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Vice Pres from 4 March 1825 to 3 March 18.33; Martin Van Buren, from 4 idents.

March 1833 to 3 March 1837; Richard M. Johnson, from 4 March 1837 to 3 March 1841; Jolin Tyler, from 4 March 1811 to 6 April 1841; George M. Dallas, from + March 1845 to 3 March 1849; Wil. lard Fillmore, from 4 March 1819 to 10 July 1850; William R. King was elected in 1852 and was sworn as vice-president in 1853, in the island of Cuba, in accordance with act of 3d March, 1853. He died in Cuba, having never presided. John C. Breckinridge, from 4 March 1957 to 3 March 1861; Hannibal Hamlin, from 4 March 1861 to 3 March 1865; Andrew Johnson, from 4 díarch 1865 to 14 April 1865, when he was sworn as president in consequence of the

assassination of Abraham Lincoln. What officers [5.] The senate shall choose their other officers, and

also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

38. This presiding-officer, under an act of Congress, becomes the the presiding President of the United States, in case of the death or disability of come presi. the president and vice-president. 1 St. $ 9, p. 240; Brightly's Dig.

253. Pro tempore means for the time. But the law and practice 172.

is to elect a permanent presiding officer, who acts during the 103 a.

absence of the vice-president, and wl:en the vice-president becomes 26.

President of the United States. The following is a list of these presiding officers, or presidents pro tempore :

do the senato choose?

172.

86.

When does

dent!

Name the presiding otlicers.

Retired.

Names of Presidents pro tem

Attended.
pore of the Senate.
John Langdon

6 April 1789.
John Langdon..

7 Aug. 1789. Richard Henry Lee 18 April 1792 John Langdon.

6 Nov. 1792 John Langdon:

1 Mar. 1793 John Langdon.

4 Mar. 1793. Ralph Izard.

.31 May 1794. Ralph Izard.

3 Nov. 1794. Henry Tazewell

21 April 1789 19 Aug. 1789 8 May 1792 4 Dec. 1792 3 Mar. 1793 4 Mar 1793 9 June 1791

Nov. 1791 3 Mar. 1793 8 Dec. 1793 1 June 1796 3 Mar. 1797 10 July 1797 12 Dec. 1797 .16 July 1798 .17 July 1798 .26 Dec. 1798

20 Feb. 1795. Henry Tazewell

7 Dec. 1795 Samuel Livermore.

6 May 1796. William Bingham

.16 Feb. 1797 William Bradford.

6 July 1797. Jacob Read ...

22 Nov. 1797. Theodore Sedgwick .27 June 1798. Theodore Sedgwick .17 July 1798. John Lawrence..

6 Dec. 1793. James Ross

1 Mar. 1799. Samuel Livermore.

2 Dec. 1799. Uriah Tracy

14 May 1800 John Eager Howard 21 Nov. 1800 James Hillhouse.

28 Feb. 1801.

3 Mar. 1799 29 Dec. 1799 14 May 1800 27 Nov, 1800

3 Mar. 1301

Retired.

.14 Jan. 1802

3 May 1802 18 Jau. 1803 .25 Feb. 1803

3 Mar. 1803 6 Dec. 1803

9 Mar. 1804 ,27 Mar. 1804

2 Mar. 1805

3 Mar. 1805 .15 Dec. 1805 .21 April 1806

3 Mar. 1807 . 25 April 1808

3 Mar. 1809

7 Mar. 1809 28 June 1809 18 Dec. 1809

Names oj Presidents pro tem

Attended. pore of the Senate. Abraham Baldwin.

7 Dec. 1801..... Abraham Baldwin. .17 April 1802 Stephen R. Bradley 14 Dec 1802. Stephen R. Bradley . 25 Feb. 1803 Stephen R. Bradley

2 Mar. 1803. John Brown

17 Oct. 1803. John Brown

.23 Jan. 180+. Jesse Franklin

10 Mar. 1804. Joseph Anderson

15 Jan. 1805. Joseph Anderson . 28 Feb. 1805. Joseph Anderson

2 Mar. 1805. Samuel Smith....

2 Dec. 1805. Samuel Smith..

.18 Mar. 1806. Samuel Smith.

2 Mar. 1807. Samuel Smith..

16 April 1808. Stephen R. Bradley 28 Dec. 1808 Jolin Milledge

30 Jan. 1809. John Milledge.

4 Mar. 1809. Andrew Gregg

26 June 1809. Andrew Gregg

27 Nov. 1809 John Gaillard..

28 Feb. 1810 John Gaillard.

.17 April 1810. John Gaillard.

3 Dec. 1810. Jolin Pope.

.23 Feb. 1811. William H. Crawford. .24 Mar. 1812. William H. Crawford.. 2 Nov. 1812. Joseph B. Varnum... 6 Dec. 1813, Jolin Gaillard.

.18 April 1814. John Gaillard.

.19 Sept. 1814. John Gaillard.

4 Dec. 1815. Jolin Gaillard.

2 Dec. 1916. John Gaillard.

4 Mar. 1817. John Gaillard.

1 Dec. 1817. John Gaillard.

31 Mar. 1818. John Gaillard.

16 Nov. 1818. James Barbour

15 Feb. 1819. James Barbour

6 Dec. 1819. John Gaillard.

25 Jan. 1820. John Gaillard.

.13 Nov. 1820. John Gaillard

3 Dec. 1821. John Gaillard

1 Feb. 1822. Tohn Gaillard

2 Dec, 1822. John Gaillard

.19 Feb. 1823. John Gaillard.

1 Dec. 1823. Jonn Gaillard.

.21 May 1824. John Gaillard.

1 May 1810 .11 Dec. 1810

3 Mar. 1811 6 July 1812 3 Mar. 1813

3 Feb. 1814 .18 April 1814

2 Mar. 1815 30 April 1815

3 Mar. 1817

6 Mar. 1817 18 Feb. 1818 .20 April 1818

5 Jan 1819 3 Mar. 1819 26 Dec. 1819 .15 May 1820

3 Mar. 1821 .27 Dec. 1821

8 May 1822 2 Dec. 1822

3 Mar. 1823 20 Jan. 1824 27 May 1824 Retired.

6 Dec. 1824. John Gaillard.

9 Mar. 1825. Nathaniel Macon

20 May 1826. Nathaniel Macon

2 Jan. 1827. Nathaniel Macon

2 Mar. 1827

3 Mar. 1825 9 Mar. 1825 20 Mar. 1825 13 Feb. 1827 3 Mar. 1827

Names of Presidents pro tem

Attended. pore of the Senate. Samuel Smith

.15 May 1828. Samuel Smith..

1 Dec. 1828. Samuel Srnith.

13 Mar. 1829. Samuel Smith.

7 Dec. 1829. Samuel Smith

. 29 May 1830. Samuel Smith...

6 Dec. 1830. Samuel Smith...

1 Mar. 1831. Samuel Smith.

5 Dec. 1831 Littleton W. Tazewell. 9 July 1832. Hugh Lawson White 3 Dec. 1832. Hugh Lawson White 2 Dec. 1833. George Poindexter 28 June 1834, John Tyler....

3 Mar. 1835. William R. King.

1 July 1836. William R. King.

28 Jan. 1837. William R. King..

7 Mar. 1837. William R. King.

13 Sept. 1837. William R. King.

2 July 1838. William R. King.

3 Dec. 1838. William R. King.

25 Feb. 1839. William R. King.

2 Dec. 1839 William R King.

3 July 1840. William R. King

7 Dec. 1840. William R. King.

2 Mar. 1841 William R. Kiny.

4 Mar. 1841 Samuel L. Southard 11 Mar. 1841 Samuel L. Southard .31 May 1841. Samuel L. Southard

6 Dec. 1841 Willie P. Mangum. .31 May 1812. Willie P. Mangum.

5 Dec. 1812. Willie P. Mangum

4 Dec. 1843. Willie P. Mangum.

2 Dec. 1844. Willie P. Mangum.

4 Mar. 1945. David R. Atchison.

8 Aug. 1846. David R. Atchison. .l! Jan. 1817. David R. Atchison.

3 Mar. 1847 David R. Atchison.

2 Feb. 1848. David R. Atchison.

1 June 1848. David R. Atchison.

26 June 1848. David R. Atchison .29 July 1848. David R. Atchison

4 Dec. 1843. David R. Atchison. .:26 Dec. 1848. David R. Atchison.

2 Mar. 1849. David R. Atchison.

5 Mar. 1849 William R. King

6 May 1850. William R. King

.11 July 1850 William R. King

26 May 1828

21 Dec. 1828 .17 Mar. 1829 .13 Dec. 1829 .31 May 1830

2 Jan. 1831

3 Mar. 1831 .11 Dec. 1831 .16 July 1832

2 Mar. 1833 .15 Dec. 1833 30 June 1834

3 Mar. 1835 4 July 1836 3 Mar. 1837 10 Mar. 1837 12 Sept. 1837 16 Oct. 1837 .18 Dec. 1838

3 Mar 1839 .26 Dec. 1839 21 July 1840 15 Dec. 1810

3 Mar. 1811 4 Mar. 1841 15 Mar. 13+1 .13 Sept. 1941 30 May 1842 31 Aug. 1842

3 Mar. 1843 .17 June 1844

3 Mar. 1845 4 Mar. 1845 .10 Aug. 1846 14 Jan. 1847 3 Mar. 1847

8 Feb. 1818 14 June 1848 29 June 1848 14 Aug. 1818

4 Dec. 1843 1 Jan. 1849 3 Mar. 1819 23 Mar. 1849 .19 May 1850 .30 Sept. 1850 Names of Presidents pro lem

2 Dec. 1850. William R. King

1 Dec. 1851. William R. King

1 Dec. 1852 David R. Atchison.

20 Dec. 1852.

3 Mar. 1851 .31 Aug. 1852 20 Dec. 1852

3 Mar. 1853

Attended.

Retired. pore of the Seniite. David R. Atchison.... 5 Dec. 1853.

