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closed his eyes against the fierce glare, he gradually fell asleep.

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'After a while,' he says, 'I was gently awakened by a peal of church bells-my native bells the innocent bells of Marlen, that never before sent forth their music beyond the Blaygon hills! I roused myself and drew aside the silk that covered my eyes, and plunged my bare face into the light. Then, at least, I was well enough wakened; but still those old Marlen bells rang on, not ringing for joy, but properly, prosily, steadily, yet merrily ringing for church!' After a while the sound died away slowly; it happened that neither I, nor any of my party, had a watch by which to measure the exact time of its lasting, but it seemed to me that about ten minutes had passed before the bells ceased. I attributed the effect to the great heat of the sun, the perfect dryness of the clear air through which I moved, and the deep stillness of all around us; it seemed to me that these causes, by occasioning a great tension and consequent susceptibility of the hearing organs, had rendered them liable to tingle under the passing touch of some mere memory that must have swept across my brain in a moment of sleep. Since my return to England it has been told me that like sounds have been heard at sea; and that the sailor becalmed under a vertical sun in the midst of the wide ocean, has listened in trembling wonder to the chime of his own village bells. Referring to my journal, I found that the day was Sunday, and, roughly allowing for the difference of longitude, I concluded that, at the moment of my hearing that strange peal, the church-going bells of Marlen must have been actually calling the prim congregation of the parish to morning prayer. I could not allow myself a hope that what I had experienced was anything other than an illusion. It would have been sweeter to believe that my kneeling mother, by some pious enchantment, had asked and found this spell to rouse me from my forgetfulness of God's holy day.'

It was impossible in Mr. Kinglake's case that the ringing in his ears could be caused by actual bells; but at sea, where there is a wide unbroken expanse, with nothing to check the sound until it is reflected to the ears of the crew from the sails, a peal, in a favourable state of atmosphere and wind, will sometimes be heard at an enormous distance. A ship's company could distinctly distinguish the bells of Rio Janeiro when they were 70 miles from the coast.

When ships go down in a tempest a warning bell is said to be heard amid the storm: and on land it is no uncommon notion that its prophetic tongue will sometimes announce to persons who are about to die their impending doom.

"The death-bell thrice was heard to ring,
An aërial voice was heard to call,
And thrice the raven flapp'd its wing
Around the towers of Cumnor Hall.'

VOL, XCV. NO. CXC.

Rogers,

Rogers, in his lines on an 'Old Oak,' alludes to the same superstition :

6 There, once, the steel-clad knight reclined,
His sable plumage tempest-toss'd;
And as the death-bell smote the wind
From towers long fled by human kind,
His brow the hero cross'd.'

Until its cause was discovered no sound could have seemed more supernatural than the note of the Campanero, or Bell-bird of Demerara, which is of snowy whiteness, and about the size of a jay. A tube, nearly three inches long, rises from its forehead, and this feathery spire the bird can fill with air at pleasure. Every four or five minutes in the depths of the forest its call may be heard from a distance of three miles, making a tolling noise like that of a convent bell. What a tale of wonder might have been founded on such sounds in such a wilderness!

The pleasant story of the Bells of Bow bringing back the poor runaway apprentice by their cheering burthen—

Turn again Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor of London,'seems to belong to the fabulous part of our subject; but it has perhaps, after all, a substratum of truth, and indicates a disposition, of which there are other traces, to interpret the language of the belfry by the wishes of the heart. There is an anecdote told in many old books of a rich and well-born dame who had fallen in love with her valet, consulting a priest upon the expediency of taking the dear man for her husband. The priest bid her listen to the bells and follow their direction. With unmistakeable distinctness they pealed forth in her ears, Marry your valet, marry your valet, marry your valet.' A few weeks afterwards she reappeared before her father confessor, told him of the misery of the match, and complained that the bells had misled her. 'It is you,' replied he, 'that must have misinterpreted the bells: go and listen again.' She went accordingly, and this time they said, with vehement perspicuity, Don't marry your valet, don't marry your valet, don't marry your valet.'

From the nature of the associations connected with them, as well as from their inherent charm, it is no wonder that bells should have exerted an influence on the mind in every age and clime. 'What music is there that compared may be With well-tuned bells' enchanting melody? Breaking with their sweet sounds the willing air, They in the listening ear the soul ensnare.'

Peter's

These lines, which are inscribed in the belfry of St. church at Shaftesbury, first made Bowles in love with poetry.

The

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'The enchanting melody' had an Orpheus-like power over the rude pedantry of Dr. Parr. He once conceived the design of treating at large upon Campanology, and many and pressing were the calls upon the pockets of his friends for the peal at Hatton. On going to reside he made several changes, and he specifies as one of them, that Bells chime three times as long.' Even the soul of the conqueror who had devastated Europe was stirred in its inmost depths by the simple sound. When we were at Malmaison,' says Bourrienne of Napoleon, how often has the booming of the village bell broken off the most interesting conversations! He stopped, lest the moving of our feet might cause the loss of a single beat of the tones which charmed him. The influence, indeed, was so powerful that his voice trembled with emotion while he said, That recalls to me the first years I passed at Brienne.' None have more reason to be affected by the associations which bring back the days of comparative innocence and peace than the troubled spirits who are entangled in the labyrinths of a guilty ambition. But of all the instances of the power of bells to touch a sympathetic chord of the heart,' the most moving is the tradition told in connection with the peal of Limerick cathedral. It is said to have been brought from a convent in Italy, for which it had been manufactured by an enthusiastic native, with great labour and skill. The Italian, having afterwards acquired a competency, fixed his home near the convent cliff, and for many years enjoyed the daily chime of his beloved bells. But in some political convulsion which ensued the monks were driven from their monastery, the Italian from his home, and the bells were carried away to another land. After a long interval the course of his wanderings brought him to Limerick. On a calm and beautiful evening, as the vessel which bore him floated along the broad stream of the Shannon, he suddenly heard the bells peal forth from the cathedral tower. They were the long-lost treasures of his memory. Home, happiness, friends-all early recollections were in their sound. Crossing his arms on his breast, he lay back in the boat. When the rowers looked round they saw his face still turned to the cathedral-but his eyes had closed for ever on the world.

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ART. III.-1. Encyclopædia Britannica. Eighth edition. Edinburgh, 1853. 4to. Art. Architecture.'

6

2. Proceedings of the Liverpool Architectural and Archæological Society. 4to. Vol. I. Liverpool, 1852.

3. The Builder, No. 609. London, 1854.

4. The Building Chronicle: a Journal of Architecture and the Arts. Edinburgh, 1854.

THE

HE last five-and-twenty years have been a period of very unusual activity in architecture both in this country and upon the continent. The art has been thoroughly roused from the torpor into which it had fallen at the end of the eighteenth century. Opportunities, which were contingent upon accident, and therefore to be speculated upon only as improbable possibilities, have had no small share in this result. The spirit once excited spread far and wide, confirming the truth of the French proverb, L'appétit vient en mangeant. That demand creates supply, is a well known maxim in political economy; and hardly less true is it that supply creates demand.

At the present day far more attention is paid to architectural appearance, or what Mr. Garbett quaintly terms 'politeness,' than formerly. A numerous class of buildings-to wit, private banks, insurance and other offices, which used to make so little pretension to external character as to be scarcely distinguishable from the ordinary houses around them—now contribute to the adornment of our streets. Although not exactly public buildings, they shame several which are included in that prouder title. Nor are their façades altogether without practical utility, especially to strangers; inasmuch as being conspicuous objects they serve as landmarks, by breaking up the bewildering and tiresome monotony which is the sole characteristic of many parts of the metropolis.

Of late years, moreover, entirely new classes of buildings have been called into being by the changes incident to a progressive age, such as Railway Stations, Public Baths and Wash-houses, Bazaars, Arcades, and covered Markets. To these we may add a variety of Galleries, Museums, and Exhibition Rooms, which were places of amusement never dreamt of in the good old days of Ranelagh and Vauxhall-the first now vanished utterly, the second the mere ghost of its former self. There are other buildings still, which, if not new in purpose, have assumed a new form, and, in compliance with the humour of the time, are planned with a regard to effect. Schools and provincial colleges, hospitals and almshouses, nay, even Union workhouses affect to 'have a taste,' which, in some of the last, has been so little in

keeping

keeping with their purpose as to have obtained for them the name of 'palaces of pauperism.' We have heard, on tolerably trustworthy authority, that not long ago the owner of a genuine Elizabethan mansion withdrew from it in disgust, on a large Union of the same school of architecture being erected almost within sight of his windows. For our own part we should not be sorry were its application to such incongruous purposes to diminish the present partiality for a style which is chiefly characterised by uncouth stateliness, and is ill adapted to the accommodation rendered necessary in a modern residence by increased refinement in the mode of living. In general, it may be remarked that, notwithstanding our progress in other respects," we have rather degenerated from the taste which was displayed by our nobility in the last century, in some of their truly palatial country-houses. The race of the Wansteads, Worksops, and Wentworths have no successors at the present day; the princely and, though not faultless, almost peerless Holkham, has now no rising competitor: our Leicesters and our Burlingtons are no

more.

The number of buildings erected, and the increased pretensions of the designs, are not the only favourable symptoms. We have got a chartered Royal Institute of British Architects, and architectural societies and associations planted nearly through the length and breadth of the land. We have had, and are, it seems, now to have again, Architectural Exhibitions secure from the step-motherly caressings of the Royal Academy. There is a special Architectural Publication Society; item, an Architectural Museum. Architectural periodicals-such as the Builder'— have been established among us; and the subject is treated both more fully and frequently than formerly in miscellaneous journals. Still there are shadows as well as lights in the picture, and, we

* One of the most important improvements of late years is hypethral fenestration, or the lighting halls, galleries, saloons, libraries, and similar rooms from above. In proportion to the size of the apertures a far larger quantity of light is admitted, and it is more equably diffused. The great room' of the Hall of Commerce in Threadneedle-street would be little better than darkness visible, were its three ceiling windows to be transferred to one of the side walls. Among the many advantages attending hypethral fenestration, we may enumerate these:-It admits of greater diversity of design than what is of necessity the usual mode; it enables the architect to bring in one of the principal rooms where it would otherwise be impossible; it shuts out from view, what, if seen, would be unsightly; it conduces to regularity and balance by allowing design to be kept up and decoration carried on continuously, whereas the effect is marred when one side of a room is cut up by being nearly all window in the daytime, and nearly all drapery of an evening; it produces variety by the contrast between the sky-lighted and window-lighted rooms; and it admits of still further contrast at night by burning the gas externally-a mode that has already been practised in one or two instances, and is capable of being made particularly striking.

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