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congresses at Bale in 1714, and at Soleure in 1715, he was again employed, and strongly evinced his zeal, talents, activity, prudence, and other qualities of a great negotiator. His account of this embassy was published in 1738, in folio, under the title of “ Acta Legationis Helveticæ, which may be considered as a model of conduct for persons employed in such services. Upon the accession of Clement XII. he was sent as nuncio to the court of Vienna, where he pronounced the funeral oration of prince Eugene. In the pontificate of Innocent XIII. which lasted from 1721 to 1724, Passionei had been made archbishop of Ephesus ; he continued in favour with the successors of that pope, Benedict XIII. and Clement XII. the latter of whom, in 1738, raised him to the dignity of cardinal, having at the same time made him secretary of the briefs. Benedict XIV. in 1755 made him librarian of the Vatican, which he enriched by many important accessions; and in the same year he was admitted into the French academy, under the peculiar title of associé etranger. He died on the 15th of July, 1761, at the
age of seventy-nine. Cardinal Passionei did not write much besides the articles that have been already mentioned. He worked, indeed, with Fontanini, in revising the “ Liber diurnus Romanorum Pontificum," and produced a paraphrase on the nineteenth psalm, with a few more small pieces : but he was most illustrious for his enlightened knowledge of letters, and his judicious and liberal patronage of learned men and useful works; an example but too little followed in the present age. He had one of the most valuable libraries in Rome, composed of the best, the scarcest, and most remarkable books in all sciences, and in all languages, ancient and modern. He himself was the librarian, and did the honours of it in a manner the more satisfactory to the learned, as no one was more able to second and extend their views on the subjects of their researches.
In this,” says a Swedish traveller,“ he was very different from the cardinals Davia, Gualterio, and Imperiali, all three also very rich in books. The first was always reading, and never wrote; the second was always writing, and never read; and the third neither read nor wrote.” Cardinal Passionei's temper, however, was not equable, and Benea dict XIV. delighted to put him in a rage, sometimes by taking away one of his books, and making him think it was lost, but more frequently, which was the greatest provo
cation our cardinal could receive, by introducing a work written by a Jesuit. On one occasion when the
did this, the cardinal opened the window, and threw the book. with all his force into the square of Monte Cavallo. . At this instant the pope appeared, and vouchsafed him his grand benediction. It is said, that by way of answer to this benediction, a certain gesture of the cardinal's put a stop to the pleasantry that the pope had promised himself from this scene. He most cordially hated the Jesuits; and had it depended on him, their society would have been soon dissolved. On this subject and every other on which he entered with the pope Benedict, he spoke with the firmest independence, and the pope generally found it necessary in all disputes to yield to him. Let us not forget, however, that it was this cardinal who opened the treasures of the Vatican to Dr. Kennicott, in a very handsome order signed by his name. This was at the time justly said to be an honour which no work relating to the Bible could boast of since the reformation.
His nephew, BENEDICT Passionei, rendered an important service to the learned world by publishing at Lucca, in 1763, “ Inscrizioni antiche, con annotaz." à folio volume, containing all the Greek and Latin inscriptions collected by the cardinal. His valuable collection of antique urns, bas-reliefs, and other works of art, was dispersed after his death.
PATEL, a celebrated painter, was a native of France; but neither his Christian name, his age, nor the master under whom he studied, are known to the writers on these subjects. He has sometimes been called the French Claude, from his successful imitation of that master. In his figures he is clearly superior to him. The forms of his trees are elegant and free, his scenery rich, and his buildings and other objects designed in a very pleasing manner. His touch is light, yet firm; his colouring generally clear and natural. Two of his works have been engraved by Strange, and all of them prove that he studied nature with nice observation, and his choice from her productions was always agreeable. In France he is sometimes called, Patel le tué, or le bon Patel; and there was also a Patel le Jeune, of whom still less is known.”
1 Dict. Hist." Anecdotes of Rome, &c, by a Swedish Traveller," 1768, in Gent. Mag. vol. XXXVIII.
PATERCULUS (Caius Velleius), an ancient Roman historian, who flourished in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, was born in the year of Rome 735. His ancestors were illustrious for their merit and their offices. His grandfather espoused the party of Tiberius Nero, the emperor's father ; but being old and infirm, and not able to accompany Nero when he retired from Naples, he ran himself through with his sword. His father was a soldier of rank, and Paterculus was a military tribune, when Caius Cæsar, a grandson of Augustus, had an interview with the king of the Parthians, in an island of the river Euphrates, in the year 753. He commanded the cavalry in Germany under Tiberius, and accompanied that prince for nine years successively in all his expeditions. He received honourable rewards from him; but we do not find that he was preferred to any higher dignity than the prætorship. The praises he bestows upon Sejanus give some probability to the conjecture, that he was looked upon as a friend of this favourite; and, consequently, that he was involved in his ruin. His death is placed by Dodwell in the year 784, when he was in his fiftieth year.
He wrote “ An Abridgment of the Roman History, in two Books,” in which although his purpose was, to begin from the foundation of Rome to the time wherein be lived, we find in what remains of the beginning of his first book, some account of many cities more ancient than Rome. He promised a larger history, of which this is only an outline, and had opportunities to have acquired yaluable materials, during his military expeditions, and travels. Even in the present work we have many particulars related, that are no where else to be found. The style of Paterculus, although injured by the carelessness of transcribers, and impossible to be restored to purity for want of manuscripts, is yet manifestly worthy of an age, which produced his celebrated contemporaries Virgil, Sallust, Livy, &c. His manner of drawing characters is one of his chief merits; yet he is condemned, and indeed with the greatest reason, for his partiality to the house of Augustus, and for his extravagant praise, not only of Tiberius, but even of his favourite Sejanus.
Of Velleius Paterculus, as of Hesychius among the Greeks, one MS. only was discovered, called the codex Murbacensis, and even that is now lost. In it, says Bentley, “the faults of the scribes are found so numerous, and
the defects so beyond all redress, that, notwithstanding - the pains of the learnedest and atutest critics for two whole
centuries, these books still are, and are like to continue, a mere heap of errors.” No ancient author but Priscian makes mention of Paterculus : the moderns have done him infinitely more justice, and have illustrated him with notes and commentaries. He was first published, from the manuscript of Morbac, by Rhenanus, at Basil, in 1520, but under such circumstances, that this edition was considered as a spurious work. It was reprinted by Paul Manutius at Venice in 1571; afterwards by Lipsius, at Leyden, in 1581: then by Gerard Vossius, in 1639: next by Boeclerus, at Strasburg, in 1642: by Peter Burman, at Leyden, in 1719, in Svo: by Ruhnkenius, at Leyden, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo: and lastly, by Krausius, at Leipsic, 1800, 8vo. To the Oxford edition, in 1693, 8vo, were prefixed the “Annales Velleiani” of Dodwell, which shew deep learning, and a great knowledge of antiquity.'
PATERSON (Samuel), a gentleman who deserves honourable notice in the literary bistory of his country, was the son of a woollen-draper in the parish of St. Paul, Covent-garden, and born March 17, 1728. He lost his father when about the age of twelve years; and his guardian not only neglected him, but involved bis property in his own bankruptcy, and sent him to France. Having there acquired a knowledge of foreign literature and publications beyond any persons of his age, he resolved to engage in the importation of foreign books; and, when little more than twenty years old, opened a shop in the Strand : the only person who then carried on such a trade being Paul Vaillant. Though, by the mis-conduct of some who were charged with his commissions in several parts of the contipent, it proved unsuccessful to the new adventurer, he continued in business till 1753, when he published Dr. Pettingal's “ Dissertation on the original of the Equestrian Figure of the George and of the Garter.” At the same early period in which he engaged in business he had married Miss Hamilton, a lady of the most respectable conpexions in North Britain, still younger than himself, both their ages together not making 38 years. He next commenced auctioneer in Essex-house. This period of bis life tended to develope completely those extraordinary
f Vossius Hist, Lat.Saxii Onomast.--Dibdin's Classics.
talents in bibliography (a science hitherto so little attended
The first person who attempted to give a sketch of universal bibliography and literary history was the learned and laborious Christopher-Augustus Hermann, professor in the university of Göttingen, in the year 1718, when he published his well known work, “ Conspectus Reipublicæ Literariæ, sive Via ad Historiam Literariam ;"" which gradually went through seven editions, the last of which was published at Hanover, 1763. Numberless other works, analogous to this, were published in the same interval, in Germany. About the period alluded to, many detailed, descriptive, and rational catalogues of books appeared in the several countries of Europe; the art and the taste of constructing libraries became more general than in any preceding age; and the only thing which appears worthy of remark, and rather unaccountable, is that, even after the progress of philosophy or bibliography, the Germans, in this department, have excelled every other people in Europe. It is universally acknowledged, that the best work of the kind that ever appeared, about that time, was the catalogue of the celebrated library of the count of Bunau, better known under the name of “ Bibliotheca Bunaviana," so remarkable, indeed, for number, selection, order, connexion, references, and universal interest. The only historical system of national literature exhibited in Europe was that of the Italian, by Tiraboschi. Mr. Paterson supplied some important materials towards one among ourselves, in his “ Bibliotheca Anglica Curiosa,