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Art. sec.

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on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law
appoint a different day

1
The sessions now defined by law, n. 43.
ASSEMBLE. Congress shall make no law abridging the right of

the people peaceably to assemble and tu petition the gove
ernment for a redress of grievances. Amendments..

1
This right discussed, n. 243.
ATCSON, David R. Presirling officer of Senate, n. 39. pp. So, s1.
ATTAINDEE. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be
passed.....

1 9 3

81. 146
Bill of, defined and discussed, n. 142, pp. 146, 147.
ATTAINDER. No State shall pass any bill of attainder, &c..

1

1
These terms relate to criininal laws only, n. 158.
ATTAINDER of treason. The Congress shall have power to declare

the punishinent of treason, but no attainder of treason
shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture, excepi during
the life of the person attninted...

3 3 2
* Corruption of blood" defined, n. 217.
ATTENDANCE. Less than a quorurn of either house may compel
the attendance of absent members

1 5 1
Either house may compel attendance of witnesses. n. 49.
ATTENDANCE. Members of Congress privileged from arrest during
their attendance at sessions, dic. (See Arrest.)

1 6 1 26,68
AUTHENTICATION of records, acts, and judicini proceedings of
States,

1

38. 213
The act of Congress prescribing the mode of, n. 219, p.
221. Of legislative acis, n. 219. p. 215. The whole sub-

ject fully discussed, Id.
ATTIORITY. Paramount, of the United States over the provisional

governments of the rebel States, n. 276, p. 253. $ 6.
AUTHORS may secure exclusive rights to their writings for a limited
time.

i 8 & 29, 121
Defined, n 107. No exclusive property in a published

work except under an act of Congress, Id.
Ball. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines

in posed, nor cruel and unusual punishinents intlicted.
Amendments

8
See notes 12, 243, 275. The question of ability to be
considered; the fifty-dollar fine under the internal revenue
law is not excessive; six months imprisonment is not cruel,
n. 267.

The President cannot appoint commissioners of,
n. 183, p. 178.
BALDWIN, ABRAJAM. Deputy from Georgia. Signed this Constitu-

tion, PP. 13, 252. Presiding oflicer of the Senate, 11. 39,
BALDWIN, HENRY. One of the supreme judges, n. 197, p. 193.
BALLOT. The electors shall vote by ballot for President and Vice-

President of the United States. They shall name in their
ballots the person voted for as President, and, in distinct
ballots, the person voted for as Vice-President. Amend-
ments .....

12
BALLOT. If no person have a majority of the electoral votes, the

House of Representatives shall choose, immediately, by
ballot, the President. Amendments

12
BANISTER, JOHN, of Virginis. Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
BANKRUPT detined literally, n. 91, p. 113.
BANKRUPTCIES, Congress shall have power to establish uniform

45,267

P. 79.

1

46,164

1

46,163

laws on the subjectof bankruptcies throughout the United
States

1 S 4
Derined, n. 94, 95, pp. 113, 114. The States may pass,

under restrictions, 11. 96.
Bank bills are not bills of credit, n. 154. The repeal of a bank char-

ter des not necessarily impair the contract. n. 157, p. 156.
BANKS. The State may repeal their charters, when, n. 137, p. 155.
BANKS, national. The Statey inay tax the interest of the share-

holders, n. 74. As to the power of Congress to create,
n. 80.

98,113
22, 51
Defined, n. 12

Art. sec.

CL.

PP-
Basks, NATHANIEL P. Speaker of the House, n. 26. p. 73.
BARBOUR, JAMES. Presiding officer of the Senate, n. 38. p. 79.
BARBOUR. Pullip P. Speaker on the House of Representatives,
n. 26.

One of the supreme judges, n. 197, 193.
BART!ETT, JOSLal, of N. II. Signed ihe Dec. of Ind. p. 7; and

Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
BASSETT. RICHARD. Deputy from Delaware. Signed this Constitu-

tion, pp. 42, 252.
BEDFORD, Jr., GUNNING. Deputy from Delaware, Signed this Con

stitution, pp. 42, 252.
BELL JOIN. Speaker of the House, n. 26, p. 78.
BENJAMIN, JEDAN P. Expelled from the Senate, n. 50.
Bill of attainder. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall
be passed ..

1 9 8 81
(See Attainder, n. 142.) Inflicts legislative punishment
without a legal trial, n. 142, pp. 146, 147. The Missouri

constitutional test oath is a bill of attainder, Id.
Bill Civil Rights, n. 6. Constitutional; discussed and explained,

n. 274. Tenure of ottice, n, 181, p. 179.
Bill. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Represen-

tatives and the Senate shall, before it become a law, be
presented to the l'resident of the t'nited States; if he
approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with
his objections. to that house in which it shall have origi-
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their
journal, and proceed to reconsider it. 18, after such recon-
sideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the
bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the
other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered,
and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall be-
come a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both
houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the
pames of the persons voting for and against the bill shall
be entered on the journal of each house, respectively. 1 7 2 27, 91

When bills take effect, n. 66. Vetu or negative defined,

n. 67. History of the subject, Id.
BILL. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within

ten days (Sundays exceptedl) after it shall have been pre.
sented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as
if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjourn.
ment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a
law

1 7 2 27, 91
There must be ten entire days, n. 69.
BILL. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence

of the Senate and House of Representatives may be neces-
sary (xcept on a question of adjonment), shall be pre-
sented to the President of the United States; and, before
the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or,
being disapproved by him, shall be repassad by two-
thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, accurd.
ing to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a
bill

1 7 3 28, 98
Joint and concurrent resolution defined, n. 70.
BILLS. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House

of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur
with amendments as on other bills..

1 7 1 27, 90
Copied, n. 61. Revenue defined, n. 65.
Bills of credit, No State shall emit bills of credit

1 10 1 81, 153
Defined and discussed, n. 154. Proposed in the clause to
borrow money, n. 52.

And to coin money, n. 97.
Bills of credit. Not to be emitted by Congress, under the Con-

federation, without the consent of nine States. Art. IX.

p. 18. What, assumed by the Confederation, Art. XII. p. 19.
BINGHAM, WILLIAN. Presiding officer of the Senate, n. 88, p. 73.
BLAIR, Juns. Deputy from Virginia. Signed this Constitution,

PP: +2, 232.
B1.Essings of liberty, to ourselves and posterity. Preamble.....

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BLOOD. No attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or

forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted ..

Corruption of blood defined, n. 217.
BLOUNT, WILLIAM. Deputy from North Carolina. Signed this Con.

stitution, pp. 42, 252. Expelled from the Senate, n. 42.
Tried on impeachment, n. 39. His offense, n. 194. Dis.

missed for want of jurisdiction, n. 194.
BOND given to "fill up a vacancy" does not cover matters after

nomination and confirmation, n. 156.
Borrow money.

Congress shall have power to borrow money on
the credit of the United States,

How it originally read. n. 53. Anthorizes bills of credit,
n. St. And to issue treasury notes and to make thein
legal tenders, n. St. That subject discussed, Id. The
sums borrowed and owing, n. 72. The treasury notes an
equivalent of coin, n. 81, p. 103. Money detined, n. 98.

(See Money, notes 97-100.)
BOUND. Persons bound to service for a term of years, included in

representative numbers.

See full notes upon, notes 226–228.
Bord, Lynn. Speaker of the House, n. 26, p. 78.
BRADFORD, WILLIAM. Presiding officer of the Senate, p. 73.
BRADLEY, STEPIEN R. l’residing oflicer of the Senate, D. 83,
BRAXTON, CARTER, of Virginia. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 8.
Breach of the peace. For a breach of the peace, Senator or

representative inay be arrested

For any indictable offense, n. 56.
BREARLEY, DAVID. D. puty froin New Jersey. Signed this Consti.

tution, pp. 42, 252.
BRECKINRIDGE, JOHN C. Vice-President, n. 37, p. 78.
BRIBERY. All civil officers shall be rem ved from othíce on im-

peachment for, and conviction of, bribery, &c. ...

Bribery defined, n. 193.
BRIDGES. A charter for is a contract, n. 154, p. 156. A railroad

bridge is not a bridge within the statutes of 1790, Id.

The power of Congress to build, is not found in the
Constitution. It exists in the States, n. 89. But Congress

may regulate those over navigable waters, n. 89. p. 108.
BRIGADIER-GENERAL. Ten in the army, n. 124. Not less than 3

Brigadier to be assigned to command the Districts in the

rebel States, n. 276, p. 252, § 2.
BRIGHT, JESSE 1). Presiding oflicer of the Senate, n. 88, p. 81. Es

pelled from the Senate, n. 30.
Broom, JACOB. Deputy from Delaware, Signed this Constitution,
Browx, ALBERT G. Expelled from the Senate, n. 50.
BROWN, JOny. Presiding officer of the Senate, n. 33, p. 79.
BICHANAN, JAMES. President, n. 166.
BUILDINGS. Congress shall have power to exercise exclusive

legislation over needful buildings in places purchased by
the consent of the legislatures of the States

108

PP. 42, 232

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This includes the power of tixation, n. 36. And exclusive
jurisdiction, Id. But the title must be acquired with the

consent of the State, n. 137.
Bure, AARON. Vice-President, n. 37.
BUSINESS A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to

do business
BUTLER, PIERCE. Deputy from South Carolina. Signed this Con.

stitution, pp. 42, 232.
CALIOUN, Joun C. Vice-President, n. 37.
CALIFORNIA. Qualifications of electors, n. 17. Three representa-

tives, by census of 1860, n. 24, p. 68; population of through
each decade, pp. 69-71. Assigned tv ninth judicial cir-
cuit, n. 197. Effect of purchase upon citizenship, n. 220.
Admitted into the Union, n. 230. Ratified the 13th amend.
ment, n. 274; and failure to act on the 14th, n. 275.

24 186

i D i 25,88
Texns, n. 245.
CATROX, Joun. One of the Associate Justices of the Supreme

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Art. sec.

cl.
CAMPBELL JOHN A. One of the Judges of the Supreme Court,

n. 197.
Canada might be admitted into the Union of the Confederation,

Art. of Confederation, xi. p. 19.
CANDIDATES for the Presidency, spirit of the Constitution

changed as to, n. 256.
CAPACITY of measures for liquids, n. 102, p. 118, $ 2.
CAPITAL crime. No person shall be held to answer for a capital

or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or
indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the
land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual ser.
vice in time of war or public danger. Amendments..... 5

* Person "excluded slaves. Presentment or indictment
applies to all vffenses against the United States. Pre-
sentment, indictment, and grand jury, defineu, n. 259.
The exception defined and discussed, n. 254. Twice in
jeopardy defined and discussed, n. 255. Witness against
himself would be contrary to justice, n. 257. * Without
due process of law," fully defined and discussed, n. 257.
Piracy is a capital offense, n. 111. Is in restraint of legis.

lative power, Id. n. 257.
CAPITATION tax. No capitation or other direct tar shall be laid,

unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein-
before directed to be taken...

1 9 4
Capitation defined, n. 144. See also n. 32. Direct taxes
must be by the rule of apportionment, notes 22, 144. What

are direct taxes, Id.
CAPITATION tax. No amendment shall be made prior to 1808 to
affect the preceding clause.

5
CAPTAIN. A rank in the army, n. 124. In the navy, n. 128.
CAPTURES. Congress shall have power to declare war, to grant

letters of marqne and reprisal, and make rules concerning
captures on land and water

1 8 11
CAPTURES on land and water under the Corfederation, Art. IX.

p. 14. See notes 117-121.
CARE. The President shall take care that the laws be faithfully
executed..

2 3
The reason of this power explained, n. 189.
CARROLL, CHARLES, of Maryland. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 7;

and the Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
CARROLL, DANIEL. Deputy from Maryland. Signed Articles of

Confederation, p. 21; and this Constitution, pp. 42, 252.
CATHOLIO CHURCH. Reduced from the established church in

29, 127

14

36, 186

Court of the United States, n. 197, p. 198.
Cases to which the judicial power shall extend. (See Judicial
Porrer.)....

8 2 1
When a case arises, notes 199, 201. Defined, Id. Cases in
equity, n. 200. Affecting ambassadors, 202. In admiralty
(see Admiralty), n. 202. Where the United States is a
party, 204.

Between States. 205. Between a State and
citizens of another State 2050. Between citizens of dif.
ferelit States, 206. Between land grants of different
States, 207. Between a State and citizens, 205. Between
a State and aliens, or between aliens, &c., 209. The court

bas not jurisdiction of every ense. 210.
CAUSE No warrant shall issue but upon probable cause. Amend.
ments.

4
Must be by authority of law, n. 251. Warrant defined,

n. 252.
CENSUS to be taken within three years after first meeting of Con.

gress, and every ten years thereafter, in such manner as
they shall by law direct.

1 2 3
Numbers under each, n. 24, pp. 68-71. Ratio each year,
n. 21. Number of representatives under, in 1560, n. 24,

p. 69. Defined; has reference to numbers, n. 145.
CENSUS.' No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in

87, 194

44, 257

23, 67

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p. 73.

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proportion to the census or enumeration herein before

directed to be taken.....
CE SUS. No amendment shall be made prior to 150S to affect the

preceiling clause
CENTARE One square meter, n. 102, p. 117, $ 2.
CENTIGRAM. A measure of weight, n. 102, p. 116. & 2.
CENTILITER. A measure of capacity, n. 102, p. 118. $ 2.
CENTIMETER. A ineasure of length, n. 102, p. 117, $ 2.
CESSIOx. On the cession by particular States of a district (not

exceeding ten miles square), and the acceptance of Con-
gress, it may become the seat of government of the
United States..

The District of Columbia was ceded, n. 136. The in

habitants are citizens, and taxable, notes 136, 137.
CHARGE of treason. A person charged in any State with treason,

&c., who may flee from justice, to be delivered up and
reinoved to the State having jurisdiction of the crime....

* Person" and "flee" detined, n. 2:23. The executive
cannot go behind the demand, n. 223. He cannot be
coerced by the Supreme Court, Id. The requisites of the

demand, id. On what evidence shall be delivered up, Id.
CHARTERS. For taking away our, and abolisbing our laws. Dec.

of Ind. p. 4.
CHASE, SALMOX P. Chief-Justice of the Supreine Court, n. 197.
CHASE, SAMUEL, vf Maryland. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 7. One

of the Associate Justices, n. 197, p. 193. Impeached; oath

on trial of, n. 39. History of his trial, 1. 194, p. 158.
CHEFFS, LANGDON. Speaker of House of Representatives, n. 26,
CHIEP-Justice shall preside when the President of the United

States is trieri on an impeachment by the Senate, the.....

(See n. 89.)
CHEF-JUSTICES. List and ages of, of the Supreme Court, n. 197.
CHOOSING senators defined, n. 41.
CHOSEN. (See Elected, &c., n. 168.) Amendments
CHURCII, Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment

of religion. Amendinent

This cut down any established church, n. 245.
CHUSE. (See Elect, notes 41, 163)
CIEcuits of the United States Courts defined and judges allotted,

n. 197, pp. 191, 192.
CITIZEN of United States. No person shall be a senator in Con-

kress who has not been nine years a citizen of the United
States..

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Shields rejected for want of nine years' naturalization,

n. 35. (See 11. 46.)
Citizen. If not in military service, guarantied the right of trial

by jury, n. 260.
CITIZEN. "No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of

the United States at the time of the adoption of the Con-
stitution, shall be eligible to the office of President...

Not made by law, natural members of the body politic,
n. 169. The Constitution does not make the citizens-it
is made by them, n. 169. Ora citizen of the United States
discussed and detined, n. 170. Citizen defined, n. 274. Citi-

zen made by naturalization, n. 93.
CITIZENS. The judicial power shail extend to controversies be.

tween & State and citizens of another State; between
citizens of different States; between citizens of the saine
Suate claiming lands under trants of different States; and
between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States,
citizens, or subjects

(See n. 274.) A citizen cannot sue a State, n. 205a. They
must be citizens of the United States, n. 206. The situa-
tion rather than character gives the jurisdiction, Id. Does
not embrace citizens of Territories and District of Colum-
bis. It is enough that the grants were made by different
States, Id. The jurisdiction depends upon the cbaracter

2 1 6 84, 167

3 2 1 87,194

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