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writers, has thought fit to transcribe him in a great number of places.
Ægineta's principal works are, 1. “ Salubria de sanitate tuenda præcepta,” Argent. 1511, 8vo. 2. “ De re medica libri septem," Greek, Venice, 1528, fol. and often reprinted botb in Greek, Latin, and other languages, with commenta 'es. 3. “ De crisi et diebus criticis, eorumque signis,” Basil. 1529, 8vo. He appears to have been particularls skilful in the disorders of the female sex, and is the firecia antiquity who deserves the title of accoucheur.
PAUSANIAS, an ancient Greek writer, who has left us a curious description of Greece, lived in the second century, but very few particulars of his life are known. Suidas mentions two of this name: one of Laconia, who wrote concerning the Hellespont, Laconia, the Amphyctions, &c.; another, who was a sophist or rhetorician of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, lived at the same time with Aristides, and is mentioned by Philostratus, in his Lives of the Orators. This last is supposed to be our Pausanias. He was, according to the same Philostratus, “a disciple of the famous sophist Herodes Atticus, whom he imitated in many respects, but especially in composing without premeditation. His pronunciation was according to the manner of the Cappadocians, who had a way of lengthening short syllables, and shortening long ones. The character of his composition was negligent, yet not without force. He declaimed a long time at Rome, where he died very old, though he continued all the while a member of the college at Athens." His work is properly an account of a journey through Greece, in which the author noted every thing that was remarkable. All public monuments, as temples, theatres, tombs, statues, paintings, &c. came within his design : he took the dimensions of cities, which had formerly been great and famous, but were then in ruins; nor did he hastily pass over places that were memorable for illustrious transactions of old. By these observations he throws much light upon the history and antiquities of Greece; and clears up many passages in ancient authors, which would otherwise have remained very perplexed and obscure. His work has been recommended to modern travellers, and it is well known that Spon and Wheler made great use of it.
| Eloy, Dict. Hist. de Medicine.
Pausanias was first published at Venice in 1516, fol. by Aldus, who was assisted by Marcus Musurus :: Musuruş wrote a preface in Greek, which is prefixed to this edition, and addressed to John Lascaris, a learned Greek of the same age. Afterwards, in 1547, Romulus Amaseus pub, lished a Latin version of this work at Rome; and, three years, after, an edition was printed at Basil, with a new Latin version by Abr. Loescherus. A better edition than had yet appeared, with the Greek text of Aldus corrected by Xylander, and the Latin version of Amaseus by Sylbur. gius, came out at Francfort, 1583, in folio; from which that of Hanover, 1613, in folio, was printed word for word. But the best of all is that of Leipsic, 1696, in folio, with the notes of Kubnius. This learned man had already given proof, by his critical labours upon Ælian, D. Laer, tius, and Pollux, that he was very well qualified for a work of this nature; and his notes, though short, are very good. When he undertook this edition of Pausanias he proposed great advantages from four manuscripts in the king of France's library ; but, upon consulting them on several corrupt and obscure passages, he found that they did not vary from Aldus's copy. The main succours he derived were from some manuscript notes of Isaac Casaubon, upon the margin of Aldus's edition; and, by the help of these, and his own critical skill, he was enabled to correct and amend an infinite number of places. A new edition, in 4 vols. Svo, was published at Leipsic, in 1794-1797, by Jo. Frid. Facius, which by the few who have had an oppor. tunity of examining it, is thought excellent. It has very correct indexes, and some aid from a Vienna and a Moscow manuscript. An English translation was published in 1794 by Mr. Thomas Taylor. 1
PAUTRE (ANTHONY LE), a Parisian architect of the seventeenth century, and one of a family of artists, excelled in the ornaments and decorations of buildings, and was architect to Louis XIV. and monsieur his only brother, He planned the cascades, which are so justly admired, at the castle of St. Cloud, and built the church of the nuns of Port-royal, at Paris, in 1625. Le Pautre was received into the royal academy of sculpture, December 1, 1671, and died some years after. His 65 Euvres d'Architecture" are engraved in one vol. folio, sometimes bound up in five.
1 Vossius de Hist. Græc. - Fabric. Bibl, Græc.Saxij Onomast.
John le Pautre, his relation, born in 1617, at Paris, was placed with a joiner, who taught him the first rudiments of drawing; but he soon surpassed his master, and became an excellent designer, and skilful engraver. He perfectly understood all the ornamental parts of architecture, and the embellishments of country houses, such as fountains, grottos, jets-d'eau, and every other decoration of the garden. John le Pautre was admitted a member of the royal academy of painting and sculpture April 11, 1677, and died February 2, 1682, aged sixty-five. His “ uvres d'Architecture,” Paris, 1751, 3 vols. fol. contains above 782 plates, which were much valued by the chevalier Bernin. Perer le Pautre, related to the two preceding, was born at Paris, March 4, 1659, and excelled so much in statuary as to be appointed sculptor to his majesty. He executed at Rome, in 1691, the beautiful group of Æneas and Anchises, which is in the grand walk at the Thuilleries; and completed, in 1716, that of Arria and Pætus (or rather of Lucretia stabbing herself in presence of Collatinus) which Theodon had begun at Rome. Several of his other works embellish Marly. This ingenious artist was professor and perpetual director of St. Luke's academy, and died at Paris, January 22, 1744, aged eighty-four.' ; PAUW (CORNELIUS DE), a native of Amsterdam, who distinguished himself by his philosophical writings, was born there in 1739; no particulars of his early life are given in our authority, but it appears that he was educated for the church, and held a canonry in some part of Germany. He died July 7, 1799, at Xantem, near Aix-laChapelle. He was uncle to the famous, or rather infamous, Anacharsis Cloots, who was the idol of the lowest of the mob of Paris about the time of the revolution, and his opinions were in some respects as singular; but he had far more l'earning, and more skill in disguising them. He is principally known for his “ Recherches philosophiques, 1. sur les Grecs; 2. sur les Americains, les Egyptiens, et les Chinois," Paris, 1795, 7 vols. 8vo. In this his countrymen seem willing to allow that he asserts more than he proves ; that his object is to contradict all preceding historians, and to lessen the character of the nations he describes. His style is agreeable, but he is full of paradoxes, and of those bold opinions which were once in vogue in France, and recom
1 L'Avocat's Dict. Hist.
mended him much to Frederick the Great of Prussia, while they rendered him obnoxious to the ministers of religion.'
PAYS (Rene' LE), sieur of Villeneuve, a French poet, born at Nantes in 1636, was for a considerable time comptroller-general of the imposts in Dauphiné and Provence; yet he mingled the flowers of poetry with the thorns of that occupation, and became celebrated at court by a miscellaneous publication of prose and verse, entitled “ Ami. tiés, Amours, et Amourettes,” published in 1685. This publication gained him particularly the favour of the lan dies; and the duke of Savoy honoured him with the title of chevalier of St. Maurice, and he was made a member of the academy of Arles. The latter part of his life was embittered by a law-suit, which obliged him to pay for the dishonesty of one of his associates in office. He died April 30, 1690, at the age of fifty-four. His remaining works are, 1.“ Zelotide," a novel of gallantry, which was admired in the country, but despised at Paris. 2. A collection of poetry, containing eclogues, sonnets, stanzas, &c. published at Paris in 1672, in 2 vols. 12mo, under the title of “ Nouvelles Oeuvres.” These contain rather the fancies of a minor wit, than the efforts of real genius.
PEACHAM (HENRY), a writer of considerable note in his day, appears to have been the son of Mr. Henry Peacham of Leverton, in Holland, in the county of Lincoln, and was born in the latter part of the seventeenth century, unless he was the Henry Peacham who published 66 The Garden of Eloquence,” a treatise on rhetoric, in 1577, 4to, and then he must be referred to the early part of the reign of queen Elizabeth. But we are more inclined to think, with Mr. Malone, that the “ Garden of Eloquence” was a production of his father's. Very little is known with certainty of his history, and that little has been gleaned from his works, in which he frequently introduces himself. In his “ Compleat Gentleman,” he says he was born at North Mims, near St. Alban's, where he received his education under an ignorant schoolmaster. He was afterwards of Trinity college, Cambridge, and in the title to his “ Minerva," styles himself master of arts. He speaks of his being well skilled in music, and it appears that he resided a considerable time in Italy, where he learnt music of Orazio Veccbi. He was also intimate with
! Dict. Hist,
2. Moreri, Gen. Dict. -Dict, Hist.
all the great masters of the time at home, and has characterized their several styles, as well as those of many on the continent. His opinions, says Dr. Burney, concerning their works are very accurate, and manifest great knowledge of all that was understood at the time respecting practical music.
He inforins us also of his skill in painting; that he could take likenesses, and on one occasion took his majesty's (James I.) as he sat at dinner.
He also made, perhaps engraved, a map of Cambridge. Lord Orford mentions his engraving of a good print, after Holbein, of sir Thomas Cromwell, knight, afterwards earl of Essex. From his “ Gentleman's Exercise" we learn that he either kept school, or bad private pupils, Lord Orford says that he was tutor to the children of the earl of Arundel, whom he accompanied to the Low Countries. In the same work, Peacham says he translated king James's “ Basilicon Doron” into Latin verse, and presented it to prince Henry, to whom he also dedicated his “ Minerva Britannica” in 1612: He also published in 1615, “ Prince Henry revived; or a poem upon the birth of prince H. Frederick, heir apparent to Frederick Count Palatine of the Rhine." The only other particulars we derive from his own hints are, that he lived for some time in St. Martin's in the Fields, and was addicted to melancholy. It is said that he was reduced to poverty in his old age, and wrote penny pamphlets for bread. This last is asserted in a MS note by John Gibbon, Bluemantle, on a copy of one of Peacham's tracts sold at Mr. West's sale., It is entitled “Ą, Dialogue between the cross in Cheap and Charing crosse. Comforting each other, as fearing their fall, in these uncertain times. By Ryhen Pameach” (Henry Peacham), The chief merit of this, Mr. Gough says, is that its wooden frontispiece exhibits the ruined shaft of Charing Cross, and the entire cross of Cheap. It has no date. Cheapside cross, we know, was taken down in 1640.
The work by which Peacham is best known is his “Complete Gentleman,' a 4to volume, printed in 1622, and reprinted in 1627, 1634, 1654, and 1661. This last edition received some improvements in the heraldic part from Thomas Blount, author of the “ Jocular Tenures." It treats of " nobilitie in generall; of dignitie and necessitie of learning in princes and nobilitie; the time of learning; the dutie of parents in their children's education ; of a