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Blaine. from disability; but I believe, in no single instance, since the

act of May, 1872, have disabilities been taken from any man unless on his respectful petition to Congress asking that they should be removed; and I believe, that in no instance, escept one, has such a petition beeu refused. I have had occasion, by conferences with the Departments of Navy and War, and by reference to some other records, to be able to state to the House, with more accuracy than has been already stated, the number of gentlemen who are still under disabilities. Those who were officers of the United States army, educated

at the expense of the Goverument at West Point, and who There yet

joined the rebellion, and are still under disabilities, are estiremains. mated at the War Department at 325. The number of such

persons in the navy are 293, and those coming under the other heads, members of the Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh Congresses, judges, heads of departments, and foreign ministers, I am not able to give the number exactly, but the whole number of persons now under disability in the South is about 750. (Speech of Mr. Blaine, on bis amendment to exclude Jefferson Davis from general amuesty, January,

1876.) What are SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the the restric. tions as to United States, authorized by law, including debts of the pub incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for lic debi?

services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, sball not be questioned. But neither the United States por any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slavo; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

SECTION 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV. What is the SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United restriction

States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the ing?

United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

as to vot

the inter

SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 513. “SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED.”

Al- What is the though negative in form, in substance this article confers a pretation of positive right which did not exist before. The right shall this amend. not be denied; it shall be enjoyed, and the party shall be ment? exempt from the disability of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, as respects the right to vote. In terms it has a general application to all, but from its history it was principally intended to confer upon the colored race the right to citizenship. (The Slaughter-House Case, 16 Wall., 81.) The United States v. Cruikshank, 1 Woods, 321.

This amendment gives no new right to regulate elections, except to enforce this inhibition. It relates only to discriminations on aceount of race, color, or previous condition of servitude and is a prohibition against making such discriminations. The enforcement act, in so far as it is general and universal in its application, is unconstitutional. Id.

The amendment does not confer the right of suffrage upon Does it conany one. It prevents the States or the United States, how- fer the

right of ever, from giving preference, in this particular, to one citi

suffrage! zen of the United States over another, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Before its adoption this could be done. It was as much within the power of a State to exclude citizens of the United States from voting on account of race, &c., as it was on account of age, property, or education. Now it is not. If citizens of one race, having certain qualifications, are permitted by law to vote, those of another having the same qualifications must be. Previous to this amendment there was no constitutional guaranty against this discrimination. Now there is. It follows that the amendment has invested the citizen of the United States with a new constitutional right which is within the protecting power of Congress. That right is exemption from discrimination in the exercise of the elective franchise, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This, linder the express provisions of the second section of the amendment, Congress may enforce by “appropriate legislation.” United States v. Reese, (October Term, 1875,) 2 Otto, 000.

A statute which creates a new offense under this act From should be clear and explicit. That in existence fails of its whence is object, (16 Stat., 140.) Id. The right of suffrage is not a

derived the

right of necessary attribute of national citizenship, but an exemp- suffrage : tion from discrimination in the exercise of that right on account of race, &c., is. The right to vote in the States comes from the States, but the right of exemption from the prohibited discrimination comes from the United States. The first has not been granted or secured by the Constitution of the United States, but the last has been, United States v. Cruik

nk, (October Term, 1875,) 2 Otto, 000.

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The texts of the Constitution are arranged analytically and alpha

betically. The Articles, Sections, and Clauses are shown both as
to the Constitution noted and not noted. The Preface, Declara-
tion of Independence, Articles of Confederation and the author's
notes are likewise copiously indexed.

n. 238.

Art. sec.

cl.

PP.
ABANDONED lands. (See Freedmen.)
ABATEMENT. Wanit of citizenship must be pleaded in, n. 206, p. 202
ABEYANCE Offices when held in, n. 184, § 8.
ABSENCE In the absence of the Vice-President the Senate shall
choose a President pro tem...

1 8 5 24, 78
Practice as to; list of Presidents pro tem., n. 38.
ABSENT members. A smaller number than a majority of either

House of Congress may compel the attendance of absent
men bers, in such manner, and under such penalties, as
each house may provide.

i 8 i 25, 84
ABSENT suitors. Effct of ju igments againsi, not served, n. 218.

