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the One, who rose, or Jesus Christ, at whoso appear.
P. 177, col. 2, 1.5.

auce the idols of the Pagan world were amerced of
their worship; and the many unsubdued, or the mon-

strous objects of the idolatry of China, India, and the The final chorus is indistinct and obscure as the Antarctic islands, and the native tribes of America, event of the living drama whose arrival it foretells. certainly have reigned over the understandings of men

Prophecies of wars, and rumours of wars, &c. may in conjunction or in succession, during periods in which safely be made by poet or prophet is any age ; but to all we know of evil bas been in a state of porteatous, anticipate, however darkly, a period of regeneration and, until the revival of learning and the arts, perand happiness, is a more hazardous exercise of the petnally increasing activity. The Grecian Gods seem faculty which bards possess or feign. It will reunind ipdeed to have been personally more innocent, although the reader, " magno nec proximus intervallo " of Isaiah it cannot be said that, as far as temperance and chastity and Virgil, whose ardent spirits, overleaping the actual are concerned, they gave so edifying an example as their reigo of evil which we endure and bewail, already saw

The sublime human character of Jesus the possible and perhaps approaching state of society Christ was deformed by an imputed identification in which the “lion shall lie down with the lamb,” and with a power, who tempted, betrayed, and punished “omnis feret omnia tellus." Let these great names be the innocent beings who were called into existence ny my authority and excuse.

his sole will; and for the period of a thousand years,

the spirit of this most just, wise, and benevolent of P. 177, col. 2, 1. 35.

men, has been propitiated with myriads of hecatombs

of those who approached the nearest to his innoSaturn and Love their long repose.

cence and wisdom, sacrificed under every aggravation Saturn and Love were among the deities of a real of atrocity and variety of torture. The horrors of or imaginary state of innocence and happiness. All the Mexican, the Peruvian, and the Indian superstitions those who fell, or the Gods of Greece, Asia, and Egypt; are well known.


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The south of Europe was in a state of great | bosom. But they had slender hopes ; they knew political excitement at the beginning of the year that the Neapolitans would offer no fit resistance 1821. The Spanish Revolution had been a signal to the regular German troops, and that the overto Italy--secret societies were formed and when throw of the Constitution in Naples would act as Naples rose to declare the Constitution, the call a decisive blow against all struggles for liberty in was responded to from Brundusium to the foot of Italy. the Alps. To crush these attempts to obtain liberty, We have seen the rise and progress of reform. early in 1821, the Austrians poured their armies But the Holy Alliance was alive and active into the Peninsula : at first their coming rather in those days, and few could dream of the seemed to add energy and resolution to a people peaceful triumph of liberty. It seemed then that long enslaved. The Piedmontese asserted their the armed assertion of freedom in the south of freedom ; Genoa threw of the yoke of the King Europe was the only hope of the liberals, as, if it of Sardinia ; and, as if in playful imitation, the prevailed, the nations of the north would imitate people of the little state of Massa and Carrara the example. Happily the reverse has proved gave the congé to their sovereign and set up a

the fact. The countries accustomed to the exerrepublic

cise of the privileges of freemen, to a limited Tuscany alone was perfectly tranquil. It was

extent, have extended, and are extending these said, that the Austrian minister presented a list limits. Freedom and knowledge have now a of sixty Carbonari to the grand-duke, urging their

chance of proceeding hand in hand; and if it imprisonment; and the grand-duke replied, “I continue thus, we may hope for the durability of do not know whether these sixty men are Car

both. Then, as I have said, in 1821, Shelley, as bonari, but I know if I imprison them, I shall

well as every other lover of liberty, looked upon directly have sixty thousand start up." But the struggles in Spain and Italy as decisive of though the Tuscans had no desire to disturb the the destinies of the world, probably for centuries paternal government, beneath whose shelter they

The interest he took in the progress slumbered, they regarded the progress of the

of affairs was intense.

When Genoa declared various Italian revolutions with intense interest, itself free, his hopes were at their highest. Day sad hatred for the Austrian was warin in every

after day, he read the bulletins of the Austrian

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army, and sought eagerly to gather tokens of its their general, not their particular purport. He defeat. He heard of the revolt of Genoa with did not foresee the death of Lord Londonderry, emotions of transport. His whole heart and soul which was to be the epoch of a change in English were in the triumph of their cause. We were living politics, particularly as regarded foreign affairs ; at Pisa at that time ; and several well-informed nor that the navy of his country would fight for Italians, at the head of whom we may place the instead of against the Greeks ; and by the battle celebrated Vacca, were accustomed to seek for of Navarino secure their enfranchisement from sympathy in their hopes from Shelley: they did not the Turks. Almost against reason, as it appeared find such for the despair they too generally ex to him, he resolved to believe that Greece would perienced, founded on contempt for their southern prove triumphant ; and in this spirit, auguring countrymen.

ultimate good, yet grieving over the vicissitudes to While the fate of the progress of the Austrian be endured in the interval, he composed his drama. armies then invading Naples was yet in suspense,

The chronological order to be observed in the the news of another revolution filled him with arrangement of the remaining poems, is interexultation. We had formed the acquaintance at rupted here, that his dramas may follow each Pisa of several Constantinopolit Greeks, of the other consecutively. “Hellas”

was among the family of Prince Caradja, formerly Hospodar of last of his compositions, and is among the most Wallachia, who, hearing that the bowstring, the

beautiful, The choruses are singularly ima-
accustomed finalo of his viceroyalty, was on the ginative, and melodious in their versification.
road to him, escaped with his treasures, and took There are some stanzas that beautifully exemplify
up his abode in Tuscany. Among these was the Shelley's peculiar style ; as, for instance, the
gentleman to whom the drama of Hellas is dedi- assertion of the intellectual empire which must be
cated, Prince Mavrocordato was warmed by for ever the inheritance of the country of Homer,
those aspirations for the independence of his Sophocles, and Plato :
country, which filled the hearts of many of his

But Greece and her foundations are
countrymen. He often intimated the possibility Built below the tide of war;
of an insurrection in Greece ; but we had no idea Based on the crystalline sea
of its being so near at hand, when, on the 1st of

of thought and its eternity.
April, 1821, he called on Shelley ; bringing the

And again, that philosophical truth, felicitously proclamation of his cousin, Prince Ipsilanti, and, imaged forthradiant with exultation and delight, declared that henceforth Greece would be free.

Revenge and wrong bring forth their kind,

The foul cubs like their parents are ;
Shelley had hymned the dawn of liberty in Spain

Their den is in the guilty mind,

And conscience feeds them with despair. and Naples, in two odes, dietated by the warmest enthusiasm ;—he felt himself aaturally impelled The conclusion of the last chorus is among the to decorate with poetry the uprise of the descend most beautiful of his lyrics ; the imagery is disants of that people, whose works he regarded with tinct and majestic ; the prophecy, such as poets deep admiration ; and to adopt the vaticinatory I love to dwell upon, the regeneration of mankind character in prophesying their success. " Hellas" ! and that regeneration reflecting back splendour was written in a moment of enthusiasm. It is on the foregone time, from which it inherits so curious to remark how well he overcomes the much of intellectual wealth, and memory of past difficulty of forming a drama out of such scant virtuous deeds, as must render the possession of materials. His prophecies, indeed, came true in happiness and peace of tenfold value.


