Nine streams descend from this mountain. The snow on its summit never diminishes, whence probably comes the name of Koh-e-Sefid1 (the White Mountain). No snow ever falls in the dales at its foot. Between the mountain and the garden there may be as much interval as would serve a party to encamp on. On the skirts of this hill there are many airy and beautiful situations. The water which descends from it is naturally so cold, that it does not require ice to cool it. On the south of the fort of Adinaphur is the Surkh-rud2 (the Red Rivulet). The fort is situated on an eminence, which, towards the river, is forty or fifty gez3 in perpendicular height. On the north there is a detached mass of mountain. The fortress is very strong. This last mountain forms the division between Nangenhar and the Lamghanat. Whenever it snows at Kabul, the snow falls also on the top of this mountain, by which means the people of the Lamghanat can tell, from the appearance of its top, when it snows at Kabul. In travelling from Kabul to Lamghan,4 there is one road by which, after passing Kuruk-sai, you proceed through the steep pass of Debri,5 and reach the Lamghanat by way of Bulan. There is another road,6 by which, crossing Kuruk-sai lower down than Kurabuk, and passing the river Baran7 at Uluk-Nur,8 and thence proceeding by the hill-pass of Badij, you come down upon Lamghan. If one travel by the road of Nijrou he passes on by Bedrav,9 and, proceeding by Karabankerik, falls into the hill-pass of Badij. Though Nangenhar be spoken of as one of the Jive Tumans of Lamghan,10 yet there are only three Tumans which properly bear the name of Lamghan. Tumsn'of The first of these three is the Tuman of Alisheng,11 which, on the north, consists of rugged snowy hills that join the mountain of Hindu-kush. That mountainous country is entirely in Kaferistan. The part of Kaferistan nearest to Alisheng is Meil; and the river of Alisheng comes down from Meil.1* The tomb of the holy Lam, the

1 The Koh-e-Sefid is a remarkable position in the geography of Afghanistan. It is seen from Teshawer.

4 The Surkh-rud rises in Sefid Roh, and runs into the Kabul river between Jagdelik and Gundomuk.

'A hundred feet or upwards.

* A friend to whose observations on Baber's geography of Afghanistan 1 have been much indebted, remarks, " The change of names here is astonishing. I have many routes in Lumghan, one in particular, by the way of Nijrow here referred to, and yet I cannot discover one place of those here mentioned, unless the kotal of Badij be allowed any resemblance to Badpash (by changing the diacritical points). Badpash is a steep kotal, half a day's journey to the north of Undroor on the Caubul river, and about 16 or 18 miles west of Turgurree, where the streams of Alingar and Alisheng join."

5 Leyden has Beri. c In this route they proceed by the north side of the Kabul or Baran river. 'Rain river.—Leyden. 8 Uluk-Nur.—The Great Light.—Leyden.

Leyden reads Bazar; Mr Elphinstone's Turki copy has Bezrav. 10 Lamghan is now always called Laghman.

"The two streams which form the glens of Alisheng and Alingar, coming from the north, unite above Mandraur, and fall into the Kabul river below that place. 12 Now called Kilai Akheri.

Alisheng.

father of Nub,1 is in the Tuman of Alisheng. In some histories, the holy Lam is denominated Lamek and Lamekan. The people of that country have a general practice of changing the letter Kqf into Gkain, and it seems very probable that the name Lamghan originated from that circumstance.

The second Tuman is Alingar. The part of Kaferistan that is nearest to Alingar AlingSr. is Gewar, and the river of Alingar comes down from Gewar. These two rivers, after passing through Alisheng and Alingar, unite with each other, and afterwards fall into the river Baran,2 below the third Tuman, which is called Mendraur.

Of the two Baluks which have been mentioned, one is Dereh-Nur3 (the Valley of Uereh-Nur. Light), which is an uncommonly fine tract. The fort is situated at the entrance of the valley, on the projecting point of a mountain, and washed by a river on both of its x sides. The grounds are chiefly laid out in rice-fields, and can be passed only by the high road. It has the orange, the citron, and the fruits of a warm climate. It has likewise a few date trees. The banks of the river, which flows on the two sides of the fort, are quite covered with trees; the most abundant of which is the dtob-amluk, which the Turks generally name harayem&sh.* This fruit is very abundant in the Dereh-Nur, but is found nowhere else. It has also grapes, all of which they grow upon trees.5 The wine of Dereh-Nur is famous over all the Lamghanat. It is of two kinds, which they term areh-t&shi (the stone-saw), and suhdn-tashi (the stone-file). The stone-saw is of a yellowish colour; the stone-file, of a fine red. The stone-saw, however, is the better wine of the two, though neither of them equals their reputation. Higher up, at the head of the glens, in this mountain, there are some apes to be met with. Apes are found lower down towards Hindustan, but none higher up than this hill. The inhabitants used formerly to keep hogs,6 but in my time they have renounced the practice.

Kiincr and Nurgil form another Tuman, which lies out of the way, and at some Kuner and distance from Lamghan. It is situated in the midst of Kaferistan, which forms its NurBl1 . boundary. Although it is equal in extent to the other Tumans, yet, from this circumstance, it yields less revenue, and the inhabitants pay less. The river of Cheghanserai,7 after passing through Kaferistan from the north-east, and dividing this country, unites with the river Baran, in the Baluk of Kameh, and then passes onward to the

1 t. e. Lamech, the father of Noah.

* The Baran and Kabul rivers unite above this junction.

3 The Dereh-Nur lies on the Cheghanserai, or Kashkar river. It runs from the peak of Kund to Kuner.

4 It is very singular that the Amluk should now be called in Lumghan, or rather Lughman, Karamush, which is evidently mentioned here as a contrast to the Lughmani name.

5 On this passage Captain John Briggs, of the Madras Establishment, who is well versed in oriental usages, remarks, "Baber means in this place, I imagine, that the vines are not standards, but allowed to creep and spread. Standing vines are, however, very common in Persia. The plant is kept about three feet only in height, by lopping, and it is found to be a much more productive plan, though it sooner exhausts the soil."

6 This practice Baber viewed with disgust, the hog being an impure animal in the Muhammedan law.

7 This is the river which rises at Pushtekhar, near Pamere, and which is called by Mr Elphinstone the Kashkar, or Kameh river.

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