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PACIUS (JULIUS), an eminent lawyer and philosopher, called PACIUS DE BERIGA, from the name of a country seat belonging to his father's family, near Vicenza, was born at the latter city in 1550. His parents bestowed every pains on his education, and he is said to have made such progress in his first studies as to have composed a treatise on arithmetic at the age of thirteen. For farther proficiency he was sent to Padua, with his brother Fabius, who after. wards became a physician of eminence, and is mentioned with great honour by the medical biographers. Julius, after taking his degree of doctor in law, returned to his own country, where, in the course of his extensive read. ing, he became acquainted with the sentiments of the re, formers, and concealed his attachment to them with so little care, that he was menaced by the borrors of the inquisition, from which he escaped to Geneva. This step being attended with the loss of his property, he gained a livelihood for some time by teaching youth, until his character be. coming known, he was encouraged to give lectures on civil law, which he did for ten years with great success and reputation. At Geneva also he married a lady whose family had fled from Lucca for the cause of religion, and had a family of ten children by her.

In 1585 he accepted the offer of the law professorship at Heidelberg, which he held for ten years, and then removed to Sedan, where he taught logic for some time; but the war which took place induced bim to return again to Geneva, and thence to Nismes, where he was appointed principal of the college. His next settlement, which he hoped would have been final, was at Montpellier, where be was made regius professor of law, and where he certainly acquired a high reputation, and brought together from all parts a numerous concourse of students, among whom was the celebrated Peiresc, who induced him to return to the Roman catholic religion. After various changes of place, however, he fixed at last at Valence in Dauphiné, where he died in 1635, at the age of eightý five. His principal works were, 1." Corpus Juris Civilis," Geneva, 1580, fol. 2. “ Consuetudines Feudorum,” ibid. 1580, fol. 3. “ Justiniani Imperatoris institutionum Libri quatuor," &c. ibid. fol. 4. Aristotelis Organum, hoc est libri omnes ad logicam pertinentes, Gr. et Lat.” Mórgiis, 1584, 8ro, reprinted in 1592, and at Francfort in 1598, which is the best edition of what is reckoned a very

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valuable translation of the Aristotelian logic. 5. “ Sapientissimi Curopalatæ de officialibus Palatii Constantinopolitani, et officiis magnæ ecclesiæ libellus, Gr. et Lat." Heidelberg, 1588, 8vo. This was published by Codinus. Pacius only supplied the MS. from his library.' 6. “ Aristotelis naturalis auscultationis libri octo." Gr, and Lat, Francfort, 1596, 8vo. 7.“ Aristotelis de anima libri tres, Gr. et Lat." ibid. 1596, 8vo. 8. " Aristotelis de Celo libri quatuor,

&c. Gr. et Lat. ibid. 1601, 8vo. 9. trina Peripatetica tomi tres,” Aureliæ Allobrogum (Geneva) 1606, 4to. Niceron enumerates various other works which he published, some of a ten porary kind, and some compiled for the use of students ; but the above appear to have contributed most to the reputation he enjoyed."

PACK (RICHARDSON), an English poetical and miscellaneous writer, the son of John Pack, of Stoke-Ash, in Suffolk, who, in 1697 was high sheriff of that county, was born about 1680. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' school, whence, at the age of sixteen, he removed to St. John's college, Oxford, and remained there two years, at the end of which his father entered him of the Middle Temple, intending him for the profession of the law. His proficiency, as a law student, must have appeared in a very favourable light to the benchers of this honourable society, as he was at eight terms standing admitted barrister, when he was not much above twenty years of age. But habits of study and application to business not agreeing either with his health or inclination, he went into the army, and his first command, which he obtained in March 1705, was that of a company of foot." He served afterwards abroad under general Stanhope, and the duke of Argyle, who for his distinguished bravery promoted him to the rank of major, and ever after honoured him with his patronage and friendship.' Some of the best of major Pack's effusions were in celebration of his grace's character, at a time when there was a jealousy between him and the duke of Marlborough. The major died at Aberdeen in Sept, 1728, where his regiment happened then to be quartered. He published first a miscellany of poems in 1718, dedicated to colonel Stanhope, which sold rapidly, and when it came to a second edition was enlarged by some prose pieces. In 1719 he published the “ Life of Pomponius Atticus," with

1. Niceron, vol. XXXIX.-Chaufepie.-Saxii Onomast.

remarks addressed to the duke of Aygyle ; in 1720, "Religion and Philosophy, a Tale ;” and in 1725, a “ New Collection" of poetical miscellanies, to which he prefixed the “ Lives of Miltiades and Cymon,” from Cornelius Nepos. His “ Whole Works" were afterwards collected and published in one vol. 8vo, 1729. In all be discovers considerable taste, vivacity, and learning. His connections, as well as his principles, appear to have been of the superior cast. 1

PACUVIUS (Marcus), a Latin tragic poet, was a native of Brindisi, the ancient Brundusium, and nephew to Ennius, He flourished at Rome about 154 B. C. According to his last biographer, he was held in high esteem by c. Lelius, and particularly by Cicero, who affirmed him to be superior to Sophocles in his tragedy of “Niptra," and classed him in the first rank of tragic poets. They are said likewise to have looked upon every one as an enemy to Roman literature who had temerity enough to despise his tragedies, particularly his “ Antiope." We have nothing, however, of his works left except some fragments in Maittaire's “ Corpus Poetarum." Pacuvius was a painter, also, as well as a poet; and Pliny speaks of one of his pictures which was placed in the temple of Hercules, and was admired by the connoisseurs of those times. died, at Tarentum, when beyond his ninetieth year. He wrote his own epitaph, which is preserved in Aulus Gellius. Annibale di Leo, who was also born at Brindisi, published. in, 1764 a dissertation on his life and writings, in order to do honour to his native place, which certainly would not have been less honoured if he had omitted to tell us among the eminent men of Brindisi, was M. Lenius Strabo, the first inventor of bird-cages.'

PAGAN (BLAISE FRANCIS COUNT DE), an eminent French mathematician, was born at Avignon, in Provence, March 3, 1604, and entered the army at fourteen, for which he had been educated with extraordinary care. In 1620 he was engaged at the siege of Caen, in the battle of the bridge of Ce, and other exploits, in which he signalized himself, and acquired a reputa

tation above his


He was present,. in 1621, at the siege of St. John d’Angeli, as also at that of Clerac and Montauban, where he lost his

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1 Life prefixed to his works.-Cibber's Lives.-- Jacob's Lives.

2 Vossius de Poet. Lat.--Saxii Onomast,Leo's Dissertation in Month. Rev. vol, XXXII.

left eye by a musket-shot. At this siege he had another loss, which he felt with no less sensibility, viz. that of the constable of Luynes, who died there of a scarlet fever. The constable was a near relation to him, and had been his patron at court. He did not, however, sink under his misfortune, but on the contrary seemed to acquire fresh energy from the reflection that he must now trust solely to himself. Accordingly, there was after this time, no siege, battle, or any other occasion, in which he did not signalize himself by some effort of courage and conduct. At the passage of the Alps, and the barricade of Suza, he put himself at the head of the forlorn hope, consisting of the bravest youths among the guards; and undertook to arrive the first at the attack by a private way which was extremely dangerous; but, having gained the top of a very steep mountain, he cried out to his followers, “ See the way to glory!" and sliding down the mountain, his companions followed him, and coming first to the attack, ás they wished to do, immediately began a furious assault; and when the army came up to their support, forced the barricades. He had afterwards the pleasure of standing on the left hand of the king when his majesty related this heroic action to the duke of Savoy, with extraordinary commendations, in the presence

of a very

full court. When the king laid siege to Nancy in 1633, our hero had the honour to attend his sovereign in drawing the lines and forts of circumvallation. In 1642 his majesty sent him to the service in Portugal, in the post of field-marshal; but that year he had the misfortune to lose his eye-sight.

Disabled now from public service, he re-assumed, with greater vigour than ever, the study of the mathematics and fortification ; and, in 1645, gave to the public hiş. “ Treatise of Fortification.” It was allowed by all who understood the science, that nothing superior bad then appeared on that subject; and, whatever improvements have been made since, they have been derived in a manner from this treatise, as conclusions from their principles, In 1651 he published his “Geometrical Theorems,” which shew a perfect knowledge of all parts of the mathematics. In 1655 he printed a paraphrase, in French, of the “ Account,” in Spanish, “ of the River of the Amazons," by father de Rennes, a Jesuit; and we are assured, that blind as he was, yet he drew the chart of that river, and the parts adjacent, which is seen in this work.' of this work

an English translation was published by W. Hamilton in 1661, 8vo.

In 1657 he published “ The Theory of the Planets ; cleared from that multiplicity of eccentric circles and epicycles, which the astronomers had invented to explain their motions.” This distinguished him among the astronomers, as much as his work on fortification did among the engineers; and he printed, in 1658, his “ Astronomi cal Tables," which are very succinct and plain. But, as few great men are without their foible, that of Pagan was a prejudice in favour of judicial astrology, and, though he is more reserved than most others, yet what he wrote upon that subject must not be classed among those productions which do honour to his understanding. He was beloved and visited by all persons illustrious for rank, as well as science; and his house was the rendezvous of all the polite and worthy both in city and court. He died at Paris, Nov. 18, 1665, having never been married. The king ordered his first physician to attend him in his illness, and gave several marks of the extraordinary esteem which he had for his merit.

His character is that of an universal genius; and, having turned himself 'entirely to the art of war, and particularly to the branch of fortification, he made extraordinary progress in it. He understood matbematics, not only better than is usual for a gentleman whose view is to rise in the army, but even to a degree of perfection above that of the ordinary masters who teach that science. He had so particular a genius for this kind of learning, that he obtained it more readily by meditation than by reading, and accordingly spent less time on mathematical books than he did in those of history and geography. He had also made morality and politics his particular study; so that he

may be said to have drawn his own character in his “ Homme Heraïque,” and to have been one of the completest gentlemen of his time. Louis XIII. was heard to say several times, that the count de Pagan was one of the most worthy, most adroit, and most valiant men in his kingdom. That branch of his family which removed from Naples to France in 1552, became extinct in his person.

PAGE (WILLIAM), an English divine, was born in 1590, at Harrow on the Hill, Middlesex, and entered of Baliol

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1 Perrault Les Hommes Illustres.-Moreri.

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