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NAVAL LIGHTS AND RECOGNITION SIGNALS.
ART. 13. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rules made by the Government of any nation with respect to additional station and signal-lights for two or more ships of war or for vessels sailing under convoy, or with the exhibition of recognition signals adopted by ship-owners, which have been authorized by their respective Governments and duly registered and published.
STEAM VESSEL UNDER SAIL BY DAY.
Art. 14. A steam-vessel proceeding under sail only but having her funnel up, shall carry in day-time, forward, where it can best be seen, one black ball or shape two feet in diameter. (Aug. 19, 1890.)
III.-SOUND SIGNALS IN FOG, ETC.
ART. 15. All signals prescribed by this article for vessels under way shall be given:
First. By « steam vessels on the whistle or siren. Second. By “sailing vessels” and “vessels towed” on the fog “
The words “prolonged blast " used in this article shall mean a blast of from four to six seconds duration.
A steam-vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle or siren, sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstruction, and with an efficient fog horn, to be sounded by mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell. (In all cases where the rules require a bell to be used a drum may be substituted on board Turkish vessels, or a gong where such articles are used on board small seagoing vessels.) A sailing vessel of twenty tons gross tonnage or upwards shall be provided with a similar fog horn and bell.
In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, whether by day or night, the signals described in this article shall be used as follows, namely:
STEAM VESSEL UNDER WAY.
(a) A steam vessel having way upon her shall sound, at intervals of not more than two minutes, a prolonged blast.
(b). A steam vessel under way, but stopped, and having no way upon her, shall sound, at intervals of not more than two minutes, two prolonged blasts, with an interval of about one second between.
SAIL VESSEL UNDER WAY.
(c) A sailing vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, when on the starboard tack, one blast; when on the port tack, two blasts in succession, and when with the wind abaft the beam, three blasts in succession.
VESSELS AT ANCHOR OR NOT UNDER WAY.
(d). A vessel when at anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one minute, ring the bell rapidly for about five seconds.
VESSELS TOWING OR TOWED.
(e) A vessel when towing, a vessel employed in laying or in picking up a telegraph cable, and a vessel under way, which is unable to get out of the way of an approaching vessel through being not under command, or unable to maneuver as required by the rules, shall, instead of the signals prescribed in subdivisions (a) and (c) of this article, at intervals of not more than two minutes, sound three blasts in succession, namely: One prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A vessel towed may give this signal and she shall not give any other.
SMALL SAILING VESSELS AND BOATS.
Sailing vessels and boats of less than twenty tons gross tonnage shall not be obliged to give the above-mentioned signals, but, if they do not, they shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than one minute. (June 10, 1896.)
SPEED IN FOG.
ART. 16. Every vessel shall, in a fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rain-storms, go at a moderate speed, having careful regard for the existing circunstances and conditions.
A steam vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam, the fogsignal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines, and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over.
IV.-STEERING AND SAILING RULES.
Risk of collision can, when circumstances permit, be ascertained by carefully watching the compass bearing of an approaching vessel. If the bearing does not appreciably change, such risk should be deemed to exist.
ART. 17. When'two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other, as follows, namely:
(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled.
(b) A vessel which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the starboard tack.
(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.
(d) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to the windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to the leeward.
(e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other vessel.
ART. 18. When two steam-vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.
This article only applies to cases where vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two vessels which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other.
The only cases to which it does apply are when each of the two vessels is end on, or nearly end on, to the other; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each vessel sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own; and by night, to cases in which each vessel is in such a position as to see both the side-lights of the other.
It does not apply by day to cases in which a vessel sees another ahead crossing her own course; or by night, to cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.
TWO STEAM-VESSELS CROSSING.
ART. 19. When two steam-vessels are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.
STEAM-VESSEL SHALL KEEP OUT OF THE WAY OF SAILING-VESSEL.
Art. 20. When a steam-vessel and a sailing-vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam-vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing-vessel. (Aug. 19, 1890.)
COURSE AND SPEED,
ART. 21. Where, by any of these rules, one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her course and speed.
NOTE.-When, in consequence of thick weather or other causes, such vessel finds herself so close that collision can not be avoided by the action of the giving-way vessel alone, she also shall take such action as will best aid to avert collision. (See articles twenty-seven and twenty-nine.) (Aug. 19, 1890; May 28, 1894.)
ART. 22. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.
STEAM-VESSELS SHALL SLACKEN SPEED OR STOP.
ART. 23. Every steam-vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another' vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or reverse.
ART. 24. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules every vessel, overtaking any other, shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.
Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direction more than two points abaft her beam, that is, in such a position, with reference to the vessel which she is overtaking that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel's side-lights, shall be deemed to be an overtaking vessel; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.
As by day the overtaking vessel can not always know with certainty whether she is forward or abaft this direction from the other vessel she should, if in doubt, assume that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way.
ART. 25. In narrow channels every steam-vessel shall, when it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fair-way or mid-channel which lies on the starboard side of such vessel.
RIGHT OF WAY OF FISHING VESSELS.
ART. 26. Sailing vessels under way shall keep out of the way of sailing vessels or boats fishing with nets, or lines, or trawls. This rule shall not give to any vessel or boat engaged in fishing the right of obstructing a fair-way used by vessels other than fishing vessels or boats.
GENERAL PRUDENTIAL RULE.
ART. 27. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.
SOUND SIGNALS FOR PASSING STEAMERS.
ART. 28. The words “ short blast” used in this article shall mean a blast of about one second's duration.
When vessels are in sight of one another, a steam-vessel under way, in taking any course authorized or required by these rules, shall indicate that course by the following signals or whistle or siren, namely:
One short blast to mean, “ I am directing my course to starboard.” Two short blasts to mean, I am directing my course to port.”
Three short blasts to mean, “My engines are going at fuil speed astern.'
ART. 29. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel or the owner or master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
ART. 30. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special rule, duly made by local authority, relative to the navigation of any harbor, river, or inland waters. (Aug. 19, 1890.)
ART. 31. When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely:
In the daytime
First. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute.
Second. The international code signal of distress indicated by N C.
Third. The distance signal, consisting of a square flag, having either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball.
Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus. At night
First. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute.
Second. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, and so forth).
Third. Rockets or shells throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a time, at short intervals.
Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus. (Aug. 19, 1890; May 28, 1894.) Consideration of Future Rules.
The Secretary of State is hereby authorized to reconvene the delegates of the United States to the Washington International Marine Conference of eighteen hundred and eighty-nine, whenever in his judgment it is expedient, for the further consideration of rules to
ions at sea and in the waters of the United States. (Feb. 5, 1896.) Inland Rules of 1897.
The following regulations for preventing collision shall be followed by all vessels navigating all harbors, rivers, and inland waters of the United States, except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal and the Red River of the