Not republican government to render judgment against,
ABSOLUTE rights of private property is an universal common law

principle, n. 258.
ABSOLUTELY necessary. The strongest qualification of necessary,

n. 162. Necessary not used in the sense of, n. 128, p. 139.
ACCEPT . No person holding any office of protit or trust under the

United States, shall, without the consent of Congress,
accept of any present, emolumnent, office, or title, of any
kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign States.. 1 9 8

81, 132
Office defined. n. 151. U. S. Marshal cannot hold two
offices, n. 151, p. 153. To accept a new office vacates the
first, n. 63. A pardon must be ted before it will take

effect, n. 177.
ACCOUNT. A regular statement and account of the receipts and

expenditures of all public money shall be published from
time to time....

1 97 81, 151
How these accounts are kept, n. 149.
ACOUS ATION In all criminal prosecutions, the accused to be

informed of the nature and cause of the accusation.
Amendments.

6

44 288
Accused defined and the subject disenssed, n 260.
ACQUISITION of territory. A consequence of the war power, notes

118, 274; and of the right tondmit new States, n. 229. The
history and right to acquire discussed, n. 282. Revo-

lutionary results of, n. 286.
ACQUITTAL. No one shall be tried for the same criine after, n. 255.
AoT as President. In case of the removal, death, resignation, or
inability of both the President and Vice-President, the

Art 8Cc. cL.

PP Congress shall, by law, declare what officer shail then art as President, and such officer shall ac! accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be electeil. 1 5 84, 169

the Vice-Presid who have acted as President, n. 172. The act of Congress regulating who shall

act, n. 172.
ACTION. (See Care, Suite.)
Acts, records, and judicial proceedings. Full faith and credit shini

be viven in ench State to the public acts, records, and
judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Con.
gress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which
such acts, records, and judicial proceedings shall be provel,
and the effect thereof.

1

88, 219 Full faith and credit defined, n. 218. The law of Con. gress for proving these acts, n. 219. p. 218. Must be under

the Great Seal, Id. Copied from the Confederation. p. 10. ATS of Congress. To regulate time and manner of electing

senators, n. 30. To fix a standard of weights and measures,
n. 102, p. 117. To regulate the tenure of ottice, n. 184.
Prescribing manner of proving Jaws, records, &c., n. 219.

The several reconstruction acts. n. 276.

Take effect from their approval by the President, n. 66. ADAM, ANDREW, of Pennsylvania Signed the Articles of Con

federation, p. 21.
ADAMS, John. Delegate from Mass. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 7,

First Vice-President of U.S., n. 37. Second President, n.
166. Messages of, as President, delivered to Congress in

person, n. 157.
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY. Sixth President of the U.S., n. 166.
ADAMS, SAMUEL. Delegate froin Mass. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p.

7; and the Articles of Confederation, p. 21. ADAMS, THOMAs, of Virginia, Signed the Articles of Confodera

tion, p. 21. ADJOURN from day to day. A smaller number than a majority of

each house of Congress may adjourn from day to day. 1 3 1 25,8 ADJOURN. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall,

vithout the consent of the other, adjourn for more than
three days, nor to any other place than that in which the
two houses may be sitting

1 5 4 26, S8 ADJOURNMENT of the Congress of the Confederation not longer than

six months, Art. IX. p. 16.
ADJOURNMENT. If any bill shall not be returned by the President

within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like
manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their
adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not
be a law,

1 7 % 27, 91 The President must receive the bill ten entire days

before, or it will not become a law, n. 69.
ADJOVENMENT. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the

concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives
may be necessary (except on a question of a journment),
shull be presented to the President of the United States.
(For proceedings, see Resolution.). ........

1

28, 98 ADJOURNMENT. In case of disagreement between the two houses

of Congress with respect to the time of adjournment, the
President may adjourn them to such time as he shall think
proper..

2 8
This power bas never been exercised, n. 188.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL. An officer in the army, n. 124.
ADMINISTRATION. Effect of judgment and sales under, n. 161.
ADMINISTRATION of justice. He (George III.) has obstructed the

Dec. of Ind. p. 8.
ADMIRAL. Chief officer in the navy, n. 128.
ADMIRALTY andi maritime jurisdiction. The judicial power shall

extend to all cuses of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. 8 2 1 87, 184

Defined; extent of jurisdiction, has been enlarged to na 'igatlo waters, n. 208.

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