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to the sea-shore (near Wellington), utterly deserted and in ruins, while the new Christian settlement is fully peopled, and flourishing like a green bay-tree.' His son, Thomson (Tomihoni) Rauperaha, is described as 'a discreet Christian teacher, and tea-and-toast man.'

Thomas Walker Nene,' our active and gallant ally throughout the struggle of 1845, offered to Colonel Mundy to surrender the pension which he holds for his services if the Governor would get him a fine mill from Sydney... It is to be hoped that before very long he became, what was the height of his ambition, a miller on his own account, grinding corn at so much per bushel.' Yet this man was noted for acts of daring bravery in the olden day: once,' when his blood and heart were high,' he walked alone into the pah of an enemy, called him out by name, and shot him dead for having murdered his friend and relative. But the most unaccountable of these changes seems to have come over the greatest savage of all, Rangihaieta, the chief who, at the so-called 'massacre of Wairau,' killed with his own tomahawk, in cold blood, Captains England and Wakefield and fifteen other English prisoners; in revenge, it must be added, for the death of one of his wives by a chance shot in the skirmish.

In 1849,' says a government surveyor in a report, 'the old chief pointed out to me the impregnable nature of his position, by calling my attention more than once to the large lagoons, morasses, dense forest, and high hills with which he is surrounded, giving me to understand that he would not be destitute of food while the lagoons supplied eels, the forest birds, mamaku, or other food, on which, with occasional contributions from surrounding tribes, he and his followers could subsist. At this time the very mention of a road seemed to excite his indignation.'

He was shrewdly of opinion, that the only object of roads was to conquer New Zealanders.' Strange to say, he is now so bitten with what the surveyor calls the prevalent 'mania for road-making' among the natives of that part of the country, that, with the encouragement of a Roman Catholic missionary, he has induced his people to make three admirable lines of road through the heart of his own fastnesses, and drives his own gig, we are told, on his own highway. One of these roads he has designated the 'Governor's Backbone,' thereby, in native etiquette, making over the ownership and superintendence of it to the Governor."

*Thus the great Heuheu of Taupo,' a powerful northern chief, once proclaimed that the splendid volcanic mountain Tongariro, one of the grandest natural objects of the island, was his own backbone. The result of which was, that the mountain was as inconveniently 'tabooed' to picturesque and other explorers, as certain Scottish glens åre said to be by certain civilised chieftains.


Together with the principal native actors on this distant stage, we have now to bid farewell to the principal European. The bishop is for the present in England, explaining to his own countrymen the wants and history of his adopted race. And Sir George Grey has left his government-perhaps not to return. He has left it escorted by the prayers and blessings of thousands, whom he has seen raised, mainly through his own judgment and perseverance, from barbarism to civilisation. No man in our day, perhaps in any day, has accomplished such a task. And yet it is not to the governor that these simple and cordial people bring the homage of their attachment, but to the man. It is the charm of sympathy which has won them— the charm of his own deep and somewhat enthusiastic affection for the race which he knows so well and has served so truly. In the words of a poetical farewell to him from the natives of Otaki, which lies before us :

'Thy love came first, not mine:

Thou didst first behold

With favour and regard

The meanest of our race:

Hence it is that the heart o'erflows.'*

He may now depart in peace; his part is played out, and room is made for the exertions of new performers. Whatever judgment may be passed on other points of Governor Grey's diversified administration-and it is his fortune to have singularly able as well as hostile critics, both here and in his own islands-the present age must needs do him justice as the founder of Maori civilisation, and we fervently hope that posterity may crown the judgment by pointing to the permanence of his work.

NOTE.-With reference to a statement at p. 84 of our former article on this subject, respecting the licensing of houses for the sale of spirits at the Sandwich Islands, under the British Commission of Government, in 1843, we have been since informed by one of the Commissioners that the licensees were expressly prohibited from selling spirits to natives. Our statement was taken from the account of Alexander Simpson, Secretary to the Commission, which omits to mention this circumstance.


It was not only for his paternal government that Sir George Grey had an especial claim to this poetical tribute, for it is to him that the natives are indebted for the preservation of their old national songs. He published at New Zealand in 1853 a considerable octavo volume of Maori verse, which he had diligently gleaned for seven years in all parts of the islands. The most favourable time,' he states in his preface, for collecting these poems was at the great meetings of the people upon public affairs, when their chiefs and most eloquent orators addressed them. On those occasions, according to the custom of the nation, the most effective speeches were principally made up from recitations of portions of ancient


ART. VII.-1. The Lives of the Queens of England, &c. By Agnes Strickland. Vols. VI. VII. London. 1843. 2. Memoirs of the Life and Times of Sir Christopher Hatton, K.G., &c. By Sir Harris Nicolas, G.C.M.G. London. 1847. 3. The Romance of the Peerage, or Curiosities of Family History. By George Lillie Craik. Vols. I. II. London. 1848. 4. Lives and Letters of the Devereux Earls of Essex, &c. By the Hon. Walter Bourchier Devereux. 2 Vols. London. 1853.

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T has been remarked by Sismondi, that the effect of the Salic law in the succession of a kingdom is to render the royal family more strictly national, while one in which female succession is allowed is perpetually exposed to the chance of receiving a foreign dynasty. Of the long line of kings of France every one was a Frenchman, while England and Spain have each been more than once transferred to foreign rulers through the operation of the contrary law. But it is a curious circumstance, that whenever this has occurred in England, it has never taken place through the marriage of a queen-regnant, but always through that of some princess not in the immediate line of succession, whose posterity has appeared to claim the throne after several generations. Probably few persons seriously dreamed that the union of Margaret of England with James of Scotland would lead to that of the two British kingdoms under one sceptre; still fewer doubtless imagined, when the decorous Palsgrave carried off his laughing bride from the court of their first common sovereign, that within a century both realms would receive as their king the prince of a German state of which few Englishmen in those days had heard the name. But none of the queens-regnant who have preceded her present Majesty can be made responsible for the good or the evil of introducing new blood into the royal line. Two, indeed-if we count, as is hardly fair, the second Mary, three of their number were married to foreign princes, but none left surviving issue, only one bore children at all. The present heir-apparent is the first who has derived the title of Prince of Wales from a maternal parent. And Elizabeth, the

poems.' The collection will form a curious study for ethnographers, and cannot fail to throw considerable light upon the former customs and ideas of this interesting race. Unless the task had been undertaken at once, it would have been vain to attempt it. The poems, Sir George says, are rapidly passing out of use and memory; and the ancient and figurative language in which they are composed is already nearly or quite unintelligible to many of their best-instructed young men. The metrical arrangement was obtained by listening attentively to the chanting of the songs by various natives at different times.

* The Plantagenet succession was hardly an exception: Matilda can be barely counted as a queen-regnant; and her husband and son were not more foreign to the English nation than the existing royal family.


greatest of our queens, and one of the greatest of our sovereigns, desired no worthier epitaph than that she lived and died a Virgin Queen.'

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But more than this, two among our queens-regnant have been conspicuously national sovereigns. The last Tudor and the last Stuart, the daughter of Henry VIII. and the daughter of James II., were the last of our rulers who were English by both parents. Their maternal ancestry was not drawn from Kings and Kaisers, but from simple English subjects, and those of no very exalted rank or pedigree. Both were indeed the daughters of peers, but neither Anne Boleyn nor Queen Anne was born in the peerage; the former indeed was doubtless the cause of her father's elevation. The whole dynasty to which Elizabeth belonged was one under which royalty was more thoroughly national than it had been for many centuries before, or than it has ever been since. The marriage of the Duke of York with Anne Hyde was looked on as something strange, and almost monstrous; but such was not the feeling a century earlier. The royal personages of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries intermarried more habitually with Englishmen and Englishwomen than those of any subsequent age, or indeed of any preceding one since the Norman Conquest. It was the point of time most favourable to such a practice. The last vestiges of its foreign origin had just been wiped away from the dynasty, and the aristocracy founded by the Conqueror; the system of modern European politics which regards all crowned heads as forming a distinct caste, intermarrying only within their own august circle, was not as yet fully established. In England again especially, the constant revolutions and changes of the succession brought the crown within the reach of remote branches of the royal family, who had nothing but their genealogy to distinguish them from the rest of the nobility of the realm. Anyhow the pedigree of Queen Elizabeth would have appeared painfully defective in the eyes of a German herald. She would have been utterly unable to make out her sixteen quarterings of royal or even noble dignity. We have oftener to pick our way through the obscure genealogies of rustic knights and plodding citizens than along the magnificent series of the Percies or the De Veres. As if to mock every notion of the kind, when any unusually illustrious name does appear, it is the result of some strange mésalliance which drew attention even at the time. Elizabeth's grotesque title of Queen of France might have been backed up by a lineal, though not male, connexion with St. Lewis and Hugh Capet, of more recent date than her descent from the 'she-wolf,' from whom that fantastic claim was originally derived; but this


was only because a handsome Welsh gentleman had pleased the eye of a daughter of France, the widow of the conqueror of Agincourt. In tracing her direct royal descent through the contending houses whose claims had centred in her father, we shall not find a foreign ancestor until the two lines converge in a pair of whom any nation would have been proud, Edward of England and Philippa of Hainault. It is impossible to doubt that this thorough nationality of the Tudor and later Plantagenet sovereigns had something to do with the popularity with which they were almost always surrounded. Before and after, England had kings-Normans, Scots, or Germans-ignorant of her language, or careless of her interests: during this very period Mary lost perhaps more of the national affection by her Spanish marriage, than by a whole hecatomb of martyrs; but Henry VIII. and his younger daughter, whatever else they were, good or bad, were the thoroughly English offspring of English parents, identified in every point of language, habits, and feelings with the common mass of their people, who saw in their ruler only the most exalted of their own number, and did not abhor the despotism of one who was felt to be the true impersonation of the national character.

While both father and daughter were alike the objects of popular attachment during their life-time, the daughter alone has retained the affection of posterity. In fact we find it no easy matter to believe that our eighth Harry could ever have been a popular monarch. The England, however, of those days was used to see royal and noble blood poured out upon the scaffold; and there seems reason to believe that the strange compound of religions which he devised harmonized well with the feeling of his day. Men rejoiced to get rid of the never-failing grievance of the Pope's supremacy, and of some of the grosser practical delusions and superstitions; but the mass of mankind in all ages are alike attached to the religious ceremonies to which they are accustomed, and heedless about theological dogmas which they do not comprehend. Such a state of mind was exactly met by the church of Henry VIII.: national and regal vanity were alike flattered by the erection of an insular Pope in the royal person; men's senses were no longer insulted by the Rood of Boxley or the holy phial of Hales; but the divine might still maintain the orthodox faith of pontiffs and councils, and the layman was still surrounded at his baptism, his marriage, and his burial, by the same rites which were endeared to him and his fathers by the practice of countless generations. Henry appeared in his own time as a gallant and magnificent monarch, under whom the country enjoyed a peace to which it had been unaccustomed



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