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Tas Tragedy is one of a triad, or system of three Playa, (an arrangement according to which the Greeks were accustoined to connect their Dramatic representations,) elucidating the wonderful and appa}ing fortunes of the SWELLFOOT dynasty. It was evidently written by some learned Theban, and from its characteristic dulness, apparently before the duties on the importation of Attic salt had been repealed by the Bævtarchs. The tenderness with which he beats the Pigs proves him to have been a sus Bæotiæ ; possibly Epicuri de grege porcus ; for, as the poet observes,

“A fellow feeling makes us wond'rous kind.**

No liberty has been taken with the translation of this remarkable piece of antiquity, except the suppressing a seditious and blasphemous chorus of the Pigs and Bulls at the last act. The word Hoydipouse, (or more properly (Edipus,) has been rendered literally SWELLFOOT, without its having been conceived necessary to determine whether a swelling of the hind or the fore feet of the Swinish Monarch is particularly indicated.

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The GADFLY. lona TAURINA, his Quten.


The RAT.
MAMMON, Arch-Priest of Famine.

Wizards, Ministers of

Moses, the Sow-jelder.

SOLOMON, the Porkman.

ZEPHANIAR, Pig-Butcher.
CHORUS of the Suinish Multitude.
Guards, Attendants, Priesto, &c. &c.



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If 'twere your kingly will
Us wretched swine to kill,

What should we yield to theo ?


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Thou supreme Goddess ! by whose power divine These graceful limbs are clothed in proud array

(He contemplates himself with satisfaction. Of gold and purple, and this kingly paunch Swells like a sail before a favouring breeze, And these most sacred nether promontories Lie satisfied with layers of fat; and these Baotian cheeks, like Egypt's pyramid, (Nor with less toil were their foundations laid,*) Sustain the cone of my untroubled brain, That point, the emblem of a pointless nothing ! Thou to whom Kings and laurelled Emperors, Radical-butchers, Paper-money-millers, Bishops and deacons, and the entire army Of those fat martyrs to the persecution Of stiffing turtle-soup, and brandy-devils, Offer their secret vows! Thou plenteous Cercs Of their Eleusis, hail !

I have heard your Laureate sing,
That pity was a royal thing ;
Under your mighty ancestors, we pigs
Were bless'd as nightingales on myrtle sprigs,
Or grasshoppers that live on noon-day dew,
And sung, old anpals tell, as sweetly too:
But now our sties are fallen in, we catch

The murrain and the mange, the scab and itch; Sometimes your royal dogs tear down our thatch,

And then we seek the shelter of a ditch; Hog-wash or grains, or ruta-baga, none Has yet been ours since your reign begun,

FIRST SOW My pigs, 'tis in vain to tug!


Eigh! eigh ! eigh ! eigh !


Ha! what are ye, Who, crowned with leaves devoted to the Furics, Cling round this sacred shrine ?

SECOND SOW. I could almost eat my litter!

FIRST PIG. I suck, but no milk will come from the dag.

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SECOND PIG. Our skin and our bones would be bitter.



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We fight for this rag of greasy rug,
Though a trough of wash would be fitter.

Happier swine were they than we,
Drowned in the Gadarean sea-
I wish that pity would drive out the devils
Which in your royal bosom hold their revels,
And sink us in the waves of your compassion!
Alas! the Pigs are an unhappy nation !
Now if your Majesty would have our bristles

To bind your mortar with, or fill our colons With rich blood, or make brawn out of our gristles,

In policy_ask else your royal Solons
You ought to give us hog-wash and clean straw,
And sties well thatched; besides, it is the law!

This is sedition, and rank blasphemy!
Ho! there, my guards !

Enter a GUARD.


What! ye who grub With filthy snouts my red potatoes up In Allan's rushy bog? Who eat the oats Up, from my cavalry in the Hebrides? Who swill the hog-wash soup my cooks digest From bones, and rags, and scraps of shoe-leather, Which should be given to cleaner Pigs than you ?

* See Universal History for an account of the number of people who died, and the immense consumption of garlic by the wretched Egyptians, who made a sepulobre for the name as well as the bodies of their tyrants.

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Call in the Jews, Solomon the court porkman, Oh, would that this were all ! The oracle !
Moses the sow-gelder, and Zephaniah the hog-

MAMMON, dutcher.