7 Aug. 1854 Jesse D. Bright

4 Dec. 1854

3 Mar. 1855 Jesse D. Bright

3 Dec. 1855

8 Aug. 1856 Jesse D. Bright

.21 Aug. 1856.

.30 Aug. 1856 Jesse D. Bright

2 Dec. 1856.

5 Jan. 1857 James M. Mason.

5 Jan. 1857.

3 Mar. 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick. 29 Mar. 1858.

4 May 1853 Benjamin Fitzpatrick. 24 Jan. 1859.

10 Feb. 1859 Solomon Foote.. 18 July 1861.

6 Aug. 1861 Solo non Foote. 31 Mar. 1862.

.21 May 1862 Solomon Foote.

20 June 1862.

.17 July 1862 Solomon Foote. .18 Feb. 1863.

4 Mar. 1863 Daniel Clark, 25 April 1864.

4 July 1864 Daniel Clark..

9 Feb. 1865

.19 Feb. 1865 La Farette S. Foster 7 Mar, 1866.

28 July 1866 La Fayette S. Foster .13 Dec. 1867.

3 Mar. 1867 Benjamin F. Wade...... 4 Mar. 1867.

4 Mar. 1869 [6.] The senate shall have the sole power to try all How are im.

peachments impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they tried ! shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President 319-327. of the United States is tried, the Chief-Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Two thirds ?

39. For the doctrine of impeachment, see Peck's Trial, speeches 27, 191-194. for the prosecution and defence: Reports and Debates on the Impeachment of the President, December, 1867. A judgment of impeachment in the English House of Lords requires that at least twelve of the members should concur in it; and “a verdict by less than twelve would not be good.” Com. Dig. Parliament. L. 17. The reasons why this power of impeachment was given to the senate are fully discussed in the Federalist, and in Story on the 36, 37. Const., and Rawle on the Const. Story's Const, $ 713-775, and notes, The interest of the vice-president is supposed to disqualify where are him. Story's Const., $ 777. For the action of the senate upon the inpeach

ment trials impeachment see the journal or record of the senate on trials of impeachment, from March 4,-1780, to March 3, 1851: 1. On the trial of William Blount, a senator of the United States, from

319. December 17, 1798, to January 15, 1799: 2. On the trial of John Pickering, Judge of the New Hampshire District, from March 3, 1803, to March 12, 1803; 3. On the trial of Samuel Chase, one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, from Sovember 30. 1804, to March 1, 1805. The preceding cases will be found as an appendix to the third volume of the Legislative Journal of the Senate; 4. On the trial of James H. Peck, Judge of the Missouri District, from May 11, 1830, to May 25, 1830 ; and from December, 13, 1830, to January 31, 1831. The

to be found? What is the

proceedings in this case will be found as an appendix to the Legis. lative Journal of the Senate of 1830, 1831, and also in volumes

called Peck's Trial, Blount's Trial, Pickering's Trial, and Chase's 87, 191, 194. Trial. For the mode of trial in cases of impeachment, see Story's

Const., § 807–810; 2 Woodeson's Lect., 40, p. 603, 604; Jeffer

son's Manual, $ 53. What is the The form of oath adopted by the Senate in Chase's case way as onth of the follows: "You solemnly swear or affirm, that in all things apperSenators!

taining to the trial of the impeachment of you will do impartial justice according to the Constituition and laws of the United States." (Chase's Trial, vol. 1, p. 12.) Report upon the impeachment of the President, 62.

The question in Pickering's Case was : "Is John Pickering, disjuestion ?

trict judge of the district of New Hampshire, guilty as charged in the art cle of the impeachment exhibited against him by the House of Representatives ?" Annals 2d Session 8th Cong. 36t. In Chase's trial it was: “Mr.-, how say your; is the respondent, Samuel Chase, guilty or not guilty of a high crime or misdemeanor, as charged in the article of impeachment ?" Ibid 2d Session 8th

Congress, 561.) What is the [7.] Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not Judgment in impeach- extend further than to removal from office, and dis.

qualification to hold or enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

ment?

328.

Wh:t means

40. JUDGMENT here means the conclusion of law from the jurginent? facts found upon the charges preferred by the House. In the trial 27, 89.

of Judge Peck .for having disbarred a lawyer, the defence was 191. 194. mainly rested upon the right of the court to punish for contempt,

and the want of malice in the judge. Peck's Trial. Some have Can the questioned whether if the defendant be found guilty, the judgment judgment be can be less than removal from office. Story's Const. 803. Shall not short of l'e- extend further, does not mean shall not exceed or fall short but be

exactly removal and disqualificution, and nothing else. Farrar, p. 434., note 1.

In England the punishment extends to the whole punishment attached by law to the offense. (Comyn's Dig. Parliament, L. 4t; 2 Woodeson. Lect. 40. p. 611-614), Story's Const., S 784. The sentence is limited to political punishment, and the party left to a trial for the criminal violation of the law by a jury. Story's Const.

$ 786. How far does DISQUALIFICATION.—The punishment touches neither his person extend :

nor property; but simply divests him of his political capacity. Mr. Bayard, Blount's trial, 47–68, Phila., 1799. Id. 82. Siory's Const., 8 803.

the sentence

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