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e. As is used for 6 where" in :
“Here, as I point my sword, the sun arises.” — II., 1, 106. f. “The different usages of but arise, (1) from its varia
tions between the meaning of except, unless,' and the adversative meaning on the other hand'; (2) from the fa that the negative before but, in the sense of 'except,' is sometimes omitted and at other times
inserted." — ABBOTT. But varies its position, thus frequently causing ambiguity :
“And when you saw his chariot but appear.” — I., 1, 46. “I but believe it partly." - V., 1, 90.
“When there is in it but one only man.” — I., 2, 157. g. “ So is used with the future and subjunctive to denote.pro
vided that.'” – ABBOTT.
I would not, so with love I might entreat you."— I., 2, 166. h. Whiles (genitive of while) means “of, or during, the
time": “ Whiles they behold a greater than themselves.” — I., 2, 209. i. “ Just as so and as are affixed to who, when, where, in order
to give a relative meaning to words that were origi-
- III., 2, 93.
VII. PREPOSITIONS. 6. The meanings of the prepositions are more restricted now than in the Elizabethan authors ; partly because some of the prepositions have been pressed into the ranks of the conjunctions ; partly because, as the language has developed, the number of prepositions has increased, while the scope of each has decreased." - ABBOTT. a. From is frequently used in the sense of "apart from,"
"away from," without a verb of motion :
“Quite from the main opinion he held once.” – II., 1, 196. b. " In was used with verbs of motion." - Аввотт.
“Cast yourself in wonder.” — I., 3, 60.
- V., 3, 96. C. Of is applied not merely to the agent and the instrument,
but to any influencing circumstance, in the sense of " as regards," " what comes from”:
“We shall find of him
A shrewd contriver.” — II., 1, 157. d. On is often found where modern usage requires at.
“If Cæsar carelessly but nod on him.” — I., 2, 118. “ On was frequently used even for the possessive of,'
particularly in rapid speech before a contracted pronoun." — ABBOTT.
“I am glad on't." – I., 3, 137. f. To sometimes had the meaning of equivalence, apposition.
“We shall have him well to friend." - III., 1, 143.
g. With is often used to express cause and effect :
“It was famed with more than with one man." – I., 2, 153.
With that which melteth fools.” -III., 1, 42.
“ With meditating that she must die once." - IV., 3, 191. VIII. OTHER IRREGULARITIES. a. The use of the double comparative and superlative is frequent, for the purpose of greater emphasis, e.g.
" most boldest,” “ most unkindest.” b. “The possessive adjectives, when unemphatic, are some
times transposed, being really combined with nouns (like the French monsieur, milord).” - ABBOTT.
'Dear, my lord.” — II., 1, 255. C. Other is sometimes used as a singular pronoun.
“Every time gentler than other.” — I., 2, 230. d. The double negative is often found ; this is, perhaps, a survival of Early English, when this construction was
It does not, as with us, have the effect of destroying the negation.
“Not a crown neither.” — I., 2, 238.
Nor to no Roman else." -- III., 1, 91.
“Thou hast no figures nor no fantasies." - II., 1, 231. e. Transpositions are very common.
“Only I yield to die." - V., 4, 12.
In order really to read Shakespeare, it is necessary to voice his lines aloud, for it has been well said that “The chief thing to remember in reading Shakespeare's verses is that they were made for the ear, not for the eye. . It is the general effect of the lines, their musical flow, which we take into account, though we must pay some attention to the individual elements of the verse.
In this oral reading of the great dramatist, the student becomes aware that Shakespeare has used whatever form, to his mind, best expressed the thought and feeling animating the characters. Hence we find a wide range of verse-form ; prose,
used whenever the idea is prosaic, i.e., where there is an absence of emotion, or where the thought is analytic, not poetic. In this, as in every other respect, Shakespeare proves himself the master who mirrors nature perfectly.
Space does not here permit an exhaustive discussion of Shakespeare's Verse as characterizing his earlier and his later work, but some of the peculiarities, a knowledge of which is necessary to the reading of Julius Cæsar, will be pointed out.
Blank verse is the characteristic Shakespearian form, although rhyme is freely employed, especially in the earlier plays. In Julius Cæsar there are 2241 lines of blank verse to 34 rhymed lines. In Shakespeare's day, when the mechanical appliances of the stage were very deficient, rhyme was often used to indicate to the audience the end of a scene ; illustrations this in Julius Cæsar occur at the end of Act I., Scene II. ; Act V., Scene III. ; Act V., Scene V.
1 Gummere's Handbook of Poetics.
The usual metre is what is called English heroic measure, the iambic pentameter verse, consisting of five feet of two syllables each, the second syllable in each foot being accented. Shakespeare, however, would not permit himself to be enslaved by any form ; in his verse variations are frequent. According to Abbott, “ The metre is varied, sometimes (1) by changing the position of the accent, sometimes (2) by introducing trisyllabic and monosyllabic feet. These licenses are, however, subject to certain laws." a. After a pause for rhetorical effect, the unaccented syllable
is sometimes omitted :-
- II., 1, 180. 6. “ Provided there be only one accented syllable, there may
be more than two syllables in any foot." — ABBOTT.
dówn?” – IV., 3, 273. c. Monosyllabic prepositions may sometimes receive the
accent:“Such men | as he be ne ver át | heart's ease.” — I., 2, 208. d. One or two extra syllables are sometimes allowed if unem
phatic, before a pause, especially at the end of a line: