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gentleman's earriage in the universitie; of style in speaking, writing, and reading history; of cosmography; of memorable observation in the survey of the earth; of geometry; of poetry ; of musicke; of statues and medalls; of drawing and painting in oyle; of sundry blazonnes both ancient and modern; of armory or blazing armes ; of exercise of body; of reputation and carriage; of travaile; of warre; of fishing.”
His other works are, 1. “ Minerva Britannica, or a garden of Heroical Devises,” &c. 1612, 4to. This is a collection of emblems in verse, with a plate to each. Mr. Ellis has selected several specimens from this curious volume. 2. “The period of Mourning, in memory of the late prince. Together with Nuptial Hymnes in honour of this happy marriage betweene Frederick count Palatine and Elizabeth daughter of our Sovereigne,” 1613, 4to. 3. A most true relation of the affairs of Cleve and Gulick," &c. 1614, 4to, in prose. 4.“ Thalia's Banquet," a volume of epigrams," 1620, 12mo. 5.“ The Valley of Varietie," 1638, 12mo, 6. “ The Duty of all true subjects to their king; as also to their native country in time of extremity and danger," in two books, 1639, 4to. 7. “ The worth of a penny, or a caution to keep money ; with the causes of the scarcity and misery of the want thereof, in these bard and merciless times; as also how to save it, in our diet, apparel, recreations, &c." 4to. This piece of humour, which appeared first in 1647, was reprinted in 1667, 1677, and 1695, and perhaps oftener. 8. 6 The Gentleman's Exercise; or an Exquisite Practise as well for drawing all manner of beasts in their true portraiture, as also the making of colours for limning, painting, tricking, and blazoning of coats of arms, &c.” 1630, and 1634, 4to. All these are works of considerable merit, Peacham being a man of general knowledge, good taste, and acute obser. vation, and were very popular during the seventeenth century. His “Complete Gentleman” particularly was in high estimation with the gentry of that age.
Sir Charles Sedley, who had been guilty of an offence against good manners, and was indicted for it, was asked on his trial by the chief justice, sir Robert Hyde, whether he had ever read the" Complete Gentleman"?!
i Cole's MS Alhenäe in Brit. Mus.--Hawkins's Hist. of Music.Gough's Too pography.--Dr. Burney in Rees's Cyclopædia.-Ellis's Specimens.—Walpole's Engravers,
· PEACOCK, or PECOCK (REYNOLD), bishop of St. Asaph, and Chichester, in the reign of Henry VI. is supposed to have been born in Wales about 1390. educated in Oriel college, Oxford, of which he was chosen fellow in October 1417, in the room of Richard Garsdale, S. T. P. who was then elected provost of the college. Having studied with a view to the church, he was ordained deacon and priest in 1420 by Fleming, bishop of Lincoln. In 1425 he took his degree of bachelor of divinity, and about this time is supposed to have left the university. Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, was now protector of the kingdom, and being a great patron of learned men, invited Mr. Peacock tv court, where he was enabled to make a very considerable figure by his talents. In 1431, he was elected master of the college of St. Spirit and St. Mary, founded by sir Richard Whittington; and with it was appointed to the rectory of St. Michael in Riola, now St. Michael Royal, situated in the street called Tower Royal in Vintry ward. This situation he resigned in 1444, on being promoted to the bishopric of St. Asaph. To whom he owed this preferment seems uncertain, as his patron the duke of Gloucester was now declining in court interest, but perhaps the estimation he was held in at court may account for it.
He now was honoured with the degree of D. D. at Oxford, in bis absence, and without performing any exercises, an omission for which he was reproached afterwards by his enemies, although it was not then uncommon. In 1447 he preached a sermon at Paul's cross, in which he maintained that bishops were not under oblia gation to preach or to take the cure of souls, and that their duties consist entirely in the various acts of church government. This doctrine was not very palatable even then, and he was under the necessity of explaining himself to the archbishop of Canterbury; but it showed, what appeared more clearly afterwards, that he was accustomed to think for himself, and to pay little deference to authority or custom.
In 1419, he was translated to the see of Chichester, and now began to give opinions which were ill suited to the times in which he lived. Although he had taken great pains both in his preaching and writings to defend the established church against the disciples of Wickliffe, now called Lollards, he gave it as his opinion, that the most probable means of reclaiming tbem was by allowing them the use of
their reason, and not insisting on the infallibility of the church. The clergy, we may suppose, were not satisfied with such doctrine; and many of the learned men of the universities were so highly offended with it, and with his writing in the English language on subjects which ought to be concealed from the laity, that they at last prevailed with the archbishop of Canterbury to cite him. The archbishop accordingly issued bis mandate, in Oct. 1457, ordering all persons to appear who had any thing to allege against the bishop of Chichester ; and his books being found to contain various heretical opinions, he read a recantation, first in the archbishop's court at Lambeth, and afterwards at St. Paul's cross, where his books were burnt, as they also were at Oxford. He was likewise deprived of his bishopric, and confined in Thorney abbey, in Cambridgeshire, where it is supposed he died about 1460. His biographer has given an ample account of his writings, all of which remain in MS. except his “Treatise of Faith," published by Wharton in 1688, 4to. He appears to have been a man of learning, and an acute reasoner. The opinions for which he suffered were not perhaps so decided as to procure him admittance to the list of reformers; but it is evident that he was one of the first who contended against the infallibility of the Romish church, and in favour of the holy scriptures being the principal guide. In 1744 the rev. John Lewis, of Margate, published " The Life” of this prelate, which, as he justly styles it, forms a “ sequel to the Life” of Wickliff, and is an useful introduction to the history of the English reformation.'