Why it was I who spoke that oracle,

And whether I was dead drunk or inspired,
They are in waiting, sire.

I cannot well remember ; nor, in truth,

The oracle itself !
Enter SOLOMON, Moses, and ZEPHANTAH.

Out with your knife, old Moses, and spay those sows,

The words went thus : (The Pigs run about in consternation. “ Bæotia, choose reform or civil war! That load the earth with pigs; cut close and deep.

When through the streets, instead of hare with Moral restraint I see has no effect,


A Consort Queen shall hunt a King with hogs, Nor prostitution, nor our own example, Starvation, typhus-fever, war, nor prison

Riding on the Ionian Minotaur.” This was the art which the arch-priest of Famine

MAMMON. Hinted at in his charge to the Theban clergy-

Now if the oracle had ne'er foretold Cut close and deep, good Moses.

This sad alternative, it must arrive,

Or not, and so it must now that it has ;
Let your Majesty

And whether I was urged by grace divine,
Keep the boars quiet, else-

Or Lesbian liquor to declare these words,

Which must, as all words must, be false or true; SWELLFOOT.

It matters not : for the same power made all,

Zephaniah, cut Oracle, wine, and me and you-or none-
That fat hog's throat, the brute seems overfed ; 'Tis the same thing. If you knew as much
Seditious hunks ! to whine for want of grains. Of oracles as I do

Your sacred Majesty, he has the dropsy ;-

You arch-priests
We shall find pints of hydatids in's liver,

Believe in nothing ; if you were to dream He has not half an inch of wholesome fat

Of a particular number in the lottery,
Upon his carious ribs

You would not buy the ticket !

'Tis all the same,

Yet our tickets He'll serve instead of riot-money, when

Are seldom blanks. But what steps have you taken? Our murmuring troops bivouaque in Thebes’ | For prophecies, when once they get abroad, streets ;

Like liars who tell the truth to serve their ends, And January winds, after a day

Or hypocrites, who, from assuming virtue, Of butchering, will make them relish carrion.

Do the same actions that the virtuous do, Now, Solomon, I'll sell you in a lump

Contrive their own fulfilment. This lonaThe whole kit of them.

Well-you know what the chaste Pasiphae did,

Wife to that most religious King of Crete,
Why, your Majesty,

And still how popular the tale is here ;
I could not give

And these dull swine of Thebes boast their descent
From the free Minotaur. You know they still

Call themselves bulls, though thus degenerate ;
Kill them out of the way, And everything relating to a bull
That sball be price enough, and let me hear

popular and respectable in Thebes : Their everlasting grunts and whines no more! Their arms are seven bulls in a field gules. [Excunt, driving in the Swine. They think their strength consists in eating beef,

Now there were danger in the precedent
Enter Mammon, the Arch Priest ; and P'RQANAX, Chief of If Queen long-

the Council of Wizards.

The future looks as black as death, a eltud,

I have taken good care Dark as the frown of Hell, hangs over it-

That shall not be. I struck the crust o' the earth The troops grow mutinous--the revenue fails With this enchanted rod, and Hell lay bare ! There's something rotten in us—for the level And from a cavern full of ugly shapes, Of the State slopes, its very bases topple ;

I chose a LEECH, a GADFLY, and a Rata The boldest turn their backs upon themselves ! The gadAy was the same which Juno sent

To agitate 10,* and which Ezechielt mentions MAMMON

That the Lord whistled for out of the mountains Why what's the matter, my dear fellow, now! Of utruost Ethiopia, to torment Do the troops mutiny decimate some regiments ; | Mesopotamian Babylon. The beast Does money fail come to my mint-coin paper, Till gold be at a discount, and, ashamed

* The Prometheus Bound of Æschylus. To show his bilious face, go purge liimself,

+ And the Lord whistled for the gadfly out of Æthiopia, In emulation of her vestal whiteness.

and for the bee out of Egypt, &c. --EZECHIEL,



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