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honour, or without humanity, who live only to ac. cumulate, and to this passion sacrifice every other happiness. They have been described as madmen, who, in the midst of abundance, banish every pleasure, and make, from imaginary wants, real neces.: sities. But few, very few, correspond to this exag. gerated picture; aud, perhaps, there is not one in whom all these circumstances are found united. Instead of this, we find the sober and the indus: trious branded by the vain and the idle with this odious appellation; men who, by frugality and labour, raise themselves ahove their equals, and contribute their share of industry to the common stock.
Whatever the vain or the ignorant may say, well were it for society, had we more of these characters amongst us. In general these close men are found at last the true benefactors of society. With an avaricious man we seldom lose in our dealings, but too frequently in our commerce with prodigality.
A French priest, whose name was Godinot, went for a long time by the name of the Griper. He refused to relieve the most appareut wretchedness, and, by a skilful management of his vineyard, had the good fortune to acquire immense sums of money.
The inhabitants of Rheims, who were his fel. low-citizens, detested him; and the populace, who seldom love a miser, wherever he weut, followed him with shouts of contempt. He still, however, continued his former simplicity of life, his amazing and unremitted frugality. He had long perceived the wants of the poor in the city, particularly in having no water but what they were obliged to buy at an advanced price; wherefore, that whole fortune which he had been amassing, he laid out in an aqueduct, by which he did the poor inore useful and lasting service, than if he had distributed his whole income in charity every day at his door.
Among men long conversant with books, we too frequently find those misplaced virtues, of which I
have been now complaining. We find the studious animated with a strong passion for the great virtues, as they are mistakenly called, and utterly forgetful of the ordinary ones. The declamations of philosophy are generally rather exhausted on those supererogatory duties, than ou such as are indispensably necessary. A man, therefore, who has taken bis ideas of mankind from study alone, generally comes into the world with a heart melting at every fictious distress. Thus he is induced, by misplaced liberality, to put himself into the indigent circumstances of the person he relieves.
I shall conclude this paper with the advice of one of the ancients, to a young man whom he saw giving away all his substance to pretended distress. It is possible, that the person you relieve may be an honest man; and I know that you, who relieve him, are such. You sec then, by your generosity, that you rob a man who is certainly deserving, to bestow it on one who may possibly be a rogue : and, while you are unjust in rewarding uncertain merit, you are doubly guilty by stripping yourself.'
ON THE EDUCATION OF YOUTH.
so few have been more frequently written upon, than the education of youth. Yet it is a little surprising that it has been treated almost by all iv a declamatory manner. They have insisted Jargely on the advantages tbat result from it, both to individuals and to society; and have expatiated in the praise of what none have ever been so hardy as to call in question.
Instead of giving us fine but empty harangues upon this subject, instead of indulging each his particular and whimsical systems, it had been much better if the writers on this subject had treated it in a inore scientific manner, repressed all the sallies of imagination, and given us the result of their obser. vations with didactic simplicity. Upon this sub. ject, the smallest errors are of the most dangerous consequence; and the author should venture the imputation of stupidity upou a topic, where his slightest deviations may tend to injure the rising generation. However, such are the whimsical and erroneous productions written upon this subject. Their authors have studied to be uncommon, pot to be just; and, at present, we want a treatise upon education, not to tell us any thing new, but to explode the errors which have been introduced by the admirers of novelty. It is in this manner books become numerous: a desire of novelty pro duces a book, and other books are required to de. stroy the former.
I shall, therefore, throw out a few thoughts upon this subject, which, though known, have not been attended to by others; and shall dismiss all attempts to please, while I study only instruction.
The manner in which our youth of Loudon are at present educated, is, some in free-schools in the city, but the far greater number in boarding.schools about town. The parent justly consults the health of his child, and finds an education in the country tends to promote this, much more than a continu. unce iu town. Thus fær he is right; if there were a possibility of having even our free-schools kept a little out of town, it would certainly conduce to the health and vigour of, perhaps, the mind as well as the body. It may be thought whimsical, but it is truth; I have found, by experience, that they, who have spent all their lives in cities, contract not only an effeminacy of habit, but even of thinking.
But when I have said that the boarding schools are preferable to free-schools, as being in the coun: try, this is certainly the only advantage I cau allow them: otherwise it is impossible to conceive the ignorance of those who take upon them the import. ant trust of education. Is any man unfit for any of the professions, he finds his last resource in settiog up a school. Do any become bankrupts in trade, they still set up a boarding-school; and drive a trade this way, when all others fail : nay, I have been told of butchers and barbers, who have turned school-nasters; and, more surprising still, made fortunes in their new profession.
Could we think ourselves iu a country of civilised people, could it be conceived that we have any regard for posterity, when such are permitted to take the charge of the morals, genius, and health, of those dear little pledges, who may one day be the guardians of the liberties of Europe; and who may serve as the honour and bulwark of their aged parents? The care of our children, is it below the state? Is it fit to indulge the caprice of the ignor. ant with the disposal of their children in this par. ticular? For the state to take the charge of all its children, as in Persia or Sparta, might at present be inconvenient; but surely, with great ease, it might cast an eye to their instructors. Of all professions in society, I do not kuow a more useful, or a more honourable one, than a school-master; at the same time that I do not see any more generally despised, for whose talents are so ill rewarded.
Were the salaries of school-masters to be augmented from a diminution of useless siuecures, how might it turn to the advautage of this people! a people whom, without flattery, I may, in other respects, term the wisest and greatest upon earth. But while I would reward the deserving, I would dismiss those utterly unqualified for their employmient: in short, I would make the business of a school-master every way more respectable, by in
creasing their salaries, and admitting only men of proper abilities.
It is true we have school-masters appointed, and they have some small salaries; but where at pre. sent there is only one school-master appointed, there should at least be two; and wherever the salary is at present twenty pounds, it should be a hundred, Do we give immoderate benefices to those who in. struct ourselves, and shall we deny even subsis. teuce to those who instruct our children? Every member of society should be paid in proportion as he is necessary; and I will be bold enough to say, that school-masters in a state are more necessary than clergymen, as children stand in more need of instruction than their parents.
But instead of this, as I have already observed, we send them to board in the country, to the most ignorant set of men that can be imagined. But, Jest the ignorance of the master be not sufficient, the child is generally consigned to the usher. This is commonly some poor needy animal, little superior to a footman either in learning or spirit, invited to his place by an advertisement, and kept there merely from his being of a complying disposition, and making the children fond of him.
• You give your child to be educated to a slave,' says a philosopher to a rich man; instead of one slave, you will then have two.'
It were well, however, if parents, upon fixiog their children in one of these houses, would examine the abilities of the usher, as well as the master; for, whatever they are told to the contrary, the usher is generally the person most employed in their education. If then a gentleman, upon putting his son to one of these houses, sees the usher disregarded by the master, he may depend upon it, that he is equally disregarded by the boys: the truth is, in spite of all their endeavours to please, they are generally the laughing-stock of the school. Every trick is played upon the usher; the oddity