PEARCE (ZACHARY), a learned English prelate, was born at London, Sept. 8, 1690. He was the son of Thomas Pearce, a distiller, in High Holborn, who having acquired a competent fortune by his business, purchased an estate at Little Ealing, in Middlesex, to wbich he retired at the age of forty, and where he died in 1752, ayed eighty-eight. His son, after some preparatory education at a school at Ealing, was removed in 1704 to Westminster school, where he was soon distinguished for his merit, and in 1707 was elected one of the king's scholars. mained at this school till the year 1710, when he was twenty years old. . This long continuance of his studies has been attributed to the high opinion Dr. Busby entertained of him, who was accustomed to detain those boys longer under his discipline, of whose future eminence he had most expectation. That Dr. Busby had such a custom is certain, and that it was continued by his successor is probable, but Mr. Pearce could not have been under the tuition of Busby, who died in 1695. To this delay, however, without doubt, Mr. Pearce was greatly indebted for the philological reputation by which he was very early distinguished.
1 Life as above.
He was elected to Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1710, and during bis first year's residence, amused himself occasionally with the lighter species of composition. Among these were a letter in the Guardian, No. 121, signed Ned Mum; and two Spectators, No. 572, and 633 ; specimens of that easy humour which characterizes these periodical works. In 1716 the first fruits of his philological studies appeared at the university Press, in an excellent edition of Cicero “ De Oratore," with very judicious notes and emendations. This volume, at the desire of a friend, he dedicated to lord chief justice Parker, afterwards earl of Macclesfield, to whom he was then a stranger, but whọ became his patron. The
rst favour he bestowed on Mr. Pearce, was to apply to Dr. Bentley for his interest in the election of a fellowship, for which he was a candidate, and which he accordingly obtained. Soon after this he paid a visit to the chief justice, who received him in the kindest manner, invited him to dinner at Kensington, and gave him a purse of fifty guineas. From that time an intimacy commenced, which was dissolved only by his lordship’s death.
In 1717 Mr. Pearce was ordained a deacon by Dr. Fleet wood, bishop of Ely, and in the following year, priest, by the same prelate. It had always been his intention to devote himself to the church; but, as he himself informs us, * he delayed to take orders till he was twenty-seven years of age; and, as he thought, had taken time to prepare himself, and to attain so much knowledge of that sacred office, as should be sufficient to answer all the good purposes for which it is designed." In 1718 he went to reside as domestic chaplain with lord Parker, then lord Chancellor, who in 1719 gave him the rectory of Stapleford Abbots, in Essex, and in the following year that more valuable one of St. Bartholomew Exchange. When he attempted to return his thanks to the chancellor for this
last preferment, his lordship said, “ You are not to thank me so much as Dr. Bentley, for this benefice.”
6 How is that, my lord ?”
“ Why," added his lordship, “ when I asked Dr. Bentley to make you a fellow of Trinity college, he consented so to do but on this condition, that I would promise to unmake you again as soon as it lay in my power; and now he, by having performed his promise, has bound me to give you this living."
Not long after this, Mr. Pearce was appointed chaplain to his majesty; and in 1723 was presented by the chancellor to the vicarage of St. Martin's in the Fields, on which he resigned St. Bartholomew's. The parish, of which he was now vicar, being large, and honoured with the residence of the royal family in it, the chancellor represented to Mr. Pearce the propriety of taking the degree of doctor in divinity; and as he was vot of sufficient standing in the university*, that honour was obtained for him by application to the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1724 he increased his reputation, as a critic, both at home and abroad, by his edition of Longinus “ De Sublimitate," with a new Latin version and learned notes. This appeared first in an elegant 4to, but has since been reprinted in 8vo, and remained the best edition, until the publication of that of Toup.
In 1739, in consequence of the late queen Caroline's having recommended him to sir Robert Walpole, Dr, Pearce was appointed dean of Winchester. He informs us in bis memoirs of what led to this promotion. When vicar of St. Martin's, lord Sundon was one of his parishioners, and one of the members of parliament for Westminster. These two circumstances brought them acquainted together, and Dr. Pearce was sometimes invited to dinner, where he became acquainted with lady Sundon, queen Caroline's favourite, and by her means was introduced to her majesty, who frequently honoured him with her conversation at the drawing-room. The subjects which her majesty started were not what are often introduced in that circle. One day she asked him if he had read the pamphlets published by Dr. Stebbing, and Mr. Foster, upon the sort of heretics meant .by St. Paul, whom in Titus iii. 10, 11, he
represents as self-condemned. “Yes, madain,” replied the doc
* He was at this time only of four- he refused to accept a degree by royal teen years standing; but nineteen are mandate, as proposed by the chancelrequired. It ought to be added, that lor, and preferred the Lambeth degree.