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were called, which were also gratuitous; an Hospital for Foundlings, for which his humane applications procured an income of 40,000 livres; the foundation of the Charitable Virgins, for the relief of sick poor; to which we may add, the hospitals de Bicêtre, de la Salpétriere, de la Pitié; those of Marseilles for galley-slaves; of St. Reine for pilgrims, and of le Saint Nom de Jesus, for old men, which are principally indebted to him for their establishment. In times of the greatest distress, he sent above two millions of livres into Lorraine in money and effects; nor did Picardy and Champagne experience much less of his bounty, when the scourges of heaven had reduced those provinces to the most deplorable indigence. During ten years that M. Vincent presided in the council of conscience, under Anne of Austria, he suffered: none but the niost worthy to be presented to benefices. Being a zealous patron of nunneries, he supported the establishment of the nuns de la Providence, de Sainte Genevieve, and de la Croix. He laboured with success for the reform of Grammont, Premontré, and the abbey of St. Genevieve, as well as for the establishment of the great Seminaries. Even those, who have doubted whether his talents were very extensive, have openly acknowledged that he was one of the most pious priests in the kingdom, and more useful to the poor and to the church, than most of those who are considered as great geniuses. This excellent man died loaded with years, labour, and mortifications, Sept. 27,1660, aged near 85. · He was canonized by Clement XII. on July 16, 1737. Those who wish to know more of St. Vincent de Paul, may consult his Life by M. Collet, 2 vols. 4to, and “ l'Avocat du Diable,” 3 vols. 1 2 mo.'

PAULINUS, an ecclesiastical writer of the fifth century, was descended from an illustrious family of Roman senators, and born at Bourdeaux about the year 253. He was directed in his studies by the famous Ausonius; and applied himself so earnestly to the best Latin authors, that he acquired a style not unlike theirs. He was advanced afterwards to the most considerable offices of the empire. Ausonius says, that Paulinus was consul with him; but his name not being found in the Fasti Consulares, it is probable he obtained that dignity only in the room of some other person, who died in the office, and perhaps in the year 378, after the

I Dict, Hist. Mosheim.

death of Valens. He married Therasia, an opulent Spanish lady, who proved instrumental in converting him to Christianity; and he was baptized in the year 389. He dwelt four years io Spain, where he embraced voluntary poverty; selling his goods by degrees, and giving them to the poor. The inhabitants of Barcelona, where he resided, conceived such an esteem for him, that they would have him ordained a priest; to which, after a long resistance, he consented, upon condition that he should not be obliged to remain in Barcelona, because his design was to withdraw to Nola. This ordination was performed in the year 393, and the next year he left Spain to go into Italy. In his way

he saw St. Ambrose at Florence, who shewed him marks of respect; and was kindly received at Rome both by the

quality and the people : but the clergy there growing jealous of him, he left that city quickly, and went to Nola, where he dwelt in a country-house about half a league from the town. He lived there sixteen years with his wife Therasia, in the study and exercises of a monastic life; and then, in the year 409, was chosen and ordained bishop of Nola. The beginning of his episcopate was disturbed by the incursions of the Goths, who took that city; but the assault being over, be enjoyed it peaceably to his death, which happened in the year 431.

His works consist of “Poems," and " Letters," and are written with much art and elegance; bis manner of expres. sion being close and clear, his words pure and well chosen, and his sentences strong and lively. All his writings are short, but pretty numerous, and composed with great

Ausonius highly commends his poems; yet they cannot pass for perfect, especially those which he made after his conversion. He was esteemed, beloved, and caressed by all the great men of that age, of what party soever they were; and corresponded with them all, without falling out with any. He was, in truth, like Titus, the delight of his times. Milner says that he appears, through the mist of superstition, which clouds his narrative, to have been one of the best Christians of the age. He was a mirror of piety, liberality, and humility, worthy of a more intelligent age, and of more intelligent writers, than of those who have recorded his life. The first edition of his works was at Paris, in 1516, by Badius; the second at Cologne, by Grævius: Roswedius caused them to be printed at Antwerp, in 1622; and the last edition of them was at


Paris,' in 2 vols. quarto, the former of which contains his genuine works.

Du Pin wishes, that “the booksellers had taken as much care to have it upon good paper, and in a fair character, as the editor did to make it correct and useful."

PAULINUS, patriarch of Aquileia in the eighth century, and one of the best bishops of his time, owes his fame in a great measure to his zeal in behalf of the doctrine of the Trinity. He was born near Friuli, in the year 726, and became greatly distinguished by his laborious application, and zeal for the advancement of learning and science. The emperor Charlemagne bestowed on him various substantial marks of his favour, and, towards the close of the year 776, promoted him to the patriarchate of Aquileia, where he died in the year 804. A complete edition of all his works, with learned notes and commentaries, was published at Venice, in 1737, by John Francis Madrisi, a priest of the congregation of the Ora



PAULLI (Simon), a Danish professor and physician, was born at Rostock, in the circle of Lower Saxony, April 6, 1603, and died at Copenhagen, April 25, 1680. He published some medical treatises, and in 1639 a Latin quarto, on medicinal plants, entitled Quadripartitum Botanicum ; and in 1648 a thicker volume, in Danish, with wooden cuts, called “ Flora Danica,” which, however, embraces the garden plants as well as the native ones, known in Denmark at the time of its publication. He wrote also against tobacco and tea, and his work was translated into English by the late Dr. James, in 1746. The most remarkable circumstance attending it is his contending, with the positiveness, usual to those who are in the wrong, that the Chinese Tea is no other than our European Myrica gale; an error which Bartholin very cautiously and repectfully corrects, in his Acta Medica, v. 4. 1, where the true tea is, not very accurately, figured. The Paullinia, in botany, is so named in honour of him, by Linnæus.'

PAULMIER DE GRENTESMENÍL (JAMES LE), more commonly known to the learned by his Latinized name

Dupin.--Milner, vol. II. p. 485 and 528.-Cave, vol. 1.-Saxii Onomast. 2 Dupin.-Care, vol. 1.-Milner's Church Hist. vol. III. p. 211. • Eloy, Dict. Hist. de Medicine. -Rees's Cyclopadia. VOL. XXIV.


Palmerius, was born in the territory of Auge, in 1587, the son of Julien le Paulmier, who was a physician of eminence. He was bred a protestant, embraced a military life, and served with credit in Holland and in France. After a time, he retired to Caen, where he gave


up entirely to the study of letters and antiquity; and was the first promoter of an academy in that city, which has since been considered as a valuable institution. He died at Caen, Oct. 1, 1670, being then eighty-three. His works are, 1. “ Observationes in optimos auctores Græcos,” Lugd. Bat. 1668, 4to. 2.“Græciæ antiquæ Descriptio," Lugd. Bat. 1678, 4to. This work contains a very learned and useful digest of what the ancients have written concerning Greece. Prefixed to it is a life of the author, written at some length, but in a very affected style, by the editor Stephen Morinus. . 3. Some poems in the Greek, Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish languages. These, however, are the worst part of his works. He versified in too many languages to be very excellent in any."

PAULO (MARK), a celebrated traveller, was the son of Nicholas Paulo, a Venetian, who went with his brother, Matthew, about 1225, to Constantinople, in the reign of Baudoin. While they were on this expedition Marco was

On their return through the deserts they arrived at the city where Kublai, grand khan of the Tartars, resided. This prince was highly entertained with the account which they gave him of the European manners and customs, and appointed them his ambassadors to the pope, in order to demand of his holiness a hundred missionaries. They accordingly came to Italy, obtained from the Roman pontiff two Dominicans, the one an Italian, and the other an Asiatic, and carried with them young Marco, for whom the Tartar prince expressed a 'singular affection. This youth was at an early period taught the different dialects of Tartary, and was afterwards employed in embassies which gave him the opportunity of traversing Tartary, China, and other eastern countries, After a residence of seventeen years at the court of the great khan, the three Venetians came back to their own country in 1295, with immense, wealth. A short time after his return, Marco served his country at sea against the Genoese, his galley in a naval engagement was sunk, and himself taken prisoner and

| Niceron, vols. VIII and X.-Chaufepie. -Dict. Hist.


carried to Genoa. He remained there many years in confinement; and, as well to amuse his melancholy, as to gratify those who desired it of him, sent for his notes from Venice, and composed the history of his own and bis father's voyages in Italian, under this title, “Delle maraviglie del mondo da lui vidute,” &c. of which the first edition appeared at Venice in 1496, 8vo. This work has been translated into several foreign languages, and has been inserted in various collections. The best editions are one in Latin, published by Andrew Müller at Cologne in 1671, and one in French, to be found in the collection of voyages published by Bergeron, at the Hague in 1735, in two vols. In the narrative there are many things not easily believed *, but the greater part of his accounts has been verified by succeeding travellers. He not only gave better accounts of China than had been before received; but likewise furnished a description of Japan, of several islands of the East Indies, of Madagascar, and the coasts of Africa, so that from his work it might be easily collected that a direct passage by sea to the East Indies was not only possible, but practicable.

PAULUS (ÆGINETA), a native of the island Ægina, now Engia, whence he has his name, Aourished, according to Le Clerc, in the fourth century ; but with more truth he is placed by Abulfaragius, who is allowed to give the best account of those times, in the seventh. It is said that he travelled over Greece and other countries to gain information respecting the medical art; and that he studied at Alexandria before it was taken and plundered by Amrour, and there copied a part of the works of Alexander Trallian, who was his favourite author. On his return from his travels he made an abridgment of the works of Galen, and wrote several treatises,' which are deservedly famous. It appears that his knowledge in surgery was very great; for Fabricius ab Aquapendente, one of the best chirurgical

* Among these, it seems difficult is equally difficult to believe that the to believe, that as soon as the grand · pope, who doubtles had an ardent zeak khan was informed of the arrival of for the propagation of the faith, instead two Venetian merchants, who were of a hundred should have sent him only come to sell theriaca (or treacle) at his two missionaries. The authors of the court, be sent before them an escort Universal History are of opinion that of 40,000 men, and afterwards dis. what Mark Paulo wrote from his own patched these Venetian ambassadors koowledge is both curious' and true, to the pope, to beseech his holiness to and where he erred he was probably send him a bundred missionaries. It deceived by his father and uncle.

1 Encycl. Britannica.-Univ. History